Verbal behavior introduction

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  • 1. Introduction to Verbal Behavior Dr. Renee M. Terrasi
  • 2. ABA Confusion
    • We learned in Module 2 about the principles of ABA but many people believe that ABA is an exact intervention. This is NOT true!
    • If the principles of behavior analysis are being applied then its….ABA. However, these principles can be applied differently.
    Dr. Renee M. Terrasi
  • 3. Analogy
    • If two people have heart problems they both would “probably” be advised by a cardiologist to engage in a cardiovascular activity.
    • One may choose to run, while the other may choose to ride a bike.
    • BOTH are cardiovascular activities!
    Dr. Renee M. Terrasi
  • 4. Cardiovascular exercise can be performed in different formats……similar to ABA!
    • Cardiovascular Exercise
        • Running
        • Biking
        • Swimming
    • Ect….
    • ABA
        • Verbal Behavior
        • Discrete Trial ( Lovaas Approach )
    • Ect….
    Dr. Renee M. Terrasi
  • 5.
    • Verbal Behavior Approach
    • Teaching is done both in formal/table settings and in the natural environment.
    • The function of inappropriate behaviors is determined through functional analysis, with interventions chosen to target the function of behavior. Special attention is paid to the MO/EO (motivation) of the student and how that can be manipulated to both decrease the value of escape and stim and to teach functional replacement behaviors.
    • Students are "eased" into instruction, since teachers devote time to pairing themselves with reinforcement, gradually interjecting more demands into the situation.
    • Most teaching is initially done in the natural environment, with table time gradually introduced.
    • Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT)
    • Teaching is done mainly in formal/table settings and generalized to other environments.
    • Inappropriate behaviors are also often addressed with interventions based on functional assessment and are directly targeted through extinction and other correction procedures. However, attention is not necessarily paid to the matching law and its role in undesired behavior.
    • Students are sometimes worked through an "extinction burst" during the onset of instruction, when they are escalating escape behaviors prior to learning the contingencies of the teaching situation.
    • Much teaching is done at the table, with time in the natural environment more limited or sometimes used as "breaks" from instruction.
    Dr. Renee M. Terrasi
  • 6.
    • The next slide outlines more ways the two approaches are different. You will understand the terminology much more after the next couple of modules.
    Dr. Renee M. Terrasi
  • 7.
    • Verbal Behavior
    • Manding is a major focus of instruction and capturing and contriving MOs/EOs, both in formal and natural settings, sets the stage for teaching opportunities. Language is first taught through mands and echoics.
    • Teachers generally use errorless learning procedures to increase rate of reinforcement, decrease value of escape, and indirectly eliminate inappropriate behavior. Quick prompting, fading, and transfer procedures result in low or no rates of student errors, as well as fluent responding and lack of prompt dependence; most-to-least prompting.
    • Teaching is a moment-to-moment enterprise, so teachers are required to identify and contrive teaching opportunities "on the fly," drawing from a knowledge of the science. This results in a dynamic form of teaching that is constantly shaped by the student, the environment, and the teachers' skills and creativity.
    • Skinner's (1957) functional analysis of language guides language instruction.Language
    • Lovaas Method
    • Manding is sometimes considered an advanced language program and is not initially addressed. Language is first taught through verbal imitation.
    • Teachers sometimes (though not always) use a "no-no-prompt" procedure in which the student is given opportunities to respond (and potentially to make several errors) before prompts are delivered, often resulting in increased student errors and escape behaviors; least-to-most prompting. However, errorless learning procedures are also used in some cases.Instructional targets are mixed from the outset, teaching various functions and classes of operants and skills simultaneously.
    • The sequence of instruction often progresses from mass trialing (isolation) of one target to introduction of one or more distracters, to random rotation; skills are generally taught separately.
    • Instruction is not necessarily guided by Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior.
    Dr. Renee M. Terrasi
  • 8.
    • At Peace by Piece we use the Verbal Behavior Approach!
    Dr. Renee M. Terrasi
  • 9. Applied Verbal Behavior (AVB)
    • In Verbal Behavior, Skinner outlined his analysis
    • of VB, which describes a group of verbal operants, or functional units of language.
    • Skinner explained that language could be analyzed into a set of functional units, with each type of operant serving a different
    • function.
    • AVB is ABA with a focus on Skinner's analysis of
    • verbal behavior; it is the application of the science of behavior analysis to teaching verbal behavior.
    Dr. Renee M. Terrasi
  • 10. Verbal Operants
    • Echoic
    • Mand
    • Tact
    • FFC’s
    • Intraverbal
    • Motor Imitation
    • Receptive
    Dr. Renee M. Terrasi
  • 11. THE MAND “ The Reason We Bother to Talk at All”
    • Skinner says MAND; root word derived from “command, demand, reprimand”.
    • A mand is a REQUEST; what the learner wants at the moment he wants it!
    Dr. Renee M. Terrasi
  • 12. Functional Categories of Language Dr. Renee M. Terrasi
  • 13. Functional Categories of Language Dr. Renee M. Terrasi
  • 14. Functional Categories of Language
    • Tact (contact)- naming something that is present.
    • Examples:
    • Child: looking at the road, pointing and saying “car”.
    • Instructor: (holding up a blue crayon) “What color is this?
    • Child: “Blue”
    • * The item MUST be present!
    Dr. Renee M. Terrasi
  • 15. Functional Categories of Language Dr. Renee M. Terrasi
  • 16. Functional Categories of Language Dr. Renee M. Terrasi
  • 17. Functional Categories of Language Dr. Renee M. Terrasi