Distance Education theorists 2011


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An overview of the major DE theorists done for PhD Seminar at Nova University in Lisbon - March 2011

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Distance Education theorists 2011

  1. 1. An Overview of the MajorTheories of Distance Education<br />Terry Anderson<br />Dr. Seminar, Nova University<br />Lisbon, 2011<br />
  2. 2. Wed. Agenda<br />Major Theorists in DE – overview<br />Small groups – what theory resonates with you??<br />Break<br />Community of Inquiry Model<br />
  3. 3. Three Wise Men of Distance Education Theory<br />
  4. 4. First Distance Education Courses<br />Weekly lessons (by newspaper) for Sunday School Teachers<br />Pitman Shorthand – distributed “how to manuals”<br />University of London from 1870- production of course Syllabus –ie content<br />
  5. 5. Holmberg’s Theory of Didactic Interaction (1980’s)<br />A Theory of conversation, based on empathy<br />Print publication NOT like discourse on subject<br />Conversation like tone<br />Personal anecdotes<br />Personal disclosure<br />Opportunity for one to one interaction<br />synchronous – F2F <br />Asynchronous – post<br />Claims to be predictive, ill defined<br />"Theory and Practice of Distance Education 1989"<br />.)<br />
  6. 6. Theories of Industrialization<br />From beyond craft production to industrial age<br />Specialized labour – course team<br />Assembly line<br />Mass market and Centralization<br />Individualized study and tutors<br />Scientific Control & New pedagogy<br />Embraced new (mass) technology<br /> Learning and Teaching in Distance<br />2002 Distance Education in Transition<br />
  7. 7. Michael Moore<br />Theory of Transactional Distance: the cognitive space between instructors and learners in a distance education setting<br />The greater the dialogue, the lesser the structure and vice versa.<br />Moore, M. G. (1973). Towards a theory of independent learning and teaching.<br />Journal of Higher Education, (44), 661-679.<br />Available online at http://www.ajde.com/Documents/theory.pdf<br />
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  13. 13. Elaborations<br />Desmond Keegan – defining distance education:<br />separation of teacher and learner<br />influence of an educational organization<br />use of media to link teacher and learner<br />two way exchange of communication<br />learners as individuals rather than grouped<br />educators as an industrialized form<br />Farad Saba (1994) empirically testing Moore’s theories of Transactional Distance<br />
  14. 14. D. Randy Garrison<br />Proclaimed a new era (1994) – distance education is really ‘education at a distance’<br />NOT industrialized<br />Based on interactions and transactions <br />Student-Student and student- teacher interactions <br />
  15. 15. Equivalency Theory<br />http://www.authorstream.com/player.swf?&pt=0&p=chocxtc-67609-equivalency-theory-education-distance-learning-ppt-powerpoint<br />Michael Simonson<br />
  16. 16. LaniGunawardena<br />Gunawardena, C. N., & Zittle, F. (1997). Social presence as a predictor of satisfaction within a computer mediated conferencing environment. American Journal of Distance Education, 11(3), 8-25.<br />Cultural Influences in DE<br />
  17. 17. GeertHofstade Cultural Definitions<br />PDI<br /> Power Distance Index<br />IDV<br /> Individualism<br />MAS<br /> Masculinity<br />UAI<br /> Uncertainty Avoidance Index<br />LTO<br /> Long-Term Orientation<br />http://www.geert-hofstede.com/<br />
  18. 18. Anderson Interaction Equivalency<br />
  19. 19. Moore (1989) distinctions are:<br />Three types of interaction<br /><ul><li>student-student interaction
  20. 20. student-teacher interaction
  21. 21. Student-content interaction</li></ul>Anderson (2003) hypotheses state:<br />Deep, meaningful learning is produced from 2 out of 3 interactions at a high level<br />High levels of more than 1 out of 3 interactions will produce satisfying educational experience<br />Increasing satisfaction through interaction may not be as time or cost-effective as less interactive learning sequences<br />Bernard, R., Abrami, P., Borokhovski, E., Wade, A., Tamim, R., et al. (2009). A meta-analysis of three types of interaction treatments in distance education. Review of Educational Research, 79(3), 1243-1289. <br />
  22. 22. 20<br />What have we learned about the effects of interaction on achievement?<br />The presence of any type of interaction enhances achievement outcomes<br />Increasing cognitive engagement (i.e., providing the conditions for interaction to occur) improves achievement (i.e., learning)<br />This is especially true for student-content interaction and any combination that involves student-content interaction<br />Strengthening student-student interaction also appears to influence achievement<br />
  23. 23. 21<br />What have we learned about the effects of interaction on attitudes (satisfaction)?<br />The relationship between attitudes and interaction is more complex than for achievement<br />Student-student interaction seems important<br />Strengthening interactions (in general) has a modest impact <br />The role of the teacher in DE seems to have a variable effect on attitudes<br />There is a slight suggestion that increasing SS + ST has an effect on attitudes<br />Bernard, R., Abrami, P., Borokhovski, E., Wade, A., Tamim, R., et al. (2009). A meta-analysis of three types of interaction treatments in distance education. Review of Educational Research, 79(3), 1243-1289. <br />
  24. 24. 3rd Generation - Networked Learning usingConnectivist Pedagogy<br />Learning is building networks of information, contacts and resources that are applied to real problems.<br />
  25. 25. Connectivist Learning PrinciplesGeorge Siemens, 2004<br />Learning and knowledge rests in diversity of opinions.<br />Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources.<br />Learning may reside in non-human appliances.<br />Capacity to know is more critical than what is currently known.<br />Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual learning.<br />Ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts is a core skill.<br />Currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge) is the intent of all connectivist learning activities.<br />Decision-making is itself a learning process.<br />
  26. 26. Connectivist Knowledge is<br />Emergent<br />Distributed<br />Chaotic<br />Fragmented<br />Non sequential<br />Contextualized<br />
  27. 27. Connectivist Learning designs<br />Connection forming<br />Selection<br />Filtering<br />Awareness and Receptivity<br />Contribution and Involvement<br />Reflection and Metacognition<br />Pettenati, M. (2007).<br />
  28. 28. Special Issue of IRRODL on Connectivism Mar. 2010<br />Free Subscriptions at www.irrodl.org<br />
  29. 29. Jon Dron<br />Generating Structure through dialogue<br />Learner up control, creating learning content<br />Dron, J. (2007). Control and Constraint in E-Learning: Choosing When to Choose. Hershey, PA: Information Science Pub.<br />.<br />
  30. 30. 28<br />Current WorkJon Dron and AndersonTaxonomy of the Many<br />Sets<br />28<br />
  31. 31. Exercise<br />In 3 groups:<br />Do a round robin – Which of these major theories resonates most with you?<br />Try to turn some aspect of the theory into a research question or intervention design that you find interesting<br />
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