Open Educational Resources and Open Access: Promise or Peril for Higher Education


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Keynote at EL@IES conference- delivered via videoconference. Dec 17, 2013

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  • Open Educational Resources and Open Access: Promise or Peril for Higher Education

    1. 1. Open Educational Resources and Open Access: Promise or Peril for Higher Education Terry Anderson, Professor, Athabasca University Canada Dec. 2013
    2. 2. Open Scholar • “the Open Scholar is someone who makes their intellectual projects and processes digitally visible and who invites and encourages ongoing criticism of their work and secondary uses of any or all parts of it--at any stage of its development”. – Gideon Burton - Academic Evolution Blog
    3. 3. Presentation Overview • Open Scholarship – Copyright – Open Educational Resources – Open Texts – Open Data – Open Article Publishing – Creative Commons Licensing – Open Practices and Policies
    4. 4. Open Scholars Create: • A new type of education work maximizing: – Social learning – Media richness – Participatory and connectivist pedagogies – Ubiquity and persistence – Transparency – Open data collection and research process – Network Creation
    5. 5. Definitions of Open on the Web (From Google) • affording unobstructed entrance and exit; not shut or closed; • affording free passage or access; • open to or in view of all; • accessible to all; • assailable: not defended or capable of being defended • loose: (of textures) full of small openings or gaps; • start to operate or function • not brought to a conclusion; • not sealed or having been unsealed
    6. 6. Something there is that doesn’t love a a wall, that wants it down” American Poet Robert Frost
    7. 7. • “publishing online is not a viable option as the product would not have permanency, scholarly recognition, or the prestige of a paper publication.” my PhD supervisor, 1993
    8. 8. ‘50% of Canada’s Scholarly Publications will be out of business within two years due to open access competition.’ Athabasca Pres. Frits Pannecock
    9. 9. • Cannot copyright: – ideas, – facts, – data or – useful articles (these are patented)
    10. 10. • “Indeed, only 1,000 new works appeared annually in England at that time -- 10 times fewer than in Germany -- and this was not without consequences. EckhardHöffner believes it was the chronically weak book market that caused England, the colonial power, to fritter away its head start within the span of a century, while the underdeveloped, agrarian state of Germany caught up rapidly, becoming an equally developed industrial nation by 1900.” • UK Copyright Law 1710 • Prussia - 1837
    11. 11. Open Access Definition • Budapest Open Access Initiative (2001). – “free availability on the public internet, – permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, – crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or – use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself.”
    12. 12. Open Scholars Use and Contribute Open Educational Resources Because it saves time!!!
    13. 13. OER Barriers to Adoption • • • • • Few instructor incentives Publisher push back Quality concerns “not invented here” syndrome Lack of open culture and practice
    14. 14. Open texts
    15. 15. We can’t afford textbooks • Textbook prices skyrocketed 82% between 2002 and 2012, • average student budget for books and supplies has grown to $1,207 annually (USA figures). • Current Bill to support open texts across US, goal of reducing costs by 80% • Washington State program since 2010 has saved students $5.4 million versus State cost of less than $1.8 Million • All students get open text books!
    16. 16. South Africa school text books produces millions of texts -=
    17. 17. Are commercial e-texts the answer?
    18. 18. DRM (Digital Rights Management) You CANNOT • Copy & paste, annotate, highlight • Change Text to speech • Format change • Move material • Print out • Move geographically • Use after expiry date • Resell
    19. 19. But our device is our PROPERTY • DRM restricts our freedom • Can we not own & control our own property?
    20. 20. Commercial Learning Service or Rent-a-book • student owns nothing, can share nothing, save nothing, sell nothing • subscription ends – ALL ends •publishers own student data, notes, highlights • students can’t transfer data
    21. 21. US Version cost per month +100 000 movies $ 7.99 +48 000 TV shows $ 7.99 +20 000 000 songs TOTAL $ 9.99 $25.97 ONE Biology text $20.25 -David Wiley
    22. 22. Open Scholars License, Use (and re-use ) Open Data
    23. 23. • “There is no turning back the clock on our interconnected world, but we could jeopardize its benefits if we fail to invest in a trusted data environment”. • -Ellen Richey, Chief Enterprise Risk Officer, Visa, USA in WEF Blog on Big Data
    24. 24. Open Scholars Filter and Share With Others
    25. 25. If it is not licensed, it is not open
    26. 26. Open OPEN open “openwashing: code that requires a patent license cannot be open source, so Cisco should really stop using that term. It's making the source code available, and that's good news, but it's not the same.” Glyn Moody
    27. 27. Scholars Researching ‘Openness’
    28. 28. Open Scholars Know How to License Their Work for Maximum Impact
    29. 29. CC Licensing Options
    30. 30. • “If Google cannot find a faculty scholar's work or the work of the scholar's colleagues, department, or institution, then it is essentially irrelevant — even nonexistent — because people will not find, read, apply, or build on the work if they cannot locate it via a quick Google searchLowenthal & Dunlap (2012) Lowenthal, P., & Dunlap, J. (2012). Intentional Web Presence: 10 SEO Strategies Every Academic Needs to Know. Educause.
    31. 31. Journal Publishing • Until recently, largely controlled by for profit companies • “profits of the journal publishing sectors of the major publishers’ business are their most profitable divisions. • For example, the worlds largest publisher Elsevier made “£724m ($1.1 billion) on revenues of £2 billion—an operating-profit margin of 36%.”
    32. 32. “major periodical subscriptions, especially to electronic journals published by historically key providers, cannot be sustained: continuing these subscriptions on their current footing is financially untenable. Doing so would seriously erode collection efforts in many other areas, already compromised”. The Faculty Advisory Council Date: April 17, 2012
    33. 33. Open Access Publication Emerges • Journal TOCs lists over 23,170 journals - 9,986 OA titles make up 43% of the overall content. (DOAJ 2013) • Publishing and Review Systems: Open Journal System – Canadian, (SFU) – Complete submission, review, copyedit, analytics and publication system – Over 7,000 journals using OJS (as of 2012)
    34. 34. Predatory Open Access Journals “those that unprofessionally exploit the author-pays model of open-access publishing (Gold OA) for their own profit. Typically, these publishers: • spam professional email lists, • broadly soliciting article submissions for the clear purpose of gaining income. • operate essentially as vanity presses, • typically have a low article acceptance threshold, • Have a false-front or non-existent peer review process. – Jeff Beall
    35. 35. • But Also Legitamet user-f But also, Legitimate Author Fee- OA Journals – PLOS - Public Library of Science since 2006 Charges authors about $1500/US per article
    36. 36. Publishers Reactions • Ignore OA • Fight It – Lobby for anti-OA legislation – Discredit OA quality – Discriminate against OER in citation indexes • Morph It – Free your article in a closed journal for a fee (hybrid model) – Allow individual deposit in data bases (after embargo)
    37. 37. Green and Hybrid Gold Open Access Open Access Journal Open Access Journal Free Author Pay Green Open Access Closed Articles in Open Repository – After embargo
    38. 38. Institutional Archives • Green versus Gold standard for openness • Green: Author archives a copy of copyright material in an institutional repository • Gold: Full Open Access • Responsibility of author to archive
    39. 39. # of Institutional Repositories ValérieSpezi, Jenny Fry, Claire Creaser, Steve Probets, Sonya White, (2013) "Researchers' green open access practice: a crossdisciplinary analysis", Journal of Documentation, Vol. 69 Iss: 3, pp.334
    40. 40. Do Faculty Self-Archive? • Only 32% archived anything at Carnegie-Melon 2008 • Likely less at Athabasca in Portugal??. • Only compulsory mandate works!!
    41. 41. It helps to have help N=1,424 European Scholars ValérieSpezi, Jenny Fry, Claire Creaser, Steve Probets, Sonya White, (2013) "Researchers' green open access practice: a cross-disciplinary analysis", Journal of Documentation, Vol. 69 Iss: 3, pp.334 - 359
    42. 42. OER Mandates
    43. 43. Must Universities pay for Both Closed Journals and For Open Access Publisher Fees?
    44. 44. Open Scholars Engage Open Communities Beyond Higher Education. PERRYMAN, L., COUGHLAN, T.. The realities of ‘reaching out’: enacting the public-facing open scholar role with existing online communities. Journal of Interactive Media in Education
    45. 45. Open Scholars Write and Read Open Access Books Teaching in Blended Learning Environments: Creating and Sustaining Communities of Inquiry Vaughan, Cleveland-Innes, & Garrison
    46. 46. A Tale of 3 Books Commercial publisher E-Learning for the 21stCentury 1st Ed. 934 copies sold at $52.00 Commercial Pub. Buy at Amazon!! 1200 sold @ $135.00 2,000 copies in Arabic Translation @ $8. Open Access 100,000 + downloads & Individual chapters Trnaslations Over 1600 hardcopies sold @ $40 Can
    47. 47.
    48. 48. Does Open Access Increase or Decrease Citation rates? • Mixed results • “Articles placed in the open access condition (n=712) received significantly more downloads and reached a broader audience within the first year, yet were cited no more frequently, nor earlier, than subscriptionaccess control articles (n=2533) within 3 yr.” (Davis, 2011, P. 2129).
    49. 49. Does Open Access Increase or Decrease Citation rates in our discipline? – Zawacki-Richter, O., Anderson, T., &Tuncay, N. (2010). The growing impact of open access distance education journals – a bibliometric analysis. Journal of Distance Education, 24(3) – Analysis of Google citations for 12 Distance Education Journals (using Harzing’s Publish or Perish tool) – 6 open access, 6 commercially published – Early results show roughly equal citations/paper, but recent gains in citations by open access journals
    50. 50.
    51. 51. Who Pays for Free content? 1. ‘Freemium: free & “pro” versions 1% of users support all the rest 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Advertising: provide a special audience Cross-Subsidies: free lunch if you buy beer Zero-Marginal Cost: online music Labor Exchange: Digg Gift Economy: $$$ aren’t everything 7. Author Pay 8. Sponsor – ‘Sugar Daddy’ Chris Anderson’s Taxonomy of Free Wired:
    52. 52. The Political Economy of Peer Production Michael Bauwens • produce use-value through the free cooperation of producers • a 'third mode of production' neither for-profit or public • NOT exchange value for a market, but use-value for a community
    53. 53. Prod-Users: From production to produsage Axel Bruns 2008 • Users as active participants in production of artifacts: • Examples: – Open source movement – Wikipedia – Citizen journalism (blogs) – Immersive worlds – Distributed creativity - music, video, Flickr
    54. 54. MOOC • The Course may be free (for now), the content (usually) is NOT!
    55. 55. OER Practice- Institutional Level
    56. 56. OER Policy – National Level
    57. 57. Openness is a Spiral of Growth… but you have to start somewhere
    58. 58. Boundless Opportunities for • Unanticipated consequences • Challenges of net privacy/presence • Emergent adaptation by students and teachers • Misuse and exploitation
    59. 59. Are you Ready to Take the Pledge?? • I pledge that: – “ I will no longer submit my work to closed publications, nor participate in review or editorial functions for closed publications.”
    60. 60. • I pledge to devote most of my reviewing and editing efforts to manuscripts destined for open access. For other manuscripts, I will restrict myself to one review by me for each review obtained for me by an outlet that is not open access.
    61. 61. Open Access Conclusion • “Open Access is more than a new model for scholarly publishing, it is the only ethical move available to scholars who take their own work seriously enough to believe its value lies in how well it engages many publics and not just a few peers.” • Gideon Burton, Academic Evolution Blog
    62. 62. Your comments and questions most welcomed! Terry Anderson Homepage: Blog: Skype: @terguy