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Open Educational Resources + Social Software

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Presentation from the CNIE conference at Banff, April 2008. Overviews Open educational Resources and (briefly) the role of social software in expanding use, and produser construction

Presentation from the CNIE conference at Banff, April 2008. Overviews Open educational Resources and (briefly) the role of social software in expanding use, and produser construction

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  • 1. Open Educational Resources Plus Social Software: Threat or Opportunity for Distance Education Programming? Terry Anderson, Ph.D. Canada Research Chair in Distance Education [email_address]
  • 2. Vision + Affordance
    • “ At the heart of the open educational resources movement is the simple and powerful idea that;
      • the world’s knowledge is a public good in general
      • the World Wide Web in particular provides an extraordinary opportunity for everyone to share, use, and reuse that knowledge.”
        • Hewlett Foundation Smith, & Casserly. The promise of open educational resources. Change 38(5): 8–17, 2006
  • 3. OER Defined:
    • “ open provision of educational resources enabled by information and communication technologies, for consultation, use and adaptation by a community of users for non-commercial purposes. Includes:
      • UNESCO 2008 http://www.unesco.org/iiep/eng/focus/opensrc/opensrc_1.htm .
  • 4. Types of OERs
    • Learning objects, units, textbooks, scholarly articles IRRODL.ORG
    • Courses, programs full curriculum
    • Tools, FOSS,
  • 5. Issues of Granularity
    • OER comes in many sizes:
      • Diagrams, photos
      • Articles (Open access publications)
      • Games, simulations, activities
      • Units of learning (IMS LD)
      • Units and courses
      • Programs
  • 6. OER’s are Open (Mostly)
    • Meaning they can be:
      • Augmented
      • Edited
      • Customized
      • Aggregated and Mashups
      • Reformatted
    See Scott Leslie’s 10 minute video at http://www.edtechpost.ca/gems/opened.htm
  • 7. 4 R’s of Functionality of OERs
    • Reuse - Use the work just exactly as you found it.
    • Rework - Alter or transform the work so that it better meets your needs.
    • Remix - Combine the (verbatim or altered) work with other works to better meet your needs.
    • Redistribute - Share the verbatim work, the reworked work, or the remixed work with others.
      • Dave Wiley http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/355
  • 8. OER as Motivator
    • Goal of developing together a universal educational resource available for the whole of humanity… hope that this open resource for the future mobilizes the whole of the worldwide community of educators”. UNESCO 2002
  • 9. Hundreds of thousands of OER available today
  • 10. Rationale for Open University’s Development of Open Learn
    • Opportunity:
      • The risk of doing nothing when technology and globalization issues need to be addressed.
      • A testbed for new technology and new ways of working
      • way to work with external funders who share similar aims and ideals
      • A chance to learn how to draw on the world as a resource.
    • Brand Promotion
      • A route for outreach beyond our student body
      • Demonstration of the quality of Open University materials in new regions.
  • 11. Ownership and Licensing
    • Familiar problems
      • Who owns resource - educators or the institution?
      • inflated expectations
    • New problems
      • OER’s are not journal articles
        • Articles are not “reworked”
        • Is attribution critical?
        • What defines commercial exploitation?
  • 12. 4 Ownership Models
    • Institutional ownership
      • Default under most ‘work for hire’ law
    • Shared institutional and Academic
      • Often unworkable
      • Tragedy of the anti-commons
    • Individual (academic ownership)
      • Rights of succession? Multiple authors?
    • Produsage
      • Assume that each producer does not enforce their rights, all can treat product as a private good
        • (copyleft, public domain)
  • 13. Funding Models (from Downes , 2007 )
    • Endowment model (Hewlett Foundation)
    • Membership Model - Merlot
    • Donation - Wikipedia
    • Producer contribution - Publishers dream!
    • Sponsorship - Itunes University
    • Government funding
  • 14. The Creative Commons License ‘Some Rights Reserved’
    • Attribution?
    • Derivatives?
    • Commercial Use?
    Get Creative Flash Intro
  • 15. Major Problems with OER
    • Little take up by conventional teachers
    • Too little reward and recognition for authors
    • Too few learners actually engage with the content
    • Business case
    • Too few teachers remix and repost content
    Solution?? Vibrant communities of Produsers??
  • 16. Open Learn Example http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/
    • 402 educational units
    402 units
  • 17.  
  • 18. Social Software
    • Tools that allow users to get to know each other, produce artifacts, share information and generate knowledge together.
    Learners Teachers Social Software OER
  • 19. The Political Economy of Peer Production Michael Bauwens
    • “ produce use-value through the free cooperation of producers who have access to distributed capital
    • a 'third mode of production' different from for-profit or public production by state-owned enterprises.
    • Its product is not exchange value for a market, but use-value for a community of users.
    www.ctheory.net/articles.aspx?id=499
  • 20. Prod-Users - From production to produsage - Axel Bruns 2008
    • Users become active participants in the production of artifacts:
    • Examples:
      • Open source movement
      • Wikipedia
      • Citizen journalism (blogs)
      • Immersive worlds
      • Distributed creativity - music, video, Flickr
  • 21. Produsage Principles produsage.org
    • Community-Based –the community as a whole can contribute more than a closed team of producers.
    • Fluid Heterarcy – produsers participate as is appropriate to their personal skills, interests, and knowledge, and may form loose sub-groups to focus on specific issues, topics, or problems
    • Unfinished Artifacts –projects are continually under development, and therefore always unfinished; their development follows evolutionary, iterative, palimpsestic paths.
    • Common Property, Individual Rewards – contributors permit (non-commercial) community use, adaptation, and further development of their intellectual property, and are rewarded by the status capital they gain through this process
  • 22. Over to you
    • Do you use OER products in your teaching programs?
    • Have you created an OER product and provided it for use by others?
    • Why don’t your colleagues use OER resources at your school?
    • Will students use OER and avoid using your programs?
  • 23.
    • Commonwealth of Learning this summer and will be called - Education For A Digital World: Advice, Guidelines And Effective Practice From Around The Globe.
  • 24. Will Educators and Learners Produse?
    • Social software affords, but “build it and they shall come” rarely works
    • Is recognition by peers enough reward for educators?
    • Will students use OERs with accreditation?
  • 25. Further Exploration
    • A Rice University Connexions Moodle course on OER at http://cnx.org/content/m15211/latest/
  • 26. Cider example
    • Workspace, discussion forums, RSS alerts, research spaces, Ciderpedia
    • Over 1,000 members, but all resources lack critical mass
  • 27. Over to you
    • Have you used or contributed to an OER?
    • Will social software use provide the incentive for use and contribution to OERs