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  • Currently funded research with child/pediatric, adolescent or family in the title
    This and the next slide list the NIH agency funding the most pediatric research
    Not surprisingly, NICHD funding the most pediatric research – as well as family research. Other institutes on this slide funding considerable research.
    NEXT SLIDE – on the other hand, NIDA funding the most adolesecent research, followed my NIMH
  • Totals
    Child/pediatric = 1058
    Adolescent = 387
    Family = 274
    Keep in mind the tremendous variation in the size of these institutes. Suspect that proportionately NINR is investing a substantial part of its funding in research in these areas. For example, NCI lists 8056 research grants funded in 2009; NHLB 5916; NIMH 3411; NICHD 2868; NINR 411
  • Next few slides provide examples of the breadth of pediatric/adolescent/family research funding across the “major players” in this area.
    Note as well that funding includes multiple funding mechanisms – R02, R21, R03
    NICHD – especially interested in understanding and explaining child/adolescent development and outcomes.
  • The same is the case for NIMH – focus on mental health and development.
  • NCI funding research on broad array of topics related to cancer prevention, treatment, and survivorship.
    As numbers and this slide indicate, NCI very interested in the role of the family in wide range of topics – health promotion, decision making, coping and adjument.
  • Research supported by NIDA addresses both substance use and abuse in youth as well as the impact of parental substance abuse.
  • NINR also reflects a range of topics and funding mechanisms – lots of interest in parent-child research.
    Again these slides meant to give you a sense of the range of pediatric research interests supported by NIH.
  • In addition to NIH, a number of nursing organizations fund research – in some cases with a pediatric focus. In particular funding from these sources can be an excellent source of pilot funding.
    Next few slides provide an overview of these along with contact information
    ANF multiple awards – one with a pediatric focus
    STT has a small grants program; they also co-sponsor grants with a number of nursing organizations (ANF, NLN, MNRS, SNRS)
    Note one with pediatric focus
  • Another source of funds – especially for pilot funding – is nursing specialty organizations.
    ONS has the largest grant funding program of the specialty organizations – in terms of both number of grants and size of grants
    NAPNAP (note correction) awards three awards a year; their priority areas include: health promotion, self management, mental health, safety, acute/critical health issues, obesity as well as role/practice issues, and quality of care. (Kathy Sawin & Agatha Gallo on Research Agenda Work Group).
  • National Association of School Nurses is especially interested in project that would improve the reliability and validity of school data, locating national data sets that include school health data, developing evidence-based models of school health services delivery, and distinguishing the relative contributions of family, community, and school nursing interventions on child outcomes.
    “ISONG gives priority to studies that address genetic nursing practice and/or health outcomes related to genetics”.
    SPN funds research related to children and their families. “All studies ranging from pilot studies to large, multi-site studies will be considered!!”
  • The Foundation of the American Academy of Nurse Practioner funds research for practicing NP and student NP projects and research. The are interested in funding studies that examine of provide evidence to support clinical practice or studies designed to measure and ultimately improve outcomes. DNP projects must be relevant to health provided by NPs in the US.
    Association of Camp Nurses states “As camp nurses, we are among the masters of improvisation those creative with a Band-Aid or marker; those who tolerate extremes of heat or cold. Yet sometimes there is a question or problem that begs to be studied in some depth. This is camp nursing research!”
  • Non-nursing Foundations that address diseases of childhood and adolescence are another source of funding.
    CF – Denise Angst on the review group for the Clinical Research Awards program; she reports they are edging toward support of behavioral research; LOI must be apporved before submission
    National Hemophilia Association supports one nursing project a year. The objective is to “improve the delivery of care and expand the knowledge of nursing science surrounding bleeding disorders”.
  • Finally Alex’s Lemonade Stand Foundation, not only has a great name, but makes fairly substantial awards for research directed to “anabling nurses to find better ways to care for children undergoing cancer treatment”. The nursing research was added to their medical research program in 2007.
    JDF – Priority is on cure and breakthrough treatments. However, also fund research directed to developing approaches to reverse, treat, and prevent complications of diabetes and prevention of type 1 diabetes. Probably a long shot!
  • In pediatric as in any research, it’s important match the goal and scope of your research to the appropriate funding mechanism
    As we have seen from our quick tour of possible funding options, there a lots of choices and in starting out to develop a proposal, it’s a good idea to be writing for particularly funding mechanism.
    So I would like to spend a little time talking about selecting an appropriate mechanism and then move on to some tips for developing a compelling, scientifically sound proposal.
  • So begin by looking for a match between your idea and the mission and funding emphasis of the potential funder.
    Here (taken directly from the NINR website) we have their current areas of emphasis and the areas of science around which they are developing their research portfolio. Each area has a contact person. Neuroscience is Susan Marden & Joan Wasserman; Child/Family is Linda Weglicki & Paul Cotton (disparities; Immunology is Jeannette Hosseinni & Kathleen Jett; Acute is David Banks, Josephine Boyington & Karen Huss.
  • When it comes to NIH, identifying the appropriate finding mechanism means you have to learn the recipe for NIH alphabet soup; it’s a little quirky.
  • F31 --
    Tuition – 100% up to 3K; 60% thereafter
    Stipend – about 21k
    F32 –
    Stipend – range depending on experience (37k-51k)
  • K01 – Mentored Research Scientist Development Award – 50k salary/20k research costs
    K24 – Mentored Patient Orientated Research Career Development Award – 75k, 25k
    K24 – Midcareer Investigator Award in Patient Oriented Research – Legislative salary cap, 25k
    K99 – Pathway to Independence (PI) Award – Mentored Phase (50k/20k); Independent Phase (249K/year)
  • Review Nursing list of PAs
    At this site, you can review PAs by topic; they are changing as new PAs are announced and others are retired.
    Can be useful in helping to frame or focus a research question when you have lots of directions you could take something
    They always include a list of possible areas of study.
  • On the other hand, an RFA is an area where an Institute has set aside funds (usually up to a certain amount) to fund research in a specific area. They sometimes say how many they plan to fund.
    These usually ask for a non-binding LOI and have a single receipt date.
    These are the ones we we drop everything to write a proposal1
  • And by “pediatric” I mean pediatric/child/adolescent/family research.
    If you spend a little time browsing NIG funding opportunities, you will see there are lots of options.
  • Here are three examples – two that are explicit in their interest in children; one that could be focused on children or adolescents
    Both types come up in a search of PAs calling for pediatric/youth research.
  • Here are three more …
  • RINAH has had several “top 10 tips” editorials related to research, and my comments on writing a compelling proposal draw on those.
    They address the importance of the problem; the match between the problem; the funding mechanism and emphasis (you really don’t want to propose a multi-site clinical trial on a 1k budget); the quality of the science you are proposing; the need to state your case in a compelling way.
  • First page is the most important. In an NIH proposal, the aims usually are stated at the end of the first page. This first page is a pivotal opportunity to engage the reader. You goal should be to simulate their interest in the topic and to have made the reviewer your “ally” as they continue reader.
    Build to the aims through the topic, not the method. You need to address the importance of the problem (e.g. obesity in youth; bullying in schools) as well as what YOUR study will contribute to resolving the problem.
    An issue especially relevant to pediatric research is the overlap between research on children and research on families. This IS NOT a problem, but it is an area where you will want to think through what is your primary or foreground interest.
    For example, at the end of the study do you want to know about the contribution of family functioning to child self management of type 1 diabetes (you want to describe or explain something about children)
    OR do you want to identify patterns of family management of a child’s type 1 diabetes (you want to describe or explain something about the family).
    Being clear about your primary focus and what knowledge you want to generate will help you structure your background section, select an appropriate conceptual framework, and maintain a consistent, coherent presentation of your ideas.
  • If the state of the science is well developed; there is a considerable knowledge on which to build it is appropriate to propose a large scale projects – being able to develop an NIH proposal that addresses a PA or RFA that calls for an RO1.
    NIH also has mechanisms to support research on developing areas of science or developing areas within a particular area of science. For example, NINR has a small (R03) grant program announcement for “Chronic Illness Self-Management in Children & Adolescents”
    Recently, growing emphasis NIH to “cut to the chase” and propose and R01 study early in one’s research career. (SEE ATTACHED)
    On the other hand, as we have seen there a number of start small options. In addition to NIH, nursing organizations such as STT; specialty organizations such as ONS and NAPNAP, and foundations that support pilot research.
  • A helpful aspect about RFAs and PAs issued by NIH is that they provide examples of the kinds of projects the are interested in funding. For example, the PA on “Chronic Illness Self-Management in Children and Adolescents” provides the following examples:
    Explore the impact of a child having a stigmatized chronic illness on peer relationships, siblings, parents, and on family member roles
    Define behaviors that support adherence to treatment for complex chronic illness in children and adolescents.
    Test interventions for family coping in chronic conditions that have remissions and exacerbations.   (reflects overlap of child/family research)
  • Many studies are grounded in a conceptual framework & choosing an appropriate framework that truly informs the study – its aims, designs, measures, analysis – can be a notable strength pf a proposal.
    The overlap between pediatric and family research makes this a “danger zone” as well. Keep in mid your foreground interest in selecting or developing a framework. If you want first and foremost to describe/explain something about the child select a framework/theory such as Resilience or Risky Behavior that addresses individual behavior; on the other hand if interest is in describing something about the family, then select or develop a family framework.
    The framework should be apparent in the aims, the measures, and the analysis. If you select, for example, a resilience framework, you should be framing your aims and background section around resilience; we would expect to see resilience measures in the methods and the analysis should reveal something about resilience in children.
    Appropriate approaches – the best one for addressing your research aims.
  • Since there is no guarantee that your reviewers will be experts in your particular field, you need to develop a proposal that convinces both the expert and the novice of the significance of your problem and importance of your research. I think the best way to do this is to deliberately elicit critical review from both – which inevitably leads to write and rewrite.
    In pediatric research, I think there are two areas where we are particularly vulnerable to criticism:
    Non-categorical studies – those involving multiple conditions. Some reviewers see the world through a condition specific lens and question if there is much of importance to be learned if we try to look across diagnoses.
    Developmental issues in studies that include children of different developmental stages can present thorny design and measurement challenges as well.
    Anticipate and address these points of likely reviewer scrutiny
    And, of course, keep in mind that your don’t have to know it all. Assemble a team of colleagues (most likely interdisciplinary) with the requisite substantive and methodological expertise to complete the study.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Funding for Pediatric Research: Sources, Strategies & Challenges Kathleen Knafl, PHD, FAAN THE UNIVERSITY of NORTH CAROLINA at CHAPEL HILL Associate Dean for Research Frances Hill Fox Distinguished Professor
    • 2. Greetings from The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Nursing
    • 3. School of Nursing
    • 4. From 1789- Oldest public university in the US
    • 5. Objectives  Identify sources of funding for pediatric research  Discuss strategies for developing successful research proposals  Consider unique conceptual & methodological challenges of pediatric research
    • 6. Sources of Funding for Behavioral Pediatric Research – National Institutes of Health (n=child/pediatric, adolescent, family)  Child Health & Human Development – NICHD (n=368,59,73)  Mental Health – NIMH (n=197,112,64)  Heart, Lung, & Blood Institute – NHLBI (n=112,14,25)  Cancer – NCI (n=84,22,45)  Diabetes, Digestive, & Kidney Diseases – NIDDK (n=80,30,13)
    • 7. Sources of Funding for Behavioral Pediatric Research – National Institutes of Health (n=child/pediatric, adolescent, family)  Deafness & Other Communication Disorders – NIDCD (n=52,2,1)  Drug Abuse – NIDA (n=43,123,21)  Allergy & Infectious Disease – NIAID (n=43,7,15)  Environmental Health Sciences – NIEHS (n=42,4,3)  Nursing Research – NINR (n=37,14,14)
    • 8. Examples of NIH Funded Behavioral Pediatric Research – NICHD  “Father Involvement & Well-Being of At-Risk Children” (Bradford, J., R21)  “School Environments & Adolescent Weight Status & Physical Activity Patterns” (Carlson, S., R01)  “Social Capital & Children’s Development: An Experimental Study” (Gamoran, A., R01)  “Domestic Violence & the Parenting of Young Children” (Knutson, J., R01)  “Measurement of Youth Media Exposure & Health Outcomes” (Rich, M., R21)
    • 9. Examples of NIH Funded Behavioral Pediatric Research – NIMH  “Domestic Violence, Child Security, & Child Mental Health” (Davies, P., R01)  “ Recovery from Early Life Stress in Children Adopted from Institutions” (Izard, C., R01)  “Emotion-Focused Intervention for Mothers & Children Under Stress” (Shortt, J., R34)  “Sleep-Wake Regulation & Emotion in Early Childhood” (Cook, S., R03)  “Family Groups to Reduce Youth Behavioral Difficulties” (McKay, M., R01)
    • 10. Examples of NIH Funded Behavioral Pediatric Research – NCI  “Health Promotion in Minority Childhood Cancer Survivors (Stolley, M., R01)  “Families Fuertes: Outreach to Latino Families with a Child Coping with Cancer” (Holtz, K., R43)  “Sibling and Parent Bereavement from Childhood Cancer” (Gerhardt, C., R01)  “Family Decision Making in Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplant” (Pentz, R., R21)  “Perceived Cognitive Function Item Bank for Children Who Undergo Cancer Treatment” (Lai, J., R01)
    • 11. Examples of NIH Funded Behavioral Pediatric Research – NIDA  “Decision Making & Substance Abuse Among Inner City Youth” (Bolland, J., R01)  “Linking Parent Drug Use and Child Development Across Three Generations” (Bauer, C., R01)  “Impact of Louisiana Hurricanes on Adolescent Substance Abuse” (Rohrbach, L., R03)  “Project AIM: Preventing Illicit Substance Use Among Middle School Children” (Strauman, T., R21)  “Health & Psychosocial Need: Children with Developmental Disorder in a Time of HIV” (Davidson, L., R01)
    • 12. Examples of NIH Funded Behavioral Pediatric Research – NINR  “Children & Parents Partnering Together to Manage Their Weight” (Berry, D., R01)  “Mother-Child Adjustment in Arab Immigrants & Refugees” (Templin, T., R01)  “Predicting Children’s Response to Distraction from Pain: Tailored Intervention” (McCarthy, M., R01)  “Improving Care for Dying Children & Their Families” (Demmer, C., R03)  “Creating Avenues for Parent Partnership (CAPP)” (Buelow, J., R21)
    • 13. Additional Sources of Funding for Pediatric Research - Nursing Organizations American Nurses Foundation (  23 separate awards  3k – 25K  One (Hyundai Motor America) with pediatric focus (7.5K)  One (CANS) with new investigator focus (20k) Sigma Theta Tau (  Small grants program (5K)  Multiple co-sponsored grants  One (Rosemary Berkel Crisp) with pediatric focus
    • 14. Additional Sources of Funding for Pediatric Research – Nursing Specialty Organizations Oncology Nursing Society (http://  Multiple awards  Small (10k) and large awards (50k) National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners Foundation (http://www.napnap)  Two awards (2.5k); one student award (1k)  Priority areas specified
    • 15. Additional Sources of Funding for Pediatric Research – Nursing Specialty Organizations, cont. National Association of School Nurses (  2.5-5k  Priority areas specified International Society of Nurses in Genetics (  One award (1.5k) Society of Pediatric Nurses (https://  One award (1k)
    • 16. Additional Sources of Funding for Pediatric Research – Nursing Specialty Organizations, cont. American Academy of Nurse Practitioners (  Multiple project & research grants (4-8k)  Practicing NP grants  DNP capstone project & doctoral dissertation grants (2k) Association of Camp Nurses (http://  $500 maximum; total $750 awarded annually
    • 17. Additional Sources of Funding for Pediatric Research – Foundations Cystic Fibrosis Foundation ( /research/)  Originate from accredited CF care center  100k annual direct; up to three years; single center; 225k annual direct; multi-center National Hemophilia Foundation  Designated nursing research grant  Graduate student or practitioner  One award; 13.5k
    • 18. Additional Sources of Funding for Pediatric Research – Foundations Alex’s Lemonade Stand Foundation (http:// www.alexslemonade.)  Quality of life for children with cancer & their families  Three each – nursing small (10k) & mid-level (20k) grants; One large (50k) grant Juvenile Diabetes Foundation (http://  Physiological emphasis; some interest in prevention & translation  Multiple funding mechanisms – research & career development (150-165k annually); pre-doctoral , post-doctoral.
    • 19. Strategies for Developing a Successful Proposal  Identify an appropriate funding source & mechanism  Write a compelling, scientifically sound proposal  Significance & design  Special considerations in pediatric research  Teamwork
    • 20. Identifying a Funding Source Look for a match between your idea, the mission and funding emphases of the agency. Example: NINR lists the following areas of emphasis:  Promoting health & preventing disease  Improving quality of life  Eliminating health disparities  Setting direction for end-of-life research And, areas of science  Neuroscience, genetics, & symptom management  Child & family health, & health disparities  Immunology, infectious disease, & chronic disorders  Acute & long-term care, end-of-life, & training
    • 21. Identifying an Appropriate NIH Funding Mechanisms The NIH alphabet C,D,E,F,G,H,I,K,L,M,P,R,S,T,U,V,X,Z F – Fellowships K – Faculty Development R – Research T – Institutional Training
    • 22. F is for Fellowship Support for predoctoral students (F31) – Tuition & stipend Support for postdoctoral students (F32) – Tuition & stipend Propose training & research plan Importance of sponsor
    • 23. K is for Faculty Development Nursing (K01,K23, K24, K99) – Focus on mentored experience and transition to independent scientist CTSA (KL2) – Focus on newly trained scientists and interdisciplinary training Training and research component Dedicated time to develop as a researcher – usually two-three years K-Award Wizard -
    • 24. R is for Research R03 – small grant to support pilot, feasibility, and methods development One-two years $50K per year direct R15 – small projects involving students; usually conducted at non- research intensive universities One-three years $150k direct total
    • 25. R is for Research, cont. R21 – innovative research in the developmental phase One-two years Usually 275K direct total R01 – major studies that build on preliminary findings Usually three-five years No maximum; advanced permission for $500K direct in a single year
    • 26. T is for Training Institutionally-based training for pre & post-doctoral students Focused on a specified area of nursing science (e.g. symptom management; health care quality & patient outcomes) Tuition & stipend
    • 27. Program Announcements (PAs) & Requests for Applications (RFAs) Program Announcement (PA)  Area of increased priority  Funding mechanism specified  Usual submission cycle  Usually active for three years; may be reissued  Reviewed by CSR study section Browse …  tm?year=active&scope=pa
    • 28. Program Announcements (PAs) & Requests for Applications (RFAs) Request for Application (RFA) Identifies defined area of interest for which one or more institutes has set aside funds Specifies single receipt date Reviewed by a SEP Browse … =active&scope=rfa
    • 29. Active NIH Program Announcements & Requests for Applications Focusing on Pediatric Research 77 announcements with NINR as a participating organization Multiple funding mechanisms R01, R21, R03 Varying expiration dates
    • 30. Example Program Announcements “Research on Emergency Medical Services for Children” (PAR-09-017, R01) “Reducing Risk Behaviors by Promoting Positive Youth Development” (PA-08-220, R01) “Decision Making in Cancer: Single-Event Decisions” (PA-08-063, R01; 064, R21)
    • 31. Example Program Announcements “School-based Interventions to Prevent Obesity” (PA-07-180, R01) “Influence of Religiosity & Spirituality on Health Risk Behaviors in Children” (PA-06-402, R03; 403, R21) “Methodology & Measurement in the Behavioral & Social Sciences” (PAR-08-212, R01; 213, R21)
    • 32. Writing a Compelling Proposal (Grey, 2000; Knafl & Deatrick, 2005)  Address an important problem  Dream big; start small  Write to your passion, but listen to the RFA/PA  Show how your variables fit together; justify your qualitative approach  Write, write again, critique & write again
    • 33. Address an Important Problem What makes an of research important? Incidence & prevalence Human & social costs Contributions to science & health care Pediatric vs. family research problems
    • 34. Dream Big; Start Small Choose an appropriate funding mechanism for the state of the science Choose an appropriate funding mechanism for stage of career development Start Small funding mechanisms
    • 35. Write to Your Passion; Respond to the RFA/PA Pay attention to:  Example topics  Research objectives  Funding mechanism(s)  Special requirements & instructions
    • 36. Show How Variables Fit Together/Justify Approach Appropriate conceptual frameworks for pediatric research Pediatric vs. family frameworks Established vs. literature-based frameworks Link aims, framework, & measures Appropriate approaches for pediatric research
    • 37. Write, Rewrite, & Embrace Criticism  Write for the expert & the novice  Anticipate criticism  Non-categorical pediatric research  Developmental issues in pediatric research  Assemble a team with the requisite expertise
    • 38. Questions & Discussion