Terry Anderson, PhD Professor and Canada Research Chair in Distance Education
Kaleidoscope: A Constantly changing Group or Scene
Values We can (and must) continuously improve the quality, effectiveness, appeal, cost and time efficiency of the learning experience. Student control and freedom is integral to 21st Century life-long education and learning. Current educational models do not scale for lifelong learning for all residents of our planet.
Dealing with Technological Determinism in Education A scepter hanging over teachers The Man with the Magic Lantern, a tribute to educator Ned Corbett
Students today can’t prepare bark to calculate their problems. They depend on their slates which are more expensive. What will they do when their slate is dropped and it breaks? They will be unable to write!”Teachers Conference, 1703
From Father Stanley Bezuska Boston College
Students today depend upon paper too much. They don’t know how to write on slate without chalk dust all over themselves. They can’t clean a slate properly. What will they do when they run out of paper?”Principal’s Association, 1815 From Father Stanley Bezuska Boston College
Students today depend too much upon ink. They don’t know how to use a pen knife to sharpen a pencil. Pen and ink will never replace the pencil.”National Association of Teachers, 1907 From Father Stanley Bezuska Boston College
Students today depend upon store-bought ink. They don’t know how to make their own. When they run out of ink they will be unable to write. This is a sad commentary on modern education.”The Rural American Teacher, 1929
From Father Stanley Bezuska Boston College
Students today depend upon these expensive fountain pens. They can no longer write with a straight pen and nib (not to mention sharpening their own quills). We parents must not allow them to wallow in such luxury to the detriment of learning how to cope in the real business world, which is not so extravagant.”PTA Gazette, 1941 From Father Stanley Bezuska Boston College
Ball point pens will be the ruin of education in our country. Students use these devices and then throw them away. The American virtues of thrift and frugality are being discarded. Business and banks will never allow such expensive luxuries.”Federal Teacher, 1950
From Father Stanley Bezuska Boston College
Online education “is not a progressive trend towards a new era at all, but a regressive trend, towards the rather old era of mass production, standardization and purely commercial interests.” David Noble, 1998
David Cameron’s new Age of Government - Transposed to Education
Age of Local Control Parents as teachers Apprenticeship Local control of teaching and curriculum
2nd Age of School/Institutional Bureaucracy Centralized control Standards National and international standardization and measurement
3rd Age of Networked Education Think and Act Globally and Locally Education as development of lifelong learning networks The Network Society: ‘a society where the key social structures and activities are organized around electronically processed information networks’ “The advent of the Internet, calls into question the entire education system developed during the industrial era’, (Castells, 2002, p. 278).
Networked Learning: Pulls families and children to learning by making it attractive, productive, and relevant Relies on peer-to-peer learning rather than formal teachers Creates spaces for learning where they are needed, rather than just using schools Starts learning from challenges that people face rather than from a formal curriculum The test of these approaches is whether they get useful knowledge into the hands of people who need it It is not measured by exam pass rates.
Learning from the Extremes - a CISCO report by Charles Leadbeater and Annika Wong"
Most Net Technology is not incremental but disruptive and ecological – meaning that it demands systemic response as its effects spread throughout the institution.
Network learning as Disruptive Technology Clayton Christiansen
Adopting Disruptive Technologies Constant attention to where the “puck is going to be” Disruptive technologies may not be valued or provide advantage to existing customers “Products based on disruptive technologies are typically cheaper, simpler, smaller, and frequently more convenient to use” (Christensen, 1997). Bottom up disruptions - new providers using OER’s are most likely threat to established colleges
Disruptive Technologies “digital dissonance” - neither teachers nor students fully recognize and utilize the potential of emerging technologies for learning” Clark, Logan, Luckin, Mee, & Oliver, 2009). Yet they continue to block each others’ use – ie banning of mobile tech and many social sites at school, lack of collaborative engagement on school based wikis, failure to license for re-use.
Barriers to Adoption of Disruptive Technologies Lack of understanding of the technology’s viability or strategic implications. Lack of knowledge about how the technologies could be developed and used most effectively. Uncertainty about adequate levels of acceptance by stakeholders. Lack of skills. Particularly technical, design, development and operations skills Lack of finance/funding/investment Adapted from Elliot, Williams & Bjorn-Andersen, 2005
E-Learning as Disruptive Makes content available –FREE Allows time and place shifting Allows global collaboration for teaching and learning Supports global competition Higher quality learning
Why Get involved in E-Learning? To Maintain market share To increase accessibility or flexibility for students and teachers To enhance the quality of teaching/learning To provide basic 21 century skills and meet the learning needs of net generation students To save money (from Bates, 2010) To gain personal satisfaction
Online Learning is Coming to a College Near You Over 3.9 million students were taking at least one online course during the fall 2007 term; a 12 percent increase over the number reported the previous year. The 12.9 percent growth rate for online enrollments far exceeds the 1.2 percent growth of the overall higher education student population. Over twenty percent of all U.S. higher education students were taking at least one online course in the fall of 2007. Allen , E., & Seaman, J. (2008). Staying the Course: Online Education in the United States, Sloan Consortium.
Online Learning is Coming to a College On The Internet Near You Over 3.9 million students were taking at least one online course during the fall 2007 term; a 12 percent increase over the number reported the previous year. The 12.9 percent growth rate for online enrollments far exceeds the 1.2 percent growth of the overall higher education student population. Over twenty percent of all U.S. higher education students were taking at least one online course in the fall of 2007. Allen , E., & Seaman, J. (2008). Staying the Course: Online Education in the United States, Sloan Consortium.
To increase accessibility or flexibility for students and teachers 68% undertook online learning because of flexibility in terms of pace, time and place. “Freedom—I can work at my own pace.” “No time constraints, can work whenever I have time.” Learner expectations and experiencesAustralian National Training Authority, 2003
Flexibility works for faculty too! Shea, P. (2007) BRIDGES AND BARRIERS TO TEACHING ONLINE COLLEGE COURSES: Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks,
Faculty Workload Still biggest issue Little empirical evidence of increased loads online Usually associated with beginning online teachers and labour intensive designs
Does E-learning Really Work? The return on Investment Lag – Does funding on ICT and training result in higher returns on Investment? How do we measure improved learning? Lack of innovation and change– The horseless Carriage syndrome But growing evidence that online learning is both popular and effective
Buggy whip holders lasted over 10 years in new (1895) horseless carriages.
No Significant Difference Thomas Russel’s NSD Site Instructional designs- not media the use of problem-based learning strategies , the opportunity for students to engage in mediated communication with the instructor, course and content information provided to students prior to class starting, the use of video provided to students by the instructor, Dell, Low & Wilker (2010)
No Significant Difference Ending?? K12 over 1,000 studies 1992-2008"The overall finding of the meta-analysis is that classes with online learning (whether taught completely online or blended) on average produce stronger student learning outcomes than do classes with solely face-to-face instruction." (pg.18)
Bernard et al 2004 “A meta-analysis of the comparative distance education (DE) literature between 1985 and 2002 was conducted. In total, 232 studies containing 599 independent achievement, attitude, and retention outcomes were analyzed.
37 Project 1: 2000 – 2004 Question: How does distance education compare to classroom instruction? (inclusive dates 1985-2002) Total number of effect sizes: k = 232 Measures: Achievement, Attitudes and Retention (opposite of drop-out) Divided into Asynchronous and Synchronous DE Bernard, R. M., Abrami, P. C., Lou, Y. Borokhovski, E., Wade, A., Wozney, L., Wallet, P.A., Fiset, M., & Huang, B. (2004). How does distance education compare to classroom instruction? A meta-analysis of the empirical literature. Review of Educational Research, 74(3), 379-439.
38 Summary of results: Achievement Achievement Outcomes *Significantly heterogeneous average effect
39 Summary of results: Attitudes Attitude Outcomes *Significantly heterogeneous average effect
“On-line distance education experience had a significant effect of subsequent student achievement and persistence behaviour ” Dodd, C., Kirby, D., T., S., & Sharpe, D. (2010). The Impact of High School Distance e-Learning Experience on Rural Students’ University Achievement and Persistence. Online Journal of Distance Education Administration, 13(1). Retrieved From http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/spring121/dodd121.html.
What Makes E-Learning Effective ? 1. Content 2. Interaction 3. Agents Anderson, T., & Whitelock, D. (2004). The Educational Semantic Web: Visioning and Practicing the Future of Education. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 1. Retrieved Dec. 2007 from http://www-jime.open.ac.uk/2004/1.
Affordance 1. - Massive Amounts of Content Any information, any format, anytime, anywhere Customizable content Interactive content User created content Adaptable Content Open access content
Wiki and Open Courseware Imagine a world in which every single person is given free access to the sum of all human knowledge. That's what we're doing. – Terry Foote, Wikipedia
Content - conclusion Cheap or free Need to learn to develop business models and culture allowing us to share and re-use content Don’t build your value on your content Content is necessary, but not sufficient, to create a quality educational experience
Affordance #2High Quality, Low Cost Communication Multi mode Synchronous, asynch Text, audio and video A2A (avatar to avatar) Stored, indexed and retrievable Reflective, emotive and cognitive Mobile Learner, teacher, community and commercially created
Challenge: Creating Incentives to Sustain Meaningful Contribution The New Yorker September 12, 2005
What’s so great about Face-to-Face communication? “I learned more about Clive by reading his introduction tonight online than I did in our entire course together last summer” (Kerlin, R-A, 1997) http://kerlins.net/bobbi/research/diss/
21st Century Learner Attitudes Wants to learn things Continuously moves between on and offline Is learning to recognize and demand quality when investing in learning Is easily bored and often cranky Knows there are many paths to learning and is used to staggering amounts of content Normally uses a wide set of information processing, creation and communications tools “The decline of the compliant learner’. P. Goodyear 2004
enGuage Model Metiri Group http://www.metiri.com/features.htmlEn-Guage
E-learning to save money Very conflicted evidence on costs of e-learning Never saves money when used on ‘bolt-on’ approach. Blended learning MUST be made to reduce some costs How are student savings to be costed? Disruptive technologies always get cheaper and more functional.
The Business of Elearning? Is their an Institutional Strategy for e-learning What are the objectives of e-learning for both distance and blended learning? Who is the market- new students or existing? Off shore? Teaching and learning monitoring and effectiveness plan? Who decides on The type of content plus interaction model? Types of tools supported ? Role of F2F support? Integration with campus courses? Who creates the courses”? Lone Ranger Model The instructional design based course team See Taking The Lead: Strategic Management for e-Learning http://akoaotearoa.ac.nz/takingthelead
The Business of Elearning? Who trains and supports the teachers? IT support and hardware Learning design support Software exposure, training and troubleshooting Who supports the students? Registry, bookstore, library, counseling, helpdesk, training? Who Determines quality? Standards and institutional review Central versus unit based control Peer review
Importance of this issue Educational challenges are not met through evangelism, threats or technologies alone. Change happens when teachers, administrators and learners make it happen Perceived benefits – Personal Readiness - Organizational Pressure – Inter-organizational Chwelos; Benbasat; Dexter, 2001) Each of us is an agent of change
Gaining personal satisfaction Personal Learning Environments and Net Presence
Conclusion E-learning is in your future and it will be disruptive E-learning is effective, stimulating and fun You owe it to yourself, your students and our profession to get involved.
"You have to be confused before you can reach a new level of understanding anything" - Dudley Herschbach – Nobel Prize winner (Chemistry)
“"He who asks a question is a fool for five minutes; he who does not ask a question remains a fool forever."- Chinese Proverb Your comments and questions most welcomed! Terry Anderson firstname.lastname@example.org Blog: terrya.edubogs.org