1. U. S. HISTORY:
In-text Citations and NoodleTools Review
3. QUICK REVIEW OF PLAGIARISM:
Plagiarism is using someone else’s words or ideas as your
own without giving credit to that person.
3 Steps to Avoid Plagiarism:
Step 1 - Take good bulleted notes in your own words; no
Step 2 – Paraphrase your notes. Since your notes are in
your own words, you are putting your notes back into
complete sentences. This step is easy once you have
notes in your own words.
Step 3 – Cite your sources.
4. JUST TO CLARIFY:
Step 3: Citing Sources:
There are two ways to cite your sources:
Bibliography or Works Cited - at the end of
your project. This is always required!
In-text citations - within the text of your
paper. You would add this feature when you
write a paper.
5. WHAT IS AN IN-TEXT CITATION?
An in-text citation is a reference within the
body of your paper to one of the sources
listed in your Works Cited list. It indicates to
your reader exactly what part of your paper
came from the source, and specifically where
they can find it in the original source. You
need to write an in-text citation, whether you
quote the material directly from the source,
paraphrase it in your own words, or refer to
an idea derived from the source.
**Any material that is copied directly (quoted)
must have BOTH quotation marks AND an in-
text citation immediately following.
6. IN-TEXT CITATIONS
Using In-text Citations means citing sources within the body of your paper.
The purpose of an In-text Citation is to indicate specifically which
information came from which source.
Each In-text citation should refer clearly to one of the items in the Works
Cited list at the end of your paper.
In the Middle School, we ask that you have at least one in-text citation per
BUT you MUST have an in-text citation after EACH direct quote.
You will call your list of sources “Works Cited” instead of “Bibliography.”
What do in-text citations look like?
Banks failed, businesses closed, and, at the height of the depression in 1933,
one-fourth of Americans were without jobs (Press 17).
What does the in-text citation above mean?
It means that the sentence before it is a paraphrase of information
found on page 17 of this source listed in the Works Cited:
Press, Petra. Through the Decades: The 1930s. San Diego: Lucent Books, 1999.
What if I use a quote instead of paraphrasing?
Then it would look like this:
“NO JOBS in California. If YOU are looking for work – KEEP OUT. 6 Men
for every job. No state relief available for non-residents” (Cooper 8).
9. MORE FAQS:
What if the source is a website and doesn’t have page
Then it would look like this:
Conditions began to improve in the mid-30s, but total recovery was not
accomplished until the end of the decade (Romer n. pag.).
And match this source in your Works Cited:
Romer, Christina D. “Great Depression.” Encyclopaedia Britannica
Online. 2011 ed. Web. 14 Feb. 2011.
10. EVEN MORE FAQS:
What if I use information from 2 or more pages in the same
Then your paragraph might look like this:
Years of excessive heat, a shortage of rain, and over-farming caused the Dust
Bowl disaster (Cooper 12). The people of the mid-West had to suffer both an
economic depression and dust, which they could not escape (Cooper 23). Many
refugees from the prairie states headed to California to try to earn a living, but
California did not want them. A billboard near Tulsa, Oklahoma warned: “NO
JOBS in California. If YOU are looking for work – KEEP OUT. 6 Men for every
job. No state relief available for non-residents” (Cooper 8).
11. STILL MORE FAQS:
What if two of the sources in my Works Cited have the same “first
word” or author name?
"Constitution." U*X*L Encyclopedia of U.S. History. Sonia Benson, Daniel E. Brannen,
Jr., and Rebecca Valentine. Ed. Lawrence W. Baker and Sarah Hermsen. Vol.
2. Detroit: UXL, 2009. 381-385. Gale Virtual Reference
Library. Web. 18 Oct. 2011.
"Constitution." Britannica Online School Edition. Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. , 2014.
Web. 19 Oct. 2011.
Then your in-text citations would look like this:
(Constitution, UXL 382)
(Constitution, Britannica n.pag.)