Open Educational Practice for Colloque International Montreal 2014


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An overview of issues and solutions presented by open education practices

Published in: Technology, Education

Open Educational Practice for Colloque International Montreal 2014

  1. 1. Terry Anderson, Professor, Athabasca University Canada Dec. 2013 Open Education Practices – The Killer Apps We are Afraid to Embrace
  2. 2. Open Scholar • “the Open Scholar is someone who makes their intellectual projects and processes digitally visible and who invites and encourages ongoing criticism of their work and secondary uses of any or all parts of it--at any stage of its development”. – Gideon Burton - Academic Evolution Blog
  3. 3. Presentation Overview • Open Education Practice – Open Educational Resources – Open Texts – Open Data – Open Article Publishing – Open Pedagogy – Researching OE Practice
  4. 4. Definitions of Open on the Web (From Google) • affording unobstructed entrance and exit; not shut or closed; • affording free passage or access; • open to or in view of all; • accessible to all; • assailable: not defended or capable of being defended • loose: (of textures) full of small openings or gaps; • start to operate or function • not brought to a conclusion; • not sealed or having been unsealed
  5. 5. Open Scholars Create: • A new type of education work maximizing: – Social learning – Media richness – Participatory and connectivist pedagogies – Ubiquity and persistence – Transparency – Open data collection and research process – Open network Creation
  6. 6. Something there is that doesn’t love a a wall, that wants it down” American Poet Robert Frost
  7. 7. ‘50% of Canada’s Scholarly Publications will be out of business within two years due to open access competition.’ Athabasca Pres. Frits Pannekoek, 2013
  8. 8. Open Educational Practice Developing and applying open/public practices in Teaching, research and service practice Beetham, H., Falconer, I., McGill, L. and Littlejohn, A. Open practices: briefing paper. JISC, 2012
  9. 9. Open Educational Practice Production, management, use and reuse of open educational resources Beetham, H., Falconer, I., McGill, L. and Littlejohn, A. Open practices: briefing paper. JISC, 2012
  10. 10. Open Educational Practice Open learning and gaining access to open learning opportunities Beetham, H., Falconer, I., McGill, L. and Littlejohn, A. Open practices: briefing paper. JISC, 2012
  11. 11. Open Educational Practice Open sharing of teaching ideas and know-how Beetham, H., Falconer, I., McGill, L. and Littlejohn, A. Open practices: briefing paper. JISC, 2012
  12. 12. Open Educational Practice Using open technologies Beetham, H., Falconer, I., McGill, L. and Littlejohn, A. Open practices: briefing paper. JISC, 2012
  13. 13. What’s Wrong with Excess Copyright? • Too long • Unclear of provisions for educational and research use • Every creative idea is an assemblage of the ideas and technologies of others
  14. 14. • “Indeed, only 1,000 new works appeared annually in England at that time -- 10 times fewer than in Germany -- and this was not without consequences. Eckhard Höffner believes it was the chronically weak book market that caused England, the colonial power, to fritter away its head start within the span of a century, while the underdeveloped, agrarian state of Germany caught up rapidly, becoming an equally developed industrial nation by 1900.” • UK Copyright Law 1710 • Prussia - 1837 industrial-expansion-a-710976.html
  15. 15. Components of Open Pedagogy • Persistence • Student ownership and control • Open to participation globally • Creation and curation of open artifacts • Affordable – the educational “digital dividend”
  16. 16. Are LMS BAD? • Bricolage – the LMS as Enterprise Systems doesn’t allow or cater for bricolage. • Affordances – resulting in an inability to leverage the affordances of technology to improve learning and teaching. • Distribution – the idea that knowledge about how to improve L&T is distributed and the implications that has for the institutional practice of e-learning." Jones
  17. 17. Walled Gardens (with windows) • Connectivist learning thrives in safe learning spaces with windows allowing randomness, external participation and public presentation
  18. 18. Open Scholars Use and Contribute Open Educational Resources Because it saves time!!!
  19. 19. OER Scan of Canada … the protection of the French culture in Quebec is a paramount concern and as such they are much more concerned about protecting their publishers and authors than they are about supporting open content for their educational institutions” See other country reports at Overview of Open Educational Resources Policies in Canadian Institutions and Governments. 2013. anadian_Institutions_and_Governments
  20. 20. OER Barriers to Adoption • Few instructor incentives • Publisher push back • Quality concerns • Licensing, copyright issues • “not invented here” syndrome • Lack of open culture and practice • Insufficient content
  21. 21. We can’t afford textbooks • Textbook prices skyrocketed 82% between 2002 and 2012, • average student budget for books and supplies has grown to $1,207 annually (USA figures). • Current Bill to support open texts across US, goal of reducing costs by 80% • Washington State program since 2010 has saved students $5.4 million versus State cost of less than $1.8 Million • All students get open text books!
  22. 22. Open texts
  23. 23. Are commercial e-texts the answer?
  24. 24. DRM (Digital Rights Management) You CANNOT • Copy & paste, annotate, highlight • Text to speech • Format change • Move material • Print out • Move geographically • Use after expiry date • Resell Slide credit Rory McGreal
  25. 25. • student owns nothing, can share nothing, save nothing, sell nothing • subscription ends – ALL ends •publishers own student data, notes, highlights • students can’t transfer data Commercial Learning Service or Rent-a-book Slide credit Rory McGreal
  26. 26. US Version per month +20 000 movies $ 7.99 +45 000 TV shows $ 7.99 +15 000 000 songs $ 9.99 TOTAL $25.97 ONE Biology text $20.25 -Slide Credit David Wiley
  27. 27. Open Scholars License, Use (and re-use ) Open Data
  28. 28. Open Data Can generate $3-5 Trillion
  29. 29. Open Scholars Filter and Share With Others
  30. 30. Research Gate
  31. 31. If it is not licensed, it is not open.
  32. 32. CC Licensing Options
  33. 33. • “If Google cannot find a faculty scholar's work or the work of the scholar's colleagues, department, or institution, then it is essentially irrelevant — even nonexistent — because people will not find, read, apply, or build on the work if they cannot locate it via a quick Google searchLowenthal & Dunlap (2012) Lowenthal, P., & Dunlap, J. (2012). Intentional Web Presence: 10 SEO Strategies Every Academic Needs to Know. Educause. seo-strategies-every-academic-needs-know.
  34. 34. Journal Publishing • Until recently, largely controlled by for profit companies • “profits of the journal publishing sectors of the major publishers’ business are their most profitable divisions. • For example, the worlds largest publisher Elsevier made “£724m ($1.1 billion) on revenues of £2 billion—an operating-profit margin of 36%.”
  35. 35. “major periodical subscriptions, especially to electronic journals published by historically key providers, cannot be sustained: continuing these subscriptions on their current footing is financially untenable. Doing so would seriously erode collection efforts in many other areas, already compromised”. The Faculty Advisory Council Date: April 17, 2012
  36. 36. Open Access Emerges • Journal TOCs lists over 23,170 journals - 9,986 OA titles make up 43% of the overall content. (DOAJ - 2013) • Publishing and Review Systems: Open Journal System – Canadian, (SFU) – Complete submission, review, copyedit, analytics and publication system – Over 7,000 journals using OJS (as of 2012)
  37. 37. Predatory Open Access Journals “those that unprofessionally exploit the author-pays model of open-access publishing (Gold OA) for their own profit. Typically, these publishers: • spam professional email lists, • broadly soliciting article submissions for the clear purpose of gaining income. • operate essentially as vanity presses, • typically have a low article acceptance threshold, • Have a false-front or non-existent peer review process. – Jeff Beall
  38. 38. Publishers Reactions • Ignore OA • Fight It – Lobby for anti-OA legislation – Discredit OA quality – Discriminate against OER in citation indexes • Morph It – Free your article in a closed journal for a fee (hybrid model) – Allow individual deposit in data bases (after embargo)
  39. 39. Institutional Archives • Green versus Gold standard for openness • Green: Author archives a copy of copyright material in an institutional repository • Gold: Full Open Access • Responsibility of author to archive
  40. 40. Do Faculty Self-Archive? • Only 32% archived anything at Carnegie-Melon 2008 • Likely less at Athabasca??. • Only compulsory mandate works!!
  41. 41. Open Scholars Write and Read Open Access Books Teaching in Blended Learning Environments: Creating and Sustaining Communities of Inquiry Vaughan, Cleveland-Innes, & Garrison
  42. 42. A Tale of 3 Books Open Access - 100,000 + downloads & Individual chapters Translations Over 1600 hardcopies sold @ $40 Can Commercial publisher 934 copies sold at $52.00 Buy at Amazon!! E-Learning for the 21st Century 1st Ed. Commercial Pub. 1200 sold @ $135.00 2,000 copies in Arabic Translation @ $8.
  43. 43. Coming soon (June 2014)…. Teaching Crowds: Learning and Social Media Online Distance Education: Towards a Research Agenda edited by Olaf Zawacki-Richter and Terry Anderson
  44. 44. Does Open Access Increase or Decrease Citation rates? • Mixed results • “Articles placed in the open access condition (n=712) received significantly more downloads and reached a broader audience within the first year, yet were cited no more frequently, nor earlier, than subscription-access control articles (n=2533) within 3 yr.” (Davis, 2011, P. 2129).
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  46. 46. Challenges of Open Adoption 1. Institutional impotence –“resistance manifested itself as both an active form of change blocking and in more passive forms of intransigence that become a form of institutional impotence both institutionally and at an academic and student level.” 2 Governance -“Governance itself became an activity rather than a means to implement activity” 3 Commercial social media 4 Staff engagement – no time Bryant, P., Coombs, A., Pazio, M., & Walker, S. ((2014). Disruption, destruction, construction or transformation? Open Praxis
  47. 47. Researching Open Education Practice
  48. 48. Does OER make a difference?
  49. 49. Openness is a Spiral of Growth… but you have to start somewhere
  50. 50. Boundless Opportunities for • Unanticipated consequences • Challenges of net privacy/presence • Emergent adaptation by students and teachers • Misuse and exploitation
  51. 51. Are you Ready to Take the Pledge?? • I pledge that: –“ I will no longer submit my work to closed publications, nor participate in review or editorial functions for closed publications.”
  52. 52. • I pledge to devote most of my reviewing and editing efforts to manuscripts destined for open access. For other manuscripts, I will restrict myself to one review by me for each review obtained for me by an outlet that is not open access.
  53. 53. Open Access Conclusion • “Open Access is more than a new model for scholarly publishing, it is the only ethical move available to scholars who take their own work seriously enough to believe its value lies in how well it engages many publics and not just a few peers.” • Gideon Burton, Academic Evolution Blog
  54. 54. Terry Anderson Blog: Your comments and questions most welcomed!