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  • 1. 1
    Undergraduate Studies ePortfolio
    Terri Pope
    PSY492XD, 2011
  • 2. Personal Statement
    When I decided to go back to college, Psychology was what interested me; studying the
    different concepts as to why we all do particular things. Look into the minds of depressed,
    homicidal, or the disturbed and trying to explain why unconsciously we do things; like
    obeying the rules. I want to know all there is to know, find answers, and appreciate the
    arguments. To know how the mind works and how we recall details or occurrences; and
    even how our mind can cause us to be sick. These are just a few of things that captivated
    me with Psychology, as well as reading articles and books.
    Over the years I have had a wide range of different work experiences. My most recent job
    was a Mental Health Advisor, which allowed me to work and deal with individuals that had
    mental health issues. This job made me want to better understand how these individuals
    were seen in our society. From the knowledge that I have learned I want to use this to its
    full potential. I believe I can make a valuable contribution to this career field. As an
    individual who has played many roles, it would please me to devote myself into something
    that can enhance the understanding between individual’s behaviors and even promote a
    better society.
  • 3. Resume
    Terri Pope
    1209 Washington Blvd.
    McKeesport, PA 15133
    (412) 896-6250
    Energetic and organized professional with 5 years of experience in service background
    seeking a mental health position that will allow for advancement and proven ability to
    work well with diverse populations.
    Case management and counseling
      General Skills
    Possess excellent oral and written communication skills with the ability to review
    and write correspondence.
      Able to handle multiple projects concurrently, assertive, efficient, goal oriented,
  • 4. Resume (cont.)
    Mental Health Counselor, Mon Yough Community Services, McKeesport, PA 2005 –
    Worked with individuals that were released from mental facilities for expended
    period of time and to assist back into community living. Completed goal reports
    engaging clients to identify needs.
    Managed client records and collected documents and health records.
    Assisted with individual counseling.
    Coordinated and facilitated weekly house meetings with clients.
    Developed trusting relationships with the client.
    Attend in-service training to improve skills and knowledge in the health field
    Medical Assistant, Health First Medical, McKeesport, PA 2003 – 2005
    Performed front and back office duties
    Prepared patients/rooms for physical examinations; interviewed patients to obtain
    medical histories
    Acted as liaison between patients and staff to address and/or resolve
    problems, questions and concerns including prescription renewals.
    Handled ordering supplies in areas of front desk and back office.
  • 5. Resume (cont.)
    Work Study Program, Community College of Allegheny, West Mifflin, PA 2000 – 2005
    Performed secretarial skills
    Served as a secretary to college advisors; greet visitors answer telephone, directed
    calls and took messages.
    Maintain confidential information of office related information.
    Maintain filing system as required by college.
    Maintain appointment calendar, schedule appointments.
    Bachelor of Arts in Psychology, Major in Psychology, 2009 – 2011
    Argosy University, Phoenix, AZ, on-line courses
    Associate of Science, Major General, Diploma in Medical Assistant 2000 – 2003
    Community College of Allegheny County, West Mifflin, PA
    Dean’s List
    Externship at Jefferson Hospital
  • 6. Resume (cont.)
    Star Award “Customer Service
    Star Award “Teamwork
    Certificate of Completion “Comprehensive Management
    Certificate of Completion “Relapse Prevention”
    Honor for “Making the Extra Effort
    Certificate of Completion “ Women and Addiction
    Certificate of Completion “Comprehensive Crisis Management”
    Certificate of Completion “Schizophrenia: Overview and Treatment”
    Given upon request
  • 7. Reflection
    The many achievements in my life, the path to the completion of my Bachelor’s
    Degree in Psychology has had many directions. The route I adhered to was twisting
    and turning not the usual direct route. But, these routes have improved myself and
    added to my personal development. Setting goals has always been a part of my
    private and professional life and achieving my degree was one thing that I desired to
    work for. I had six small children and worked full time inspired me to obtain an online
    degree program. Online learning was new to me, and the program I choose had what
    I was looking for. My belief has always been, when you make a commitment you
    follow through. So I began my online program two years ago with high hopes.
    Being an example to others has always been important to me. Communication and
    critical thinking is a complex maze, but this was something I had not been aware of
    until I threw myself into its learning. The professors at Argosy University were leaders
    in the field of psychology, making this a pleasurable experience. I now see the
    significant role diversity and ethics plays in psychology. Through this program I have a
    much better understanding of what that means.
  • 8. Table of Contents
    Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information
    Research Skills
    Communication Skills: Oral and Written
    Ethics and Diversity Awareness
    Foundations of Psychology
    Applied Psychology
    Interpersonal Effectiveness
  • 9. Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy
    We have all experienced animosity in one way or another, the deep hatred or intense dislike that was directed toward you or someone else. Animosity in racism and sexism has always been a factor of discrimination, along with other kinds of discrimination (Argosy, 2011). Women go to college and still earn much less than a man and the reason is due to fact that she will become pregnant. But in many cases this is not true; there are those women who choose a career over a family. Sexism is the idea of power, where men should have the power and women are in a place of less power (Argosy, 2011). Then there is the animosity towards those individuals that are at the poverty level, to the middle class these individuals are seen as welfare cases, who do not want to work because they are lazy.
    In our daily life the reality of racism of women does not have much attention. The pessimistic images of women are supported through public dialogue, writings, and the media (docstock, 2010). The racism of women is negative for all women not matter the color, financial background, or education.
  • 10. Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy (cont.)
    Everywhere we turn we see magazines, television, and even billboards showing beautiful women using their sex to sell a product. The women in these ads give a negative stereotype for females and being exploited in advertisements daily. The problem with advertising is that racism and sexism are issues that go unnoticed every day (docstock, 2011). As a society we need to wake up and take accountability for our actions and end the manipulation of the portrayal of women.
    Sexism is present in every country or culture. Sexism basically means the treatment of a person or group that is treated with prejudice due to either gender or sex (SocialismToday, 2003). The sexism against women involves unequal pay, women as sex objects, or housewives. Even though there is sexism affects both men and women, the women are the ones in the end that suffer sexism. A great example is how Hillary Clinton was judged because she wore pantsuits and how she looked. Sexism has the attitude of affecting every facet of a woman’s life, stopping them from reaching their full potential (SocialismToday, 2003).
  • 11. Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy (cont.)
    My view on sexism is that it is a lie; women are not secondary to men. Sexism is ingrained as a rule that is taught throughout our lives. In society men are believed to be the center and women are the subordinate with inferior roles. This type of system gives unequal division of power, respect, and other social reserves. My finale thought on sexism is that it is a lie, to believe that one has more power over another based on sex, is one that should be dealt with and not overlooked.
    Racism is innate to all of us and run our society at all levels, it will never go away. The reason being there are different people, religions, and sexes; that will never support or embrace the differences of others. Racism is taught from those individuals that are small minded and ignorant; and fear what they do not know. Racism can be changed but it will take one person at a time and standing up for what is right.
    There are three types of social class: upper class, middle class, and lower class and each play a part in our society. Out of these three the lower class will always be looked down upon by our society. In our culture the upper and middle class will succeed but the lower class will always fail. Our society will never give the lower class a chance to succeed in life. There will always be a struggle between the upper and lower class that has gone on for many years.
  • 12. Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy (cont.)
    While the privileged are given many chances for success the
    underprivileged will take what they can get. The hatred or animosity that goes on between the rich and the poor will be a battle that will never end. Until the rich are able to understand the less fortunate there will always be that line that divides these two groups of society.
  • 13. Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy (cont.)
    Argosy University. (2011). Prejudice: attitudes about race, class, and gender.
    Chapter on Theories of prejudice. Retrieved March 13, 2011 from
    Docstock (2010). Racism Sexism the Media. Advertising: The Media’s Not So
    SilentPartner. Retrieved March 13, 2011 from
    SocialismToday (2003). The new sexism. Retrieved March 14, 2011 from
  • 14. Research Skills
    The Effects of Domestic Violence on Children
    Domestic violence is a problem with many factors; and the sad reality is that when a mother is abused by her spouse or partner, the children are also the ones who are affected in both open and cunning ways. Children do not need to be physically or verbally abused to be hurt by domestic violence. When abuse is heard or seen on one parent it takes a real toll on the children. There is no one specific cause and not a single answer to this problem. In homes that domestic violence takes place, there is fear, insecurity, and confusion take the place of love, security, and care that children need. These children live in continuous fear of physical harm from the person that is to be the one who protects them. The method of removing the child who witnesses domestic violence and putting them in a nonviolent setting may not always be realistic or helpful. We need to find a possible resolution to ending the cycle of domestic violence; but, unfortunately this one assesses will not be the cure to what is a national heartbreak.
  • 15. Research Skills (cont.)
    The Effects of Domestic Violence on Children
    Occurrence of witnessing or experiencing violence in the home differs greatly from one child to another. The children are forced to grow up sooner than their peers, and many times take on the duties of cooking, cleaning, and caring for their brothers and sisters (Jafee, Sudermann, Geffner, 200). These children are not permitted to have a real childhood. The children do not trust the father because he is the one doing the abusing and many times worry about what to expect when he comes home. Children that are in this environment learn to be ready for anything.
    Children that are witnesses to domestic violence can be damaged psychologically and dramatically (Science Daily, 2010). There have been studies done that indicate on the average, a child that witnesses abuse are more violent and fearful and experience worry, depression, and other disturbing symptoms(Science Daily, 2010). These children live with continuous fear that another beating will happen, or that they will be left behind. These same children are at great risk of using alcohol or drugs; as well as having trouble in school.
    Children of domestic violence are either exceedingly introverted or exceptionally extroverted (Science Daily, 2010). These children will have psychosomatic problems, as well as developing behavior problems that include aggression and violent occurrences.
  • 16. Research Skills (cont.)
    The children may feel anger, guilt, and even a sense of responsibility for the violence, which can smother emotional and social development (Science Daily, 2010). Children need to grow into healthy adults, and when domestic violence happens this can remove the child’s confidence. Children that watch their mother be abused are deprived the kind of home life that promotes healthy development.
    The children that are exposed to domestic violence can have academic problems, depression, the feeling of not belonging anywhere; as well as low self-esteem, obsessive behaviors (Science Daily, 2010). The symptoms can carry over into adulthood with alcohol abuse, substance abuse, and violent practices in the home. We need to realize that domestic violence not only affects the spouse being abused but the child who witnesses this act.
    Even though the effects of seeing domestic violence seem to fade away with time, it can continue throughout adulthood. Some theories represent violence as power and control. Research reveals that boys who are witness to domestic violence are more probable to be batters as adults (Science Daily, 2007). The boys who watch their fathers abuse the mother are more liable to inflict dangerous violence on their partners. They will tell you that you do not need to wear makeup, only wear certain types of clothing, and jealous anytime you talk to guys that may even be your friends.
  • 17. Research Skills (cont.)
    When there is exposure to violence there are emotional consequences for the children. The children that see family violence have a connection to depression and negative character perception (Jaffe, Suderman, Geffner, 2000). The child learns that violence is an effective tool and a normal way to interact with others. When in school the child will play aggressively, act tough, and even cause fights. . School problems can include having difficulty learning, concentrating, and remembering the material they have been taught (Jaffe, Suderman, Geffner, 2000). No matter if violence is in the home or in the community, attitudes can demoralize a child’s adjustment to school and academic success by adding to negative identity opinion and issues with sadness and fear.
    The behavior issues that surface that result from exposure to violence can result from not having appropriate role models and trouble with emotion management skills. Violence in the family shows that aggressive conduct is a feasible problem solving option; and the physical violence in intimate relationships is normal.
    Even though there are different types of violence that children are exposed to, it can retain distinctive effects; among those children exposed to violence. Because a child’s response to violence can exist as common emotional or behavioral indicator, seeing violence may be overlooked as the core problem. The assessment of children needs to be consistently evaluated for both the family and community violence.
  • 18. Research Skills (cont.)
    When children are depressed it can be for a number of reasons, but the child that has encountered abuse will suffer depression before the age of five. The child that experiences any kind of abuse will suffer stress (Science Daily, 2010). The body has a stress hormone known as cortisol which helps our bodies to control stress. But when individuals suffer from constant and excess amounts of stress is can be very harmful to our health. So those children that have witnessed or been abused early on will have the cortisol level affected (Science Daily, 2010).
    The body’s stress response is regulated by cortisol and when there is stress such as domestic violence it changes to how the hormone is produce can lead to weakening the immune system, and will increase the fat storage in the stomach region and this is connected to cardiovascular disease and diabetes (Science Daily, 2010). These factors are all negative effects on the body’s health system.
    The child that was neglected later in life or those that had no ill-treatment did not have the high degree of depression compared to the child that was abused in the beginning to age five (Science Daily, 2010). The child that suffered abuse before the age of five had the abnormal level of the cortisol hormone made throughout the day; while other children appeared to be depressed or not illustrated a drop of the cortisol from early in the day to late afternoon (Science Daily, 2010). So what does this mean? It tells us that the body’s main system for adjusting to stress has conceded for those children that were not only abused but depressed in their young,
  • 19. Research Skills (cont.)
    life. This indicates that different levels of depression with different unusual adjustments happening were those among children that were abused before the age of five (Science Daily, 2010).
    This finding tells us that early abuse is damaging to the growth of emotion and stress structure; and this occurs as the brain is quickly maturing and depending on the parent for protection (Bailey, 2008). Because children are not able to distinguish when an abusive attack will happen, and the child becomes persistently stressed even when abuse is not taking place. This information indicates that it is important to provide preventive interference to children that have been abused.
    When we talk of the effects of domestic violence on any child, we must take note that both domestic and child abuse many times are existing in the same families. Also the child that lives in a household where domestic violence is happening is at a much higher chance of being sexually abused (Newton, 2001). When children witness or go through violent behavior at home the effects are different from one child to the next. The characteristics that offer a child the best chance of continuing to exist unharmed are the typical child that has higher intellectual development with good attention and interpersonal skills (Newton, 2001).
    Many times the child of domestic violence will become isolated and not have friends over
  • 20. Research Skills (cont.)
    because of their home life. In many cases, the performance at school is not pretentious but responding as overachievers (Newton, 2001). While some children isolate themselves from others there are other children who are the exact opposite and are extremely loud and overenthusiastic. It is common for a child to have mental or emotional problems associated with eating and sleeping patterns that are upset. These same children may develop problems in behavior, aggression, as well as violent explosions (Newton, 2001). Every child needs to become a healthy adult with confidence in themselves; and the children who experience domestic violence will leave them feeling shocked and low self-esteem.
    The problems with many of the studies that have been done are that many of the families are from low-income families. Poverty is a stressor and this is more than likely to affect parents which have no idea how to handle stress; and this is when the violence starts (Newton, 2001). The other issue with these studies indicates that most low-income families suffer from abuse, when this issue is one that affects all individuals and families.
    When we think of violence in adolescence and domestic violence they are believed to be two separate issues, but it has been shown that they are connected. There has been found to be no connection between the use of alcohol and drugs when domestic violence is involved (Science, 2007). It has been revealed that there are almost as many women as men were responsible for.
  • 21. Research Skills (cont).
    domestic violence within the year (Science, 2007). This included kicking, punching their spouse or partner, along with grabbing and pushing.
    The question we must ask is “Do children really heal from domestic violence?” The bruises may go away but the scars of fear, anger, and low self-esteem remain. The children that suffer from domestic violence have lifelong scars; while the feeling of embarrassment and frustration remain (Wiley-Blackwell, 2009). Domestic violence leaves such shame and confused feelings. We need to understand what the children are feeling and not overlook the support they really do
    need. We need to be able to identify and build upon their strengths. We need to be aware of that although these children receive counseling, is that really enough?
  • 22. Research Skills (cont.)
    Bailey, Susan (2008). The Psychiatrist The effects of domestic violence and sexual abuse on
    mental health. Retrieved March 5, 2011 from The Royal College of Psychiatrists 32:
    “Interparental Violence-Effects on Children.” International Encyclopedia of Marriage and
    Family. 2003. Retrieved March 4, 2011 from
    Jaffe, Peter G., Sudermann, Marlies, Geffner, Robert (2000). Emerging Issues for Children
    Exposed to Domestic Violence. Published in: Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment &
    Trauma, Volume 3, Issue 1April 2000, pages 1 – 7.
    Kitzmann, Katherine M., Gaylord, Noni K., Holt, Aimee R., and Kenny, Erin D (2003).
    Child Witnesses to Domestic Violence: A Meta-Analytic Review. Journal of Consulting
    and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 71, No. 2,339-352.
    Newton, C. J., MA (2001). “Domestic Violence: An Overview.” Retrieved March 5, 2011
    from Mental Health Journal in February 2001.
  • 23. Research Skills (cont.)
    References (cont.)
    Society for Research in Child Development (2010, February 7). Early abuse tied to more
    Depression in children. ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 5, 2011 from
    Stratton, Dorothy (2004). “The Effects of Intimate Partner Violence on Children.” Journal of
    Correctional Education. Retrieved March 5, 2011 from
    University of Washington (2007, June 26). Teenage Violence Linked To Later Domestic
    Violence. ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 5,
    Wiley-Blackwell (2009, October 6). Violent Upbringing May Lead To Domestic Violence.
    ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 5, 2011 from
  • 24. Communication Skills: Oral and Written
    Literature Review of Article Findings
    The Effects of Domestic Violence on Children: Depression, Violence, and consequences in later life involving domestic violence.
    I. Article: The effects of domestic violence and sexual abuse on mental health. Susan
    a. Summary: This article gives a glimpse of the Victims of Violence and
    Abuse Prevention Program (VVAPP), that the Department of Health and
    Home Office sponsored. The frequency of this particular type of violence
    and abuse is permanent and encumbers the lives of the victims. This guide
    helps the professionals to recognize and act in response to the individuals
    that experience sexual assaults, those forced in prostitution, trafficking for
    sex; and the individuals that are involved in this type of abuse (Bailey,
    2008). A conference was help for those that represented the mental health
    services and violence, and taught these individuals how to handle situations
    that helps with the outcome treatment. The VVAPP organization is
  • 25. Communication Skills: Oral and Written (cont.)
    Providing help lines and websites for victims of domestic violence (Bailey, 2008).
    This organization is raising the knowledge about these horrific crimes
    along with community reaction to domestic and sexual abuse.
    b. Strengths and Weaknesses: The program is being done to help improve
    the outcome of individuals that suffer this abuse. The strength of this article
    is the fact that so many professionals and organizations are using these
    guides to recognize the different types of abuse. The weakness may be
    trying out these guidelines in the practices. The issue that needs to be
    looked at is whether these methods can also be used for the child that
    needs mental health services from domestic and sexual abuse.
    II. Article: “Interparental Violence-Effects on Children.” International
    Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family. : Emerging Issues for Children
    Exposed to Domestic Violence. Peter G. Jaffee, MarliesSuderman,
    and Robert Geffner.
  • 26. Communication Skills: Oral and Written (cont.)
    a. Summary: It has been indicated that those children that see violence
    on a daily basis are more than likely to have behavioral problems
    (International Encyclopedia, 2003). It explains the meaning of
    exposure to violence and the occurrence and length the child
    sees abuse. Youth that are older show more external issues than those
    children that is younger. There is a great effect on parent and child
    relationship; the mothers are not as emotionally available to the child
    (International Encyclopedia, 2003). The long term effects of the
    children who are exposed to long term abuse will carry this into adult
    relationships (Jaffee, Suderman, Geffner, 2000). Because poverty plays a
    large role the parents are depressed, harsh, and distressed and this is a
    factor that leads to abuse (International Encyclopedia, 2003).
    b. Strengths and Weakness: The strength in this article shows that it used
    research on mixed cultures and not targeted on particular ethnicity. It also
    tells of how differences in cultural backgrounds plays a part in how abuse is seen.
  • 27. Communication Skills: Oral and Written (cont.)
    The weakness in this article is that short term studies were only done, and by doing long term studies the information provided may have had more merit.
    III. Article: Child Witnesses to Domestic Violence: A Meta-Analytic Review.
    Katherine Kitzmann, Noni K. Gaylord, Aimee R. Holt, and Erin D. Kenny.
    a. Summary: This study looked at psychosocial conclusion of children
    and interparental violence (Kitzmann, Gaylord, Holt, and Kenny, 2003).
    Group assessments demonstrated that children that witnessed violence
    to nonwitnesses were more verbally aggressive, and those that
    witnessed were no different than those physically abused. Future
    research is being done to account for all areas of abuse.
    b. Strengths and Weaknesses: The strength is that the research on
    child witnesses to domestic violence show that there is an association
    between psychological, emotional actions, and social problems (Kitzmann,
    Holt, and Kenny, 2003). There are sufficient effects on children and
    characteristics. The weakness is that all children that live in households
  • 28. Communication Skills: Oral and Written (cont.)
    that have mothers that experience interparental violence is exposed to
    violence as well, but not all is reported.
    IV. Article: “Domestic Violence: An Overview.” C. J. Newton.
    a. Summary: Domestic violence is not just a malicious argument, it is
    about chronic abuse. The abuser is a controller and uses physical
    violence many times as the end result. Women are more likely to
    encounter physical harm and develop psychological consequences
    (C. J. Newton, 2001). It also tells of the physicians attitudes and
    exercise toward the sufferer of domestic violence. Domestic violence
    has been a problem for centuries being either sexual or physical and
    it happens to both sexes.
    b. Strengths and Weaknesses: Women’s shelters are no holding
    groups and workshops for the abusers.Many of the agencies have
    funding to give temporary shelter for women being abused. Even
    though studies are done, domestic violence is too large to be measured
    by studies. Society looks at the cost of care that is needed to abuse
  • 29. Communication Skills: Oral and Written (cont.)
    victims, not what help is available. Along with the children, they will suffer into adulthood.
    V. Article: Early abuse tied to more Depression in Children. Science Daily.
    a. Summary: This article talks about depression in children early
    in life even before the age of five (Science Daily, 2010). There is
    data that shows that children who suffer abuse can have psychological
    damage due to early abuse.
    b. Strengths and Weaknesses: Because the brain is developing quickly
    in young children, they may be stressed and on the alert even
    when they are not being abused. The results show considerable
    suggestions that will help children that have been abused to
    get early protection involvement.
  • 30. Communication Skills: Oral and Written (cont.)
    IV. Article: “The Effects of Intimate Partner Violence on Children.” Dorothy
    a. Summary: This article tells of how experts are on the alertof
    partner violence. It tells of how adjustments are needed for
    children that see violence at home. The intervention needed for
    for children who witness violence. The result of treatment and
    legal issues that may occur.
    b. Strengths and Weaknesses: The issue with this article is the
    fact that many of the children selected were in shelters and they
    are not representatives of all children who are exposed to abuse?
    The other issue is that it is hard to tell what effect there is on children
    who have been abused from those who witness abuse? The article
    does back up those children who see parental violence will have
    damaging effects.
  • 31. Communication Skills: Oral and Written (cont.)
    VII. Article: Teenage Violence Linked to Later Domestic Violence. Science
    a. Summary: There are findings that support the fact that violent
    conduct has a connection linking teenage violence and domestic
    violence (Science Daily, 2007). Violent behavior that young
    people participate in are even more likely to be involved in
    domestic violence in early adulthood. It has been found that
    violent behavior when young and domestic violence are
    b. Strengths and Weaknesses: A good point to this article is
    domestic violence can be prevented when children are young
    by acknowledging the issue early. When prevention is done
    early, there is a good chance that the child will be prevented
    from becoming an abuser. The weak point was the fact that
    it was not clear how alcohol was not a large factor related to
    domestic violence as other studies have indicated.
  • 32. Communication Skills: Oral and Written (cont.)
    VIII. Article: Violent Upbringing May Lead to Domestic Violence. Wiley-
    a. Summary: A study that was done shows those individuals
    who were exposed to violence at a young age may have
    problems with healthy relationship and marital difficulties.
    The individual will experience feelings that will affect their
    relationships. The way couples communicate plays a factor
    in the possibility that domestic violence will occur.
    b. Strengths and Weaknesses: Domestic violence needs to
    be prevented in early childhood in the family setting and social
    settings. The one point that is not clear is the fact that the
    individual needs to get help for depression or any other
    emotional issue that has been harboring on the inside of the
  • 33. Communication Skills: Oral and Written (cont.)
    Bailey, Susan (2008). The Psychiatrist The effects of domestic violence and sexual abuse on
    mental health. Retrieved March 5, 2011 from The Royal College of Psychiatrists 32:
    “Interparental Violence-Effects on Children.” International Encyclopedia of Marriage and
    Family. 2003. Retrieved March 4, 2011 from
    Jaffe, Peter G., Sudermann, Marlies, Geffner, Robert (2000). Emerging Issues for Children
    Exposed to Domestic Violence. Published in: Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment &
    Trauma, Volume 3, Issue 1April 2000, pages 1 – 7.
    Kitzmann, Katherine M., Gaylord, Noni K., Holt, Aimee R., and Kenny, Erin D (2003).
    Child Witnesses to Domestic Violence: A Meta-Analytic Review. Journal of Consulting
    and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 71, No. 2,339-352.
  • 34. Communication Skills: Oral and Written (cont.)
    Newton, C. J., MA (2001). “Domestic Violence: An Overview.” Retrieved March 5, 2011
    from Mental Health Journal in February 2001.
    Society for Research in Child Development (2010, February 7). Early abuse tied to more
    Depression in children. ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 5, 2011 from
    Stratton, Dorothy (2004). “The Effects of Intimate Partner Violence on Children.” Journal of
    Correctional Education. Retrieved March 5, 2011 from
    University of Washington (2007, June 26). Teenage Violence Linked To Later Domestic
    Violence. ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 5,
    Wiley-Blackwell (2009, October 6). Violent Upbringing May Lead To Domestic Violence.
    ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 5, 2011 from
  • 35. Ethics and Diversity Awareness
    Gender and the Media
    The television series that I will address is Law and Order: Special Victims Unit. This show used both male and female as lead roles. But in the episode that allows a woman to be the hero, is Benson; she is the one who finds and arrests the man responsible for the rape and kidnapping of a small child; and finds the child as well (IMDB, 2005). This role is different from most of the episodes, Benson is usually the one who stays calm and does the reasoning. But in this episode her emotions get the best of her, and she is the one out to find this child and who the perpetrator is (IMDB, 2005).
    Olivia Benson is the kind of person that is able to relate to most people including the perpetrators. She portrays a woman of coolness and questioning nature toward these individuals. This character very seldom loss control or her professional distance, but in this episode her own past is brought into the character. She seeks justice toward the victim of rape, and in this case it was a child; and since she is a product of a rape she is able to empathize with the victim (IMDB, 2005). Here Benson is rather the advocate for the victim, as well as a police detective.
    The victim in this episode would be the child; with Olivia Benson, who is a tough detective that is empathetic; but with such dedication in finding the perpetrator her emotions plays a large part (IMBD, 2005).
  • 36. Ethics and Diversity Awareness (cont.)
    She sees her mother and herself in this victim. She keeps going back to the fact that her mother was raped and while undercover she was sexually assaulted. She allows her compassion for the victim to cloud her professional judgment and obstruct her ability to remain impartial.
    The role was a Mexican immigrant. The child’s parents needed money so they were willing to sell their child. Unfortunately, this is how many people see immigrants; they would rather sell their child or “even sell their soul to have money” (Argosy, 2011). The media has a large influence on how individuals see different races and ethnicity. There are individuals that have such hatred toward immigrants that hearing another story just makes them believe they are correct in their thinking.
    Most individuals will see those that are in the in-group in a positive light than those persons from the out group (APA, 2009). In our society, the media gives negative association with different races that connect them with hardship and crime. When these things are heard by those who consider themselves the in-group they build upon those negative feelings and beliefs about other races (APA, 2009).
    The best way that we can change the feelings is through in intergroup connection. Viewpoints are not just the way we think about a race, they are the way we feel about the group (APA, 2009). As a society we need to change the way we look at racism and our unconscious feelings.
  • 37. Ethics and Diversity Awareness (cont.)
    APA (2009). American Psychological Association. Race relations in a new age. Retrieved
    April 3, 2011 from Vol 40, No. 4 page 28
    Argosy (2011). On-Line Lecture. Stereotyping Impact on Society. Retrieved April 3, 2011
    Argosy (2011). On-Line Lecture. Stereotyping Impact on Society. Retrieved April 3, 2011
  • 38. Foundations of Psychology
    Gender Roles
    There is gender segregation and it is practically universal, it happens in every society. When children are young they begin to show a partiality for playing with children of their own sex. They communicate and friendly when they are playing with the friends of the same sex. Instead of playing with the opposite sex they will watch or play beside them rather than play together (APA, 2001). When children start school they very rarely spend time playing with the opposite sex, the will play in groups of boys and girls, but no just one-on-one.
    Gender segregation may happen because children will look for peers that play the same thing or even match themselves (APA, 2001). Most children like to play with other kids that are like them. Children begin to have ideas of what the opposite sex is usually like. They believe that boys like to fight and play rough and girls play with dolls and like to talk to each other. Children learn gender differences and who they would rather play with, and this becomes more separate (APA, 2001).
    Boys like to play more aggressive group games than girls do; girls will intermingle in small groups and would rather talk to their friends more often than play games (Kanazawa, 2008). Boys more likely to participate in action games while girls would choose games that let them talk. When children are at recess we may see the boys playing physical games with rules compared to girls (Kanazawa, 2008).
  • 39. Foundations of Psychology (cont.)
    Both boys and girls will divide into groups when there is outdoor play, and they each choose different kinds of games. Boys will play in more physical activity and competition then girls. Boys prefer to play outside for more space that their games involve; this is frequently the rough playing such as wrestling (Kanazawa, 2008). Girls will often play games that develop language and playtime is spent talking to one another. This type of game can be ones that imitate adults such as playing house or board games such as Mystery Date.
    Boys are competitive and aggressive and like to play games that have a winner or loser. Girls like the idea of there being no winner or losers because they can have fun and not feel the pressure of winning or losing. Boys do not like being on the bottom they want to always be on top. Being a winner makes you feel different and more confident. When there is a loser you feel bad and other children will associate you with losing and even call you a loser. In a game there are winner and losers, and there is no in between. The winner is the one that is always the one on top.
    Girls like to play games because they get to interact with their friends. Girl’s plays games that do not have winners or losers, and the main purpose the girls play games is to be with their friends and socialize. Boys play games such as basketball to win and be a leader. Boys play to win or lose and not become involved with the competitors. Girls play games that really do not have rules such as dolls, and like to play one-on-one. Girls concentrate more on what is fair instead of there being a winner or a loser.
  • 40. Foundations of Psychology (cont.)
    Children learn attitudes and behaviors in the home and they are strengthened by the peers, teachers, and media. But the strongest authority on gender role is the family setting, with parents passing on their own belief about gender. Children learn what it is to be male or female, by the way they dress, color, and the different toys.
    Parents treat their children differently because of their gender. The attitudes parents have toward their children have an impact on their development. The message tells the children what behavior is appropriate for their gender; and when faced with different experiences and opinions, they will go back to the stereotyped choices.
    A person’s gender role is made up of several different factors through their clothing, behavior, and other things. The gender roles were separated by feminine and masculine roles, although these roles have expanded into many different standards.
  • 41. Foundations of Psychology (cont.)
    American Psychological Association (2001). Time spent with peers influences gender-typed
    Behaviors in young children. Retrieved March 27, 2011 from July 2001, Vol 32, No. 6
    Kanazawa, Satoshi (2008). The Scientific Fundamentalist. A Look at the Hard Truths About
    Human Nature. Retrieved March 28, 2011 from
  • 42. Applied Psychology
    Biracial and Identifying with both Races
    The idea of arguing one race is better than the other is not easy. When an individual grows up in a biracial family many of the interactions are with other families that are biracial. Being biracial you may struggle with emotions, and different levels of prejudice (Chicago Tribune, 2008). Being biracial you may never fully develop a firm identity or even find a role model that will imitate who they are. In some social situations this will be that feeling of not belonging. Our society is not racially in agreement, each culture has their distinct personality (Chicago Tribune, 2008). A person that is biracial can identify with all sides of both races in a positive way. The important aspect of being biracial is the capability to keep an awareness of what each race offers. By having a ethnicity of two cultures it permits for a rare position held by biracial individuals to have more than just one identity concurrent (Chicago Tribune, 2008).
    The rise in using the race card is the problem of defining what prejudice is. Race does make a difference, and reasonably sets up the action of racial wrongs. Being biracial does not mean to put a label on the race. It is up to the individual to decide how they will identify themselves in the world. When the race card is played it is due to how the world identifies the individual. For centuries, biracial individual were not considered any race but mixed; even though they were not thought of as white (NPR, 2008). By using the race card it is as if they are saying “I am black or I am white,” and I need this to reinforce who I am.
  • 43. Applied Psychology (cont.)
    In many instances we all find ourselves guilty of telling a biracial individual how they
    should identify themselves; and this is when the race card comes into play showing that being
    Biracial or a mixed race does not make me talk or act different; eat foods that are not the same,
    and that they do not have social status (NPR, 2008). The racial card is just another way of telling the world who I am and that I have rights just as the white or black individual.
    President Obama may have used the race card in order to gain votes, by telling everyone he
    has a black father and white mother. This help him to play both sides and to let people think he
    was able to understand each person (NPR, 2008). He also played the race card telling us all that he is biracial some days and blacks the next. The president calls himself a black American but to white Americans he is a black man.
    Being biracial and identifying with one race can make a person feel they have an advantage for moving up in their place of work or climbing the ladder to a better position (Friedman, 2008). Another instance would be presenting themselves as black to fit in with the black group, because we all want to fit in. Many times biracial will present themselves as blacks when filling out questions about race, such as on an application. They found this would be beneficial, especially where there was a need for financial aid, getting into a college or university, or even scholarship applications (Friedman, 2008).
  • 44. Applied Psychology (cont.)
    The disadvantage of identifying with one race is the fact that you are not seen as just one race, you are multiracial (Schwartz, 2005). By not seeing yourself as both white and black you are not embracing the heritage that both of the parents gave you. Even though friends may be of white or black race you are never seen as just one or the other; a biracial individual will always be seen as biracial (Schwartz, 2005).
  • 45. Applied Psychology (cont.)
    Chicago Tribune (2008). Are you ‘biracial’ or ‘black with a white mom?’ Retrieved
    April 10, 2011 from
    Friedman, Emily (2008). Is Being Biracial and Advantage for Obama. Retrieved April11, 2011 from &
    NPR (2008). Obama And The Politics Of Being Biracial. Retrieved April 10, 2011 from
    Schwartz, Wendy (2005). The Identity Development of Multiracial Youth. Retrieved
    April 11, 2011 from ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education New York NY, ERIC
    Identifier: ED425248
  • 46. Interpersonal Effectiveness
    Domestic violence is a social problem that touches every part of the population. We now are seeing that attention is being focused on children that eyewitness domestic violence. The children that are exposed to domestic violence are at risk of experiencing abuse or even mistreatment. Besides the child witnessing abusive behavior, many times the children are oppressed by intimidation or bullying to keep silent about abuse, keeping the secret in the family.
    Children that have seen domestic violence over and over can experience symptoms of depression and low self-esteem. The children that see domestic violence uncover a large difference in the way they respond to violence. We need to show that the person responsible for domestic violence was abused as a child and are more than likely to harm their children.
    What I know about domestic violence and children is from my own experience. My father abused my mother; and when he was a child he himself witnessed his father abusing his mother. My children have seen my ex-husband abuse myself and I am now seeing in my boys the anger and how they deal with some situations. This topic has much meaning to me and how I am better able to help my children as well as other children I may encounter in becoming a therapist.
  • 47. My Future in Learning
    When we hear the words lifelong learner, it means just that. That we learn
    through life by watching, reading, and talking. It is never too late to learn and
    being open to new concepts, choices, and abilities. Lifelong learning gives each
    one the opportunity to learn new things every day. For every individual it can
    mean something different; but for me it is the knowledge that I have gained in
    my daily life. As I have realized that growth is not from an expert opinion but as
    a person. It is the constant development of oneself. Being a lifelong learner
    does not mean that you attend college all your life or being the one to always
    ask the questions. It is our attitude to be a continuous and lifelong learner.
  • 48. Thank you for viewing my ePortfolio.
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