Technologies, Pedagogies and the Next Generation Terry Anderson, PhD and Professor
• Descendent of Lars Halvardsson from Skalo& Anders Larson from Nordanaker, Dalarna Parish,• Two of 6,000 families from Sweden immigrating to America in the first 3 months of 1879 Wilson, Steamship Orlando, sailing from Goteburg to Hull UK
What if they hadn’t left??• I would not be a typical,unilingual, North American
What if they hadn’t left?? From where but from Canada, could you find akeynote speaker who finds the weather inFebruary, in Falun, to be quite warm and toasty??
Athabasca University, Alberta, Canada 34,000 students, 700 courses 100% distance education Graduate and Undergraduate programs * Athabasca University Master & Doctorate –*Athabasca Distance Education University Only USA Regionally Accredited University in Canada
• “Canada is a great country, much too cold for common sense, inhabited by compassionate and intelligent people with bad haircuts”. – Yann Martel, Life of Pi, 2002.
Presentation Goals• You gain a sense of history and an inspiration for the future of next generation learning that enriches and guides our creation of a disruptive future.• You gain at least one idea, that you use and test in your classroom or online teaching.
Values• We can (and must) continuously improve the quality, effectiveness, appeal, cost and time efficiency of the learning experience.• Student control, responsibility and freedom is integral to 21st century life-long education and learning.• Continuous education opportunity is a basic human right.
Online Learning is Coming Here Sloan Consortium “Learning on Demand: Online Education in the United States, 2009“
Why is Online learning Better than Sex?• If you get tired, you can stop, save your place and pick up where you left off later on.• You can finish early without feeling guilty.• If you need more time, you can ask for an extension.• You can get rid of any viruses you catch with a $50 program from McAfee.• With a little coffee you can do it all night long.• You don’t usually get divorced if your spouse interrupts you in the middle of it.• And If youre not sure what you are doing, you can always ask your tutor.
Why Online Learning for the Next Generation?• Time and Place shifting. – 68% undertook online learning because of flexibility in terms of pace, time and place. – “Freedom—I can work at my own pace.” – Flexibility works for teachers too • Learner expectations and experiencesAustralian National Training Authority, 2003• Knowledge Networking
Fully Online Students Have Higher Dropouts But -- As students and teachers became more competent with online courses, the completion rates increased to match face-to-face completion rates.Xu, D., & Smith Jaggars, S. (2011). Online and Hybrid Course Enrollment and Performance inWashington State Community and Technical Colleges New York: Community CollegeResearch Center, Teachers College. N=50,306
The Next Generation Learning Evolves From and With Past Generations
Traditional TechnologyGenerations of Distance Education
Learning as Dance (Anderson, 2008) • Technology sets the beat and the timing. • Pedagogy defines the moves.
Three Generations of Education Pedagogy1. Behaviourist/Cognitive – Self Paced, Individual Study2. Constructivist – Groups3. Connectivist – Networks and Collectives
1. Behavioural/Cognitive Pedagogies• “tell ‘em what you’re gonna tell ‘em,• tell ‘em• then tell ‘em what you told ‘em”Direct Instruction
Gagne’s Events of Instruction (1965)1. Gain learners attention2. Inform learner of objectives3. Stimulate recall of previous information4. Present stimulus material5. Provide learner guidance6. Elicit performance7. Provide Feedback8. Assess performance9. Enhance transfer opportunities Basis of Instructional Systems Design (ISD)
Enhanced by the “cognitive revolution”• Chunking• Cognitive Load• Working Memory• Multiple Representations• Split-attention effect• Variability Effect• Multi-media effect – (Sorden, 2005) “learning as acquiring and using conceptual and cognitive structures” Greeno, Collins and Resnick, 1996
Behaviourist/Cognitive – Knowledge As a Thing:• Logically coherent, existing independent of perspective• Largely context free• Capable of being transmitted• Assumes closed systems with discoverable relationships between inputs and outputs• Readily defined through learning objectives
• “when tools of measurement increase their precision by orders of magnitude, new paradigms often emerge, because the new founded accuracy reveals anomalies that had gone undetected” Steve Johnson, p. 69
New Developments in Behavioural/Cognitive Systems• Reflection Amplifiers• Social Indicators – Global feedback – Digital footprints – Archives – Competition and games• Multiple Representations• Student modeling and adaptation - analytics
Analytics Opening and Connecting Black Boxes Student Records Financial Registry Records Records
Graphical Profiles idashboards.comStudent profiles, Department score cards, instructor profilesRegistration trends, drop out, etc…etc….
Rio Salado Community College Predictive Learning Analytics• Rio Salado uses more than two dozen metrics during that first week to predict how well that student stands to fare over the entire course, – Has the student logged into the course home page during that first week? – Did she log in prior to the first day of class? – Other predictive metrics, such as whether a student is taking other classes at the same time, whether she has been successful in previous courses, and whether she is retaking the course, are culled from the college’s student information system.• The predictive modeling system uses these metrics to separate students into three color-coded categories: – high-risk (red) students, – medium-risk (yellow) students, and – low-risk (green) students. http://www.gilfuseducationgroup.com/academic-analytics- new-elearning-diagnostics
Enhancing ‘teaching presence’ through Voice Annotation of essay and project assignments. • Phil Ice (USA) – Increased impact of feedback – Students appreciate voice – Increased amount of feedback – SAVES TIME!! – Using Adobe AcrobatIce, P., Curtis, R., Phillips, P., & Wells, J. (2007). Using asynchronous audio feedback toenhance teaching presence and students‟ sense of community, 11(2), 3-25. Journal ofAsynchronous Learning Networks, 11(2), 3-25
Next generation Open Educational Resources (OERs)Because it saves time and money!!!
The Cost of ContentTom Corddry, who headed up its multimedia publishingunit, said, “The editors overestimated the way students wouldsay, „This has been carefully edited! And is very authoritative!
Content:A bargain even at 80% off??Interactive MIT coursesMITX Announced Most of us like Free!
Issues in DistanceEducation Serieshttp://aupress.ca
Why Don’t You Use, Modify and Post Open Content?• Biggest problem is lack of motivation for teachers to use OERs ??
Many ways that technologiesenhance production and learning of 1st generationCognitive/Behaviouristpedagogy.
Social Constructivist Learning Pedagogy• New knowledge is built upon previous learning• The importance of context• Errors and contradictions are useful• Learning is active rather than passive process,• The importance of language and social tools• Focus on negotiation, meta-cognition and evaluation to develop learners’ capacity to assess their own learning• The importance of multiple perspectives – groups – (from Honebein, 1996; Jonassen, 1991; Kanuka& Anderson, 1999)
Constructivist Learning is: “learning is a continual conversation with the external world and its artefacts, with oneself and with other learners and teachers” (Sharples, Taylor &Vavoula, 2007)• “Learning is located in contexts and relationships rather than merely in the minds of individuals” Greenhow, Robelia& Hughes (2009), Kathy Sierra http://www.speedofcreativity.org/
Impact (Mean effect size) ofCooperative versus Individualistic Learning contexts Dependent Variable Achievement .64 -88 Interpersonal Attraction .67-82 Social Support .62-.83 Self-esteem .58- .67 Time on task .76 Attitudes towards task .57 Quality of reasoning .93 Perspective taking .61From Johnson and Johnson (1989).Cooperation and competition. Theory and research
Why Groups?• “Students who learn in small groups generally demonstrate greater academic achievement, express more favorable attitudes toward learning, and persist …• small-group learning may have particularly large effects on the academic achievement of members of underrepresented groups and the learning-related attitudes of women…” • Springer; Stanne, & Donovan, (1999) P.42
Advances in Social Constructivist Learning Tools• Collaborative tools – Document creation, management, versioning – Time lines, project management, calendars, – Adaptive and multi-mode notifications• Security, trust – Hosting in institutional space, behind firewalls, away from search engines – Multimedia, body language• Decision making and project management tools• Very low-cost synchronous and asynchronous conversations/meetings
Problems with Groups• Restrictions in time, space, pace, & relationship - NOT OPEN• Overly confined by leader expectation and institutional & curriculum control• Usually Isolated from the authentic world of practice• “low tolerance of internal difference, sexist and ethicized regulation, high demand for obedience to its norms and exclusionary practices.” Cousin &Deepwell 2005• “Pathological politeness” and fear of debate• Group think (Baron, 2005)• Poor preparation for Lifelong Learning beyond the course
Constructivist learning in Groups is necessary,but not sufficient for advanced forms oflearning.
3rd Generation - Networked Learning using Connectivist Pedagogy• Learning is building capacity - networks of information, contacts and resources that can be applied to real problems.
Connectivist Learning Principles George Siemens, 2004• Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources.• Learning may reside in non-human appliances.• Capacity to know is more critical than what is currently known.• Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual learning.• Ability to see connections (built networks) between fields, ideas, and conceptsl.• Currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge) is the intent of all connectivist learning activities.
Connectivist Knowledge is• Emergent• Distributed and diverse• Chaotic• Fragmented• Non sequential• Contextualized
What is Connected Knowledge?• Knowledge is defined by its creation through activities – Accessing information – Evaluating, filtering – Conveying ideas – Reformatting, mashing – Analyzing, – Collaborating (Barth 2004)
Networks add diversity to learning“People who live in the intersection of social worlds are at higher risk of having good ideas” Burt, 2005, p. 90
Connectivist Knowledge as Potential Photo credit Linda Dong www.lindadong.com/simplescience/
Learners as Participant Creators• “participatory culture signifies a world in which audiences start to play an active role in shaping, subverting and remaking the media that they consume” – Russell Frances, 2012 p.11
Transparency, Persistence• “shared awareness allows otherwise uncoordinated groups to begin to work together more quickly and more effectively (forming networks)” Clay Shirky 2008 p. 162• “adjacent possibilities” Stuart Kaufman – ideas sufficiently close geographically or conceptually to propel interaction, contradictions & adoption
Connectivist Learning Designs (Collaborative or Individual) Knowledge Curator Connection forming Selection FilteringAwareness and Contribution and Receptivity Involvement Reflection and Metacognition Pettenati, M. (2007).
Connectivism in Practice• Runs till this June, 2012• Over 2,000 people enrolled• Free!!! Massive Open Online Course- MOOC See yesterday‟s Chronicle of Higher Educ article
Affordances of Connectivism• Ability to publicly peer critique the work of others• Tools that enable users to generate their own content• Collective aggregation• Rich ecology of community formations - from tightly defined groups or Communities of Practice (Wenger 1998) through to looser networks, sets and collectives (Dron& Anderson 2007).
How do we Build Networks of Practice ?• Motivation – learning plans, self and net efficacy, net-presence, modeling and exposure• Structural support – Exposure and training – Teacher ownership and control of networks – Wireless access, mobile computing• Cognitive skills – content + procedural, disclosure control• Social connections, reciprocity – Creating and sustaining a spiral of social capital building • Nahapiet&Ghoshal (1998)
Challenges of Connectivist Learning Models• Privacy• Control• Dealing with disruptive change• Institutional Support• Sustaining motivation and commitment
Challenge: CreatingIncentives to SustainMeaningful Contribution
Privacy• What is a right to privacy for one learner is a restriction of freedom for another!
Mapping Generations to Social structures collectives net set me group Dron and Anderson, 2009
Groups = Constructivist• Safety• familiarity (in education)• formality• trust group• scaffolding• structure• Reliability• Group think Scariness• Cliques, hidden curriculum 27
Individuals as free tutors• http://www.khanacademy.org/ See calculus derivatives: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rAof9Ld5sOg
3 Generations of Pedagogy SummaryAnderson, T. &Dron, J. (2011) Three Generations of Distance Education Pedagogy. IRRODL
Recommendations for teachers• Try to be even more fearless than your students.• Seek out and create opportunities to collaborate with and learn from your global peers.• Create a personal learning environment that works for you.• Explore, experiment and have fun!!
Your comments and questions most welcomed! Terry Anderson firstname.lastname@example.org Blog: terrya.edublogs.org
Individual vs Group Learning• “the individual experience is somehow inferior to the collective that underpins Facebook’s recent embrace of “frictionless sharing,” the idea that, from now on, we have to worry only about things we don’t want to share; everything else will be shared automatically.” – The Death of the Cyberflâneur (2012)- EvgenyMorozov, NYTImes
• Charles Baudelaire (1821-1867) “settled on a word to capture the attitude he felt one should adopt when walking along the streets. One should become, he suggested, a flâneur…The defining characteristic of those flâneurs is that they don’t have any practical goals in mind. They aren’ t walking to get something, or to go somewhere, they aren’t even shopping…Flâneurs are standing in deliberate opposition to capitalist society, with its two great imperatives: to be in a hurry and to buy things…What the flâneurs are doing is looking”• .”They are opening their eyes and ears to the scene around them. They are not treating the street as an obstacle course to be negotiated; they are opening themselves up to it.’ Ender Baskan• Baudelaire put it, "to be away from home and yet to feel everywhere at home". To do this, they let down their guard, they empathise with situation they see. Theres a constant risk they will be moved, saddened, excited - and fall in love. (• http://enderbaskan.tumblr.com/post/12580224757
Conclusion• Individual Behavioural/Cognitive models are useful for memory and conceptual knowledge acquisition.• Constructivist models develop group skills and trust.• Connectivist models introduce networked learning and are foundational for lifelong learning in complex contexts.• 21 century literacies and skills demand effective use of all three pedagogies.• Don’t argue quality with those from different generations.Anderson &Dron(2011) 3 generations of DE Pedagogy. InternationalReview of Research in Distance and Open Learning (IRRODL)