Distance Education theorists 2011
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Distance Education theorists 2011



An overview of the major DE theorists done for PhD Seminar at Nova University in Lisbon - March 2011

An overview of the major DE theorists done for PhD Seminar at Nova University in Lisbon - March 2011



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Distance Education theorists 2011 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. An Overview of the MajorTheories of Distance Education
    Terry Anderson
    Dr. Seminar, Nova University
    Lisbon, 2011
  • 2. Wed. Agenda
    Major Theorists in DE – overview
    Small groups – what theory resonates with you??
    Community of Inquiry Model
  • 3. Three Wise Men of Distance Education Theory
  • 4. First Distance Education Courses
    Weekly lessons (by newspaper) for Sunday School Teachers
    Pitman Shorthand – distributed “how to manuals”
    University of London from 1870- production of course Syllabus –ie content
  • 5. Holmberg’s Theory of Didactic Interaction (1980’s)
    A Theory of conversation, based on empathy
    Print publication NOT like discourse on subject
    Conversation like tone
    Personal anecdotes
    Personal disclosure
    Opportunity for one to one interaction
    synchronous – F2F
    Asynchronous – post
    Claims to be predictive, ill defined
    "Theory and Practice of Distance Education 1989"
  • 6. Theories of Industrialization
    From beyond craft production to industrial age
    Specialized labour – course team
    Assembly line
    Mass market and Centralization
    Individualized study and tutors
    Scientific Control & New pedagogy
    Embraced new (mass) technology
    Learning and Teaching in Distance
    2002 Distance Education in Transition
  • 7. Michael Moore
    Theory of Transactional Distance: the cognitive space between instructors and learners in a distance education setting
    The greater the dialogue, the lesser the structure and vice versa.
    Moore, M. G. (1973). Towards a theory of independent learning and teaching.
    Journal of Higher Education, (44), 661-679.
    Available online at http://www.ajde.com/Documents/theory.pdf
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13. Elaborations
    Desmond Keegan – defining distance education:
    separation of teacher and learner
    influence of an educational organization
    use of media to link teacher and learner
    two way exchange of communication
    learners as individuals rather than grouped
    educators as an industrialized form
    Farad Saba (1994) empirically testing Moore’s theories of Transactional Distance
  • 14. D. Randy Garrison
    Proclaimed a new era (1994) – distance education is really ‘education at a distance’
    NOT industrialized
    Based on interactions and transactions
    Student-Student and student- teacher interactions
  • 15. Equivalency Theory
    Michael Simonson
  • 16. LaniGunawardena
    Gunawardena, C. N., & Zittle, F. (1997). Social presence as a predictor of satisfaction within a computer mediated conferencing environment. American Journal of Distance Education, 11(3), 8-25.
    Cultural Influences in DE
  • 17. GeertHofstade Cultural Definitions
    Power Distance Index
    Uncertainty Avoidance Index
    Long-Term Orientation
  • 18. Anderson Interaction Equivalency
  • 19. Moore (1989) distinctions are:
    Three types of interaction
    • student-student interaction
    • 20. student-teacher interaction
    • 21. Student-content interaction
    Anderson (2003) hypotheses state:
    Deep, meaningful learning is produced from 2 out of 3 interactions at a high level
    High levels of more than 1 out of 3 interactions will produce satisfying educational experience
    Increasing satisfaction through interaction may not be as time or cost-effective as less interactive learning sequences
    Bernard, R., Abrami, P., Borokhovski, E., Wade, A., Tamim, R., et al. (2009). A meta-analysis of three types of interaction treatments in distance education. Review of Educational Research, 79(3), 1243-1289.
  • 22. 20
    What have we learned about the effects of interaction on achievement?
    The presence of any type of interaction enhances achievement outcomes
    Increasing cognitive engagement (i.e., providing the conditions for interaction to occur) improves achievement (i.e., learning)
    This is especially true for student-content interaction and any combination that involves student-content interaction
    Strengthening student-student interaction also appears to influence achievement
  • 23. 21
    What have we learned about the effects of interaction on attitudes (satisfaction)?
    The relationship between attitudes and interaction is more complex than for achievement
    Student-student interaction seems important
    Strengthening interactions (in general) has a modest impact
    The role of the teacher in DE seems to have a variable effect on attitudes
    There is a slight suggestion that increasing SS + ST has an effect on attitudes
    Bernard, R., Abrami, P., Borokhovski, E., Wade, A., Tamim, R., et al. (2009). A meta-analysis of three types of interaction treatments in distance education. Review of Educational Research, 79(3), 1243-1289.
  • 24. 3rd Generation - Networked Learning usingConnectivist Pedagogy
    Learning is building networks of information, contacts and resources that are applied to real problems.
  • 25. Connectivist Learning PrinciplesGeorge Siemens, 2004
    Learning and knowledge rests in diversity of opinions.
    Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources.
    Learning may reside in non-human appliances.
    Capacity to know is more critical than what is currently known.
    Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual learning.
    Ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts is a core skill.
    Currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge) is the intent of all connectivist learning activities.
    Decision-making is itself a learning process.
  • 26. Connectivist Knowledge is
    Non sequential
  • 27. Connectivist Learning designs
    Connection forming
    Awareness and Receptivity
    Contribution and Involvement
    Reflection and Metacognition
    Pettenati, M. (2007).
  • 28. Special Issue of IRRODL on Connectivism Mar. 2010
    Free Subscriptions at www.irrodl.org
  • 29. Jon Dron
    Generating Structure through dialogue
    Learner up control, creating learning content
    Dron, J. (2007). Control and Constraint in E-Learning: Choosing When to Choose. Hershey, PA: Information Science Pub.
  • 30. 28
    Current WorkJon Dron and AndersonTaxonomy of the Many
  • 31. Exercise
    In 3 groups:
    Do a round robin – Which of these major theories resonates most with you?
    Try to turn some aspect of the theory into a research question or intervention design that you find interesting