Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Elearn 20009 keynote Openness and the Taxonomy fo the Many
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.


Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Elearn 20009 keynote Openness and the Taxonomy fo the Many


Published on

Published in: Education, Technology

  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide
  • So this new epistemology produces a rather odd kind of student — one who appears polite and dutiful but who cares little about the course work, the larger questions it raises, or the value of living an examined life. And it produces such students in overwhelming abundance. Tim ClydesdaleWe need to teach as if our students were colleagues from another department.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Empowering Professional Openness through Groups, Networks and Collectives
      Vancouver, BC
      Oct. 2009
      Terry Anderson, Ph.D.
      Canada Research Chair in Distance Education
    • 2. Introduction
      Terry Anderson’s CV in Wordle Tag Cloud
    • 3.
    • 4.
    • 5. Anderson & Anderson,( submitted for publication)
    • 6. Presentation Overview
      Brief scan of the environment
      Taxonomy of the Many
      The Open Scholar
    • 7. Values
      We can (and must) continuously improve the quality, effectiveness, appeal, cost and time efficiency of the learning experience.
      User control and freedom is integral to 21st Century life-long education and learning.
      Access to learning only for elites is not sufficient for planetary survival.
    • 8. Harmonizing Disruptive Technologies
      “Managing and aligning pedagogical, technical and administrative issues is a necessary condition of success when using emerging technologies for learning”
      But it takes leadership andusually entails disruption
      Gregor Kennedy et al. , Melbourne Educating the Net Generation: A Handbook of Findings for Practice and Policy , 2009
    • 9. Recent history of Higher education Innovation
      Last systemic innovation was the emergence of the community colleges and open and alternative colleges of the 1960’s
      Last 40 years of reform:
      Examples: Problem based learning, faculty development, community, collaborative, technology enhanced learning
      Peripheral and outside of main stream rewards and strategic planning
      “ We can no longer pursue an add-on approach to the changing faculty role”
      Rice, Eugene. (2006). From Athens and Berlin to LA: Faculty Work and the New Academy
    • 10. Promising Signs
      Ubiquity and multi-functionality of web 2.0
      Growth of openness and online resources, OERs
      Increasingly effective pedagogical models and learning activities
      Real educational alternatives – including private sector
      Death and retirement
    • 11. Aligning with 21 Century students
      Students are NOT deeply digitally engaged, empowered, nor skilled and certainly not homogeneous
      But they “arrive at college with well-established methods of sorting, doubting, and ignoring”
      “odd kind of student — one who appears polite and dutiful but who cares little about the course work, the larger questions it raises, or the value of living an examined life” Tom Clysdale, 2009 Wake Up and Smell the New Epistemology
      Or is the life that we examine in formal education?
      We can no longer maintain interest and enthusiasm based on respect and superior knowledge
    • 12. Net Presence means Creating and Sustaining Social Capital
      “Relationships, more than information, determine how problems are solvedor opportunities exploited.” p. 17 Looi2001)
    • 13. Choosing the righttool(s)?
      KMS over 3000 apps
    • 14. Taxonomy of the ‘Many’ – A Conceptual ModelDron and Anderson, 2007
      Conscious membership
      Leadership and organization
      Cohorts and paced
      Rules and guidelines
      Access and privacy controls
      Focused and often time limited
      May be blended F2F
      Metaphor :
      Virtual classroom
    • 15. Formal Learning and Groups
      Long history of research and study
      Established sets of tools
      Synchronous (F2F, video & net conferencing)
      Need to develop face to face, mediated and blended group learning skills
      Garrison and Anderson, 2001
    • 16. Critical Tools for Group Learning Environments
      Collaborative tools
      Document creation, management, versioning
      Time lines, calendars,
      Strong notifications
      Security, trust
      hosting on institutional space?
      Behind firewalls, away from search engines
      Decision making and project management tools
      Synchronous and asynchronous conversations/meetings
    • 17. Groups as Communities of Practice
      Wengler’s ideas of Community of Practice
      mutual engagement – synchronous and notification tools
      joint enterprise – collaborative projects, “pass the course”
      a shared repertoire – common tools, VLEs, IM and doc sharing
    • 18. Online communities are a means to help preserve and continue the interests, knowledge and culture of a group bound by common interests. Looi, C. K. (2001)
      Looi, C. K. (2001). Enhancing learning ecology on the Internet Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 17(1), 13-20
    • 19. Distributed web 2.0 Group Tools
    • 20. Problems with Groups
      Restrictions in time, space, pace, & relationship - NOT OPEN
      Often overly confined by teacher expectation and institutional curriculum control
      Usually Isolated from the authentic world of practice
      “low tolerance of internal difference, sexist and ethicized regulation, high demand for obedience to its norms and exclusionary practices.” Cousin & Deepwell 2005
      Group think (Baron, 2005)
      Poor preparation for Lifelong Learning beyond the course
      Paulsen (1993)
      Law of Cooperative Freedom
    • 21. Frontiers of Group Learning
      From systems designed to tack, control and lead learners, to systems designed to motivate and inspire learning.
      What motivates learners?
      • Personal and social relevance
      • 22. Opportunity to do well and be recognized
      • 23. Chance to meet cool people and engage in cool activities
      • 24. Disequilibrium (Dewey)
      • 25. Rewards - formal education’s last strategic advantage
      Frontier College Archives
    • 26. Groups Summary
      Groups are necessary, but not sufficient for quality learning
    • 27. Group
      Shared interest/practice
      Fluid membership
      Friends of friends
      Reputation and altruism driven
      Emergent norms, structures
      Activity ebbs and flows
      Rarely F2F
      Metaphor: Virtual Community of Practice
    • 28. Networks add diversity to learning
      “People who live in the intersection of social worlds are at higher risk of having good ideas” Burt, 2005, p. 90
    • 29. Collaborative Learning In Groups
      Cooperative Learning in Networks (Paulsen, 2008)
      Compelling, not compulsory activities
    • 30.
    • 31. Google Wave ??
      Wave completely demolishes the line between synchronous and asynchronous communication.Mike Feldstein, Oct 2009
    • 32. Communities of Practice
      Share common interest
      Self organizing
      looser aggregation defined by a range of loose and tight links
      No expectation of meeting or even knowing all members of the Network
      Little expectation of reciprocity
      Contribute for social capital, altruism and a sense of improving the world/practice through contribution
      (Brown and Duguid, 2001)
    • 33. Transparency
      The ability to view and share thoughts, actions, resources, ideas and interests of others.
      “radically increase learner awareness of others’ learning activities in the PLE”
      Marc van Harmelen Manchester PLE
      Dalsgaard, C., & Paulsen, M. (2009) Transparency in Cooperative Online Education
    • 34. Major Challenges in Creating Incentives to Sustain Contribution to Networks
      The New Yorker September 12, 2005
    • 35. "the network contains within it antagonistic clusterings, divergent sub-topologies, rogue nodes" Galloway and Thacker, 2007 p. 34
      “There is crack in everything, that's how the light gets in” Leonard Cohen
      Image from
    • 36. Connectivist Learning
      emergent practice, rather than prescribed education.
      Helping and scaffolding students to construct, connect, explore and mash resources and people to create contexts, that induce learning.
      George Siemens
    • 37. Network Pedagogies
      Participatory Pedagogy- Students as content-co-creators, peer teaching
      Learning in environments in which activities and outcomes emerge in response to authentic need creates powerful learning opportunities
      Learning at the edge of chaos
      Complicity: An International Journal of Complexity and Education
      See the Networked Student by Wendy Drexler
    • 38. Student Organized Networks
    • 39.
    • 40. Network Tool Set (example)
      Stepanyan, Mather & Payne, 2007
    • 41. Access Controls in Elgg
    • 42.
    • 43. Network Learning EnvironmentSummary
      Cooperative versus collaborative
      Compelling but optional interaction
      Finding, building and enriching connections inside and outside of the “course”
    • 44. Group
      ‘Aggregated other’
      Unconscious ‘wisdom of crowds’
      Stigmergic aggregation
      Algorithmic rules
      Augmentation and annotation
      More used, more useful
      Data Mining
      Never F2F
      Wisdom of Crowds
    • 45. Formal Education and Collectives
      “a kind of cyber-organism, formed from people linked algorithmically…it grows through the aggregation of Individual, Group and Networked activities” Dron & Anderson, 2007
      Collectives used to aggregate, then filter, compare, contrast and recommend.
      Personal and collaborative search and filter for learning
      Allows discovery and validation of norms, values, opinion and “ways of understanding”
      Educational semantic web
      “They follow not the logic of the network but of the set. They are aggregations that appear in some ways as a single entity” Dron & Anderson, 2009.On the Design of Collective Applications
    • 46. Aggregation
      Data Mining
      Filter &
    • 47. Collective Tools
      Crowd Sourcing
    • 48. Collective Examples
    • 49. Groups
      Taxonomy of the Many
      Dron and Anderson, 2007
    • 50. Personal Learning Environments
      Easy to use
      Personally configurable
      Gadgets, widgets
      Push and pull data
      Multiple machines, portable
      Reflective spaces,
      Creating net presence and social capital
    • 51. Dron & Anderson,
    • 52. Social Learning 2.0 Applications in Educational Contexts
    • 53.
    • 54. Open Scholar
      “the Open Scholar is someone who makes their intellectual projects and processes digitally visible and who invites and encourages ongoing criticism of their work and secondary uses of any or all parts of it--at any stage of its development”.
      Gideon Burton Academic Evolution Blog
    • 55. Open Scholars Create:
      A new type of education work maximizing:
      Social learning
      Media richness
      Participatory and connectivist pedagogies
      Ubiquity and persistence
      Open data collection and research process
      Creating connections
    • 56. Open Scholars Use and Contribute Open Educational Resources
      Because it saves time!!!
    • 57.
    • 58. Open Scholars Self Archive
      Quality scholarship is peer and public reviewed, accessible, persistent syndicated, commented and transparent.
    • 59. Open Scholars Apply their research
    • 60. Open Scholars do Open Research
      Open Notebook: a laboratory notebook that is freely available and indexed on common search engines. …it is essential that all of the information available to the researchers to make their conclusions is equally available to the rest of the world.
      —Jean-Claude Bradley
    • 61. Open Scholars Filter and Share With Others
    • 62. Open Scholars support emerging Open Learning alternatives
    • 63. Open Scholars Publish in Open Access Journals
      Open Access Journals have increased citation ratings:
      Work in progress with Olaf Zawacki-Richter, Ferne University, Germany
      Analysis of Google citations for 12 Distance Education Journals (using Harzing’s Publish or Perish tool)
      6 open access, 6 commercially published
      Early results show roughly equal citations/paper, but recent gains in citations by open access journals
    • 64. Open Scholars Create Open Access Books
      Upcoming Emerging Technologies in DE edited
      by George Veletsiano
    • 65. Open Scholars comment openly on the works of others
      Bookmarking and Annotation add value
      Cite-u-like, Brainify, Diigo, Delicious etc
      VLE additions like Margenalia.
    • 66. Open Scholars Build Networks
    • 67. Open Scholars Lobby for Copyright Reform
    • 68. Open Scholars Assign Open Textbooks
    • 69. Open Scholars Induce Open Students
      Students as co-creators
      Students gaining experience as writers, authors and teachers
      Getting over the use, but don’t contribute barrier
      Students engaged in meaningful work
      Extensive literature on value of peer instruction - especially for gifted students
      Empowering learners as future teachers
    • 70. Open Scholars support Open Students OpenStudents.Org
    • 71. Open Scholars Teach Open Courses
      George Siemens & Stephen Downes
      Introduction au technologieémergentes
      Dave Cormier
      Alec CuorosOpen Access Course: Social Media &
      Open Education (Fall 2009)
    • 72. Open Scholars Research Openness
    • 73. Open Scholars are Change Agents
      Open scholars develop tools and techniques to help cross-pollination, sustain and grow effective learning networks.
      From (Looi 2001).
    • 74. Open Scholars Battle with Time
      Save Time by using the efforts of others
      I haven’t got the time to save!
    • 75. Open Scholars are Involved in the Future
      Through personal experience we forge an ecology of lifelong learning.
    • 76. Conclusion
      “Open Access is more than a new model for scholarly publishing, it is the only ethical move available to scholars who take their own work seriously enough to believe its value lies in how well it engages many publics and not just a few peers.”
      Gideon Burton, Academic Evolution Blog
    • 77. Your comments and questions
      most welcomed!
      Terry Anderson