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CSTD Calgary 2010


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  • 1. Delivered at a distance:
    Getting the Right Mix:
    Three generations of
    Distance Training Pedagogy:
    Terry Anderson, PhD and Professor
  • 2. Overview
    Technological Determinism in Education and Training
    Generations of Distance Training Pedagogy
    A Network and Connective future for Flexible Training
  • 3. Introduction
    Terry Anderson’s CV in Wordle Tag Cloud
  • 4. Athabasca University, Alberta, Canada
    Fastest growing university in Canada
    34,000 students, 700 courses
    100% distance education
    Graduate and Undergraduate programs
    Master & Doctorate – Distance Education
    Only USA Regionally Accredited University in Canada
    * Athabasca University
  • 5. Values
    We can (and must) continuously improve the quality, effectiveness, appeal, cost and time efficiency of the teaching/learning experience.
    Student control and freedom is integral to 21st Century life-long education, training and learning.
    Current training models do not scale for lifelong learning for all residents of our planet.
  • 6. Dealing with Distance Education Technological Determinism
    Generations of DE technology
    The Man with the Magic Lantern,
    a tribute to educator Ned Corbett
  • 7.
    • Students today can’t prepare bark to calculate their problems. They depend on their slates which are more expensive. What will they do when their slate is dropped and it breaks? They will be unable to write!”Teachers Conference, 1703
    From Father Stanley Bezuska Boston College
  • 8. Students today depend upon paper too much. They don’t know how to write on slate without chalk dust all over themselves. They can’t clean a slate properly. What will they do when they run out of paper?”Principal’s Association, 1815
    From Father Stanley Bezuska Boston College
  • 9. Students today depend too much upon ink. They don’t know how to use a pen knife to sharpen a pencil. Pen and ink will never replace the pencil.”National Association of Teachers, 1907
    From Father Stanley Bezuska Boston College
  • 10.
    • Students today depend upon store-bought ink. They don’t know how to make their own. When they run out of ink they will be unable to write. This is a sad commentary on modern education.”The Rural American Teacher, 1929
    From Father Stanley Bezuska Boston College
  • 11. Students today depend upon these expensive fountain pens. They can no longer write with a straight pen and nib (not to mention sharpening their own quills).
    We parents must not allow them to wallow in such luxury to the detriment of learning how to cope in the real business world, which is not so extravagant.”PTA Gazette, 1941
    From Father Stanley Bezuska Boston College
  • 12.
    • Ball point pens will be the ruin of education in our country. Students use these devices and then throw them away. The American virtues of thrift and frugality are being discarded. Business and banks will never allow such expensive luxuries.”Federal Teacher, 1950
    From Father Stanley Bezuska Boston College
  • 13. Online education “is not a progressive trend towards a new era at all, but a regressive trend, towards the rather old era of mass production, standardization and purely commercial interests.” David Noble, 1998
  • 14. Social Construction of Technology
    Distance Education is, by definition, technologically mediated and thus is influenced by technological determinism.
    • Interpretative Flexibility
    • 15. each technological artifact has different meanings and interpretations
    • 16. Relevant Social Groups
    • 17. many subgroups of users with different applications
    • 18. Design Flexibility
    • 19. A design is only a single point in the large field of technical possibilities
    • 20. Problems and Conflicts
    • 21. Different interpretations often give rise to conflicts between criteria that are hard to resolve technologically
    • 22. (Wikipedia, Sept, 2009)
    Bijker, W. (1999). Of Bicycles, Bakelites and Bulbs: Towards a Theory of Sociotechnical Change.
  • 23. Three Generations of Flexible Learning Pedagogies
    Behaviourist/Cognitive – Self Paced, Individual Study
    Constructivist – Groups
    Connectivist – Networks and Collectives
  • 24. 1. Behavioural/Cognitive Pedagogies
    “tell ‘em what you’re gonna tell ‘em,
    tell ‘em
    then tell ‘em what you told ‘em”
    Direct Instruction
  • 25. Gagne’s Events of Instruction (1965)
    Gain learners' attention
    Inform learner of objectives
    Stimulate recall of previous information
    Present stimulus material
    Provide learner guidance
    Elicit performance
    Provide Feedback
    Assess performance
    Enhance transfer opportunities
  • 26. Enhanced by the “cognitive revolution”
    “learning as acquiring and using conceptual and cognitive structures” Greeno, Collins and Resnick, 1996
  • 34. Focus is on the Content and the Individual Learner
  • 35. Behaviourist/Cognitive Knowledge Is
    Logically coherent, existing independent of perspective
    Context free
    Capable of being transmitted
    Assumes closed systems with discoverable relationships between inputs and outputs
  • 36. Behaviourist/Cognitive Technologies
    Content is king
  • 37. The End of Content Scarcity
    Massive global decrease in costs, complexity and collaboration,
    Massive Increase in convenience and access
  • 38. A Tale of 3 books
    Open Access - First Year
    26,000 + downloads &
    Individual chapters
    404 hardcopies sold @ $40
    Free at
    E-Learning for the 21st Century
    Commercial Pub.
    1200 sold @ $135.00
    2,000 copies in Arabic Translation @ $8.
    Commercial publisher
    934 copies sold at $52.00
    Buy at Amazon!!
  • 39. New Content Providers - ITune U
    “iTunes is not simply a repository of more than 8 million songs, audio books, videos and 70,000 or so iPhone applications.
    It also has the world's largest, constantly available, free educational resource” — iTunesU.
  • 40. Value of Good Canned content “The Great Courses” - $69-$199 (Canadian)
  • 41. New Information Competitors
    Publishers as full meal deal providers
    Web sites; mobile quizzes, audio and video podcasts, interviews, online and mobile versions, Powerpoint slides, testing
    Professional & Academic
    full service web sites
  • 42. New Developments in First GenerationBehavioural/Cognitive Systems
    Reflection Amplifiers
    Social Indicators
    Global feedback
    Digital footprints
    Competition and games
    Multiple Representations
    Student modeling and adaptation
  • 43. What is the role of training organizations in a world where content is available for free for everyone?
    Teaching what/how?
    Examining and credentialing?
    Prior learning assessment?
    Do Behaviourist/Cognitive Pedagogies adequately guide learning designs that meet today’s student needs?
  • 44. Behavioural/cognitive learning is necessary but not sufficient for quality education.
  • 45. 2nd GenerationConstructivist Training Pedagogy
    • New knowledge is built upon the foundation of previous learning,
    • 46. The importance of context
    • 47. Errors and contradictions are useful
    • 48. Learning as an active rather than passive process,
    • 49. The importance of language and other social tools in constructing knowledge
    • 50. Focus on meta-cognition and evaluation as a means to develop learners capacity to assess their own learning
    • 51. The importance of multiple perspectives - groups
    • 52. Need for knowledge to be subject to social discussion, validation and application in real world contexts
    • 53. (from Honebein, 1996; Jonassen, 1991; Kanuka & Anderson, 1999)
  • Constructivist Knowledge is:
    Socially constructed
    Arrived at through dialogic encounter
    (Bakhtin, 1975)
    “education as the discursive construction of shared knowledge”
    (Wegerif, R., 2009)
    Kathy Sierra
  • 54. Where does Constructivist learning Happen?
    “learning as located in the contexts and relationships, rather than merely in the minds of individuals”
    Greenhow, Robelia, & Hughes, (2009)
    The Context of the our age is increasingly online
  • 55. Assessing students using Constructivist Learning
    “What is important is the process of knowledge acquisition, not any product or observable behavior.”
    Jonassen, 1991
  • 56. Constructivist learning isGroup Learning
    Alternate viewpoints
  • 57. Taxonomy of the ‘Many’ – A Conceptual ModelDron and Anderson, 2007
    Conscious membership
    Leadership and organization
    Cohorts and paced
    Rules and guidelines
    Access and privacy controls
    Focused and often time limited
    May be blended F2F
    Metaphor :
    Virtual classroom
  • 58. Why Groups?
    • “Students who learn in small groups generally demonstrate greater academic achievement, express more favorable attitudes toward learning, and persist …
    • 59. small-group learning may have particularly large effects on the academic achievement of members of underrepresented groups and the learning-related attitudes of women…”
    • 60. Springer; Stanne, & Donovan, (1999) P.42
  • Why Groups?
    • Athabasca University’s learner-paced undergraduate courses averaged 63.6% completion rates for the 2002-2003 academic year.
    • 61. Completion rates for the same courses offered in seminar format (either through synchronous technologies or face-to-face) averaged 86.9% over the same period (Athabasca University, 2003, p.12)
  • Constructivist Learning in Groups
    Long history of research and study
    Established sets of tools
    Learning Management Systems
    Synchronous (video & net conferencing)
    Need to develop face to face, mediated and blended group learning skills
    Garrison, R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical thinking in text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2), 87-105.
  • 62. Cohort Communities of Practice
    Wenger’s ideas of Community of Practice
    mutual engagement – synchronous and notification tools
    joint enterprise – collaborative projects
    a shared repertoire – common tools, Moodle, resource and doc sharing
  • 63. Problems with Groups
    Restrictions in time, space, pace, & relationship - NOT OPEN
    Often overly confined by leader expectation and institutional curriculum control
    Usually Isolated from the authentic world of practice
    “low tolerance of internal difference, sexist and ethicized regulation, high demand for obedience to its norms and exclusionary practices.” Cousin & Deepwell 2005
    “Pathological politeness” and fear of debate
    Group think (Baron, 2005)
    Poor preparation for Lifelong Learning beyond the course
    Paulsen (1993)
    Law of Cooperative Freedom
  • 64. Advances in Constructivist Learning Tools
    Easier tools for group formation and collaborative production.
    LMS advances,
    Group editing – wiki, Google docs
    Free synchronous tools- Skype
    Beyond email – Google Wave
  • 65. Groups are necessary, but not sufficient for advanced forms of learning.
  • 66. 3rd Generation - Networked Learning usingConnectivist Pedagogy
    Learning is building networks of information, contacts and resources that are applied to real problems.
  • 67. Connectivist Learning PrinciplesGeorge Siemens, 2004
    Learning and knowledge rests in diversity of opinions.
    Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources.
    Learning may reside in non-human appliances.
    Capacity to know is more critical than what is currently known.
    Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual learning.
    Ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts is a core skill.
    Currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge) is the intent of all connectivist learning activities.
    Decision-making is itself a learning process.
  • 68. Connectivist Knowledge is
    Non sequential
  • 69. Connectivist Learning designs
    Connection forming
    Awareness and Receptivity
    Contribution and Involvement
    Reflection and Metacognition
    Pettenati, M. (2007).
  • 70. Connectivist focuses on Networks - - not Groups
    Shared interest/practice
    Fluid membership
    Friends of friends
    Reputation and altruism driven
    Emergent norms, structures
    Activity ebbs and flows
    Rarely F2F
    Metaphor: Virtual Community of Practice
    Dron and Anderson, 2007
  • 71. Networks add diversity to learning
    “People who live in the intersection of social worlds are at higher risk of having good ideas” Burt, 2005, p. 90
  • 72. Communities of Practice
    Share common interest
    Mostly self organizing
    Open – Learning beyond the course
    No expectation of meeting or even knowing all members of the Network
    Little expectation of direct reciprocity
    Contribute for social capital building, altruism and a sense of improving the world/practice through contribution.
    (Brown and Duguid, 2001)
  • 73. How do we Build Networks of Practice ?
    Motivation – learning plans, self and net efficacy, net-presence
    Structural support
    Exposure and training
    Transparent systems
    Wireless access, mobile computing
    Cognitive skills – content + procedural, disclosure control
    Social connections, reciprocity
    Creating and sustaining a spiral of social capital building
    Nahapiet & Ghoshal (1998)
  • 74. How to CreatIncentive to Sustain Contribution to Networks?
    The New Yorker September 12, 2005
  • 75. Connectivist ToolsPersonal Learning Networks
  • 76. “What really matters in the new age, isn‘t information at all. What is really significant are the relationships between people, and between people and organizations, that are made possible by the new modes of communication.
    Jane Gilbert (2005)
  • 77. Connectivist Technology Examples from Athabasca
    • Elgg – – Social networking
    • 78. Easy M-Cast (Podcast, videocasts, screen casts)
    • 79. Tutor “office hours” & recorded via Elluminate
    • 80. Athabasca presence in immersive worlds ie Second Life
    • 81. AU on FaceBook & RateMyProfessor
    • 82. Media Lab at AU – Communication tool chests
    • 83. New Pedagogical Model for AU self-paced courses
    • 84. Research on student use of course archives
  • Challenges of Connectivist Learning Models
    Dealing with disruptive change
    Institutional Support
    Sustaining motivation and
  • 85. Controlling the Connectivist Flow
    Personal Network Member Bill of Rights and Responsibilities
    I have the right not to be social 24/7 - either online or in person.
    I have the right to time for reflection and responsibility for doing so.
    I have the right to stop using a tool when it is no longer useful.
    I have the right to not be on the cutting edge all the time or feel I need to always know all there is to know.
    I have the right to choose those with whom I learn in my personal learning network and responsibility to learn from those with whom I don't always agree.
    I have the right and responsibility to disagree and the responsibility to do it professionally.
    I have the responsibility to share my knowledge with others in my network.
    I have the right and responsibility to not let online activities keep me from my friends, my family, my workplace, or my community.
    Doug Johnson, Blue Skunk Blog
  • 86. Network Tool Set (example)
    Stepanyan, Mather & Payne, 2007
  • 87. Access Controls in Elgg
  • 88. Open Net
    Research/Community Networks
    OERs, YouTUBE
    MY AU
    Read & Comment
    Athabasca Landing
    Course Development
    Sample CC
    Course units and
    Branded OERs
    Athabasca University
    Media lab
    Single Sign on
    Secondlife campus
  • 89. Conclusion
    Behavioural/Cognitive models are useful for memory and conceptual knowledge
    Constructivist models develop group skills and trust
    Connectivist models and tools introduce networked learning and are foundational for lifelong learning in complex contexts
    21 Century Literacy's and skills demand effective use of all three pedagogies
  • 90. "He who asks a question is a fool for five minutes; he who does not ask a question remains a fool forever.”Chinese Proverb
    Your comments and questions most welcomed!
    Terry Anderson
  • 91. Alex Curous, 2008
  • 92. PLE- Learner Links their environment to their vocational and social interests
    My social Life
    My work
    My school(s)
    My calendar
    My profile
    My hobbies
    My files
    My identity
    My publications
    My conversations(s)
  • 93. Your Personal learning Environment
    Robon Good’s linked list of Connectivist tools
    Types of collaborations tools
    Mind mapping
    Doc Sharing
    Work Group
    Video conf.
    Screen Sharing
    Event Scheduling
    Project Management
    White Board
  • 94. Learner Centred OLE.doc – Derek Wenmoth, March 2006