No student is excluded from, or discriminated within education on grounds of race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, disability, birth, poverty or other status.
Schools adapt to the needs of the students, rather than students adapting to the needs of the school.
Individual differences between students are a source of richness and diversity, and not a problem.
By the year 2020, 40% of the global workforce will be knowledge workers, with a need for tertiary qualifications.
to achieve sustainable economic development, the Age Participation Rates (APR's) in Higher Education (HE) must be in the region of 40 to 50%, as they are in many developed countries.” Angela Kanwar, Commonwealth of Learning 2007
John Dewey (1915) pointed out engagement with the geographic spaces as ‘place-based education’ that we inhabit is critical for effective and engaged learning.
"Experience [outside the school] has its geographical aspect, its artistic and its literary, its scientific and its historical sides. All studies arise from aspects of the one earth and the one life lived upon it" (p. 91).
It is the meeting of the needs of all learners in a given community, in formal and non-formal settings, without sacrificing their uniqueness, that constitutes inclusive education.” (Tanzanian, Joseph Kisanji, 1998 P. 66)
takes learning away from individual content acquisition to social opportunity to validate, test, reinforce and challenge each other.
In the process social capital is gained by individuals and groups allowing them to define and create their own futures, rather than being controlled and constrained by the often oppressive constraints of powerful elites and minorities.
Saw this in the activities of the ACDE virtual conference proceeding this conference
“ The name they chose, Schools Uniting Neighborhoods, or SUN schools, reflects the belief that schools, working with their communities can do more than just teach math and reading, they transform neighborhoods.” Portland Oregon
Delivery Model – Moodle Open Source LMS Real Time Web Conferencing A teacher at every community Students must complete a minimum of 40 hours of community involvement activities. Challenges: Bandwidth – installation of wireless in all communities Funding – competes with residential school model Teacher innovation -We teach the way we were taught
“ One project in particular demonstrated how ICTs could benefit the entire community. Shortly after Eabametoong was connected, the school started a community-based GPS map making project that documented the traditional lands of the First Nation.”
Despite being connected to the Internet since 1999, First Nations schools and communities are in trouble!
A 2007 study of First Nations Schools across Canada stressed the need to:
encourage students to be aware of and feel responsible for the lands their ancestors have occupied and
better prepare and encourage the students for employment opportunities that exist within Indigenous territories and beyond.
Local Context Localized Issues, Opportunities, Support, Elders Challenges Internationally Defined Standards of Accomplishments, PISA Rather than attempting to shape stakeholders to the needs of some internationally defined conception of progress .....explore ways in which schooling might take account of the aspirations of stakeholders in order that it might be meaningful to their lives and to their own development needs (Carney, 2003) x
Distance education is about access - without access, there is no inclusive education - everyone is excluded!
“ fully centralized, single-mode, national distance education provider, gaining greater economies of scale by offering courses to a mass market, thereby justifying a greater investment in more expensive course materials” (Simonson, et al, 2003, p. 49).
Athabasca University, Alberta, Canada * Athabasca University Fastest growing university in Canada 34,000 students 700 courses Graduate and Undergraduate programs Largest Master and Doctorate of Distance Education programs Only USA Accredited University in Canada
“ In 2005, Athabasca University received approximately $18 million, or about 34% of its total revenue, from provincial government operating grants. The University of Lethbridge received about 54% of its total revenue from government grants during the same period. (Annand 2005)
Lethbridge 3% annual growth Athabasca 10-20%
Yet both institutions have the same tuition costs
The Distance Education contribution to Inclusiveness
“ Indonesia’s Universitas Terbuka, even though it had a very low graduation rate, had a total cost per graduate that was one-third of the cost in conventional universities, while the cost per graduate to the state was less than 30% of the cost elsewhere.” Daniel, 2003
Western Governors University “It was the first US university to build its entire academic system around a competency-based academic model that relies upon students demonstrating skills and knowledge through rigorous assessments instead of class time and grades.”
WGU receives no state support yet is able to grow dramatically with one of the lowest tuitions among online universities (approximately $5,800 per year for most undergraduate and graduate programs). ( June 4, 2008)
In Malawi, use of correspondence education with tutorial support through study centers was shown to operate at from one quarter to one fifth the recurrent cost per student of that in a regular secondary school (Curran and Murphy, 1992).
Africa pioneering world cost innovation in Interactive Radio:
There is consistent and significant evidence that IRI can increase learning across subject matter, age, gender, and rural or urban location. Students show progressively greater learning with time.
There is evidence that the benefits of IRI can be sustained over the long term and can be adapted for other countries. (World Bank, 2000)
“ the developed world can learn from uses of radio in developing countries, and that the medium deserves greater attention as a means of giving educational opportunity to rural, isolated peoples worldwide”. (Berman, 2008 in IRRODL )
"Some people skate to the puck. I skate to where the puck is going to be.“
61 NHL records
Distance Education: Instructivist Learner Centered Text Broadcast Structured Educ Resources Self Directed Traditional Education: Conversationalist Teacher Centered Lectures Elite Teacher developed Resources Group Based Communities Life Long LEARNING NETWORKS Trades Professions ProdUsers Churches Industry
“ see a cultural bent in OER. Africa in particular believes in sharing, we see ourselves as our brothers' keepers and are thus prepared to share, co-own and joint-produce.”
Professor Babatunde Ipaye National Open University of Nigeria, ACDE pre-conference group ,2008
A Tale of 3 books 32 Open Access 90,000 downloads 4 years after pub. - 6,000/month 350 hardcopies sold @ $50.00 Creative Commons License Free at www.aupress.ca Commercial publisher 934 copies sold at $52.00 Buy at Amazon!! E-Learning for the 21 st Century Commercial Pub. 1200 sold @ $135.00 2,000 copies in Arabic Translation @ $8.
Africa Average 5.3% - World Average 21.1% Increase of 1,030% since 2001 Nigeria increase 0f 4,900% since 2,001 EASSy
Intelligent Community Forum (2007) uses five Intelligent Community Indicators as a conceptual framework for understanding the factors that determine how competitive a community will be in the Digital Age:
“ produce use-value through the free cooperation of producers who have access to distributed capital
a 'third mode of production' different from for-profit or public production by state-owned enterprises.
Its product is not exchange value for a market, but use-value for a community of users. Michael Bauwens, 2005
“ The use of a learning resource, through adaptation and repurposing, becomes the production of another resource. Though there is a steady stream of new resources input into the network by volunteers, this represents, not the result of an OER sustainability project, but the beginning of it.” Stephen Downes (2006)
Prod-Users - From production to produsage - Axel Bruns 2008
Users become active participants in the production of artifacts:
Christensen (1997,2008) studies innovation and the impact of disruptions
A disruptive technology “transforms a market whose services are complicated and expensive into one where simplicity, convenience, accessibility and affordability characterize that industry” p. 11
Unless steered by very wise leaders organizations will “shape every innovation into a sustaining innovation - one that fits processes, values, and the economic model of the organization - because organizations cannot naturally disrupt themselves” p. 74
“peer production offers a new platform for human connection, bringing together otherwise unconnected individuals and replacing common background or geographic proximity with a sense of well developed purpose ... as the condensation point for human connection.” Yochai Benkler, 2006 p. 375
Can creating OER’s be that common purpose and serve as a technique and catalyst for empowering Distance Educators globally?
In production, we change from a consumer mind set.
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION Conclusion Community Distance Education Networks
“ "He who asks a question is a fool for five minutes; he who does not ask a question remains a fool forever." - Chinese Proverb Terry Anderson [email_address] Blog: terrya.edubogs.org Your comments and questions most welcomed!