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Applied Behavior Analysis<br />Dr. Terrasi 2010<br />1<br />
ABA as the treatment of choice<br />Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is the<br />only scientifically validated treatment fo...
Applied Behavior Analysis(ABA)<br />				     Definition<br />	“Applied behavior analysis is the science<br />	in which pro...
Basic Principles of ABA<br />Behavior is defined in objective and measurable terms<br />Examines the functional relationsh...
The next slide provides examples of the three term contingency. <br />Note  how  significant MOTIVATION is!<br />5<br />Dr...
          Three Term Contingency<br />Antecedent--      Behavior—            Consequences<br />“Touch nose”- Child touches...
You use the principles ofABA all day long!<br />	ABA is used to:<br />Increase positive behaviors such as language, manner...
$1000 Activity<br />Think of a child you know with challenging behaviors:<br />If I gave you $1000 for that child to have ...
Pick one or two targetbehaviors<br />    Select the target behavior to be reduced by examining…<br />		a. The seriousness ...
Define Setting Event<br />Aspects of a person’s environment or daily routine that do<br />not necessarily occur immediatel...
Immediate Antecedents<br />What triggered the behavior?<br />What happened IMMEDIATELY before the problem behavior started...
Using the principles ofABA to reduce problembehavior<br />Be SPECIFIC when you define the target behavior!<br /> Not Speci...
The C= Consequences<br />Reinforcement<br />- A consequence that results in increasing or maintaining the future rate of t...
Consequences<br />Any behavior that occurs repeatedly is serving<br />some useful function and producing some type<br />of...
Consequences<br />    After a behavior has occurred <br />   the environment can change in <br />   several ways:<br />15<...
Consequences<br />   1. A neutral event can happen: if nothing<br />       happens that is relevant, the consequence will<...
Things Get Better:Reinforcement<br />    Reinforcement is a change in the environment following a behavior that increases ...
Things Get Worse:Punishment<br />When things get worse following a behavior, the<br />behavior is less likely to occur in ...
Remember<br />Reinforcement (even negative reinforcement) increases behavior so Reinforce behaviors you WANT!<br />Punishm...
Is Time Out a Reinforcement or a Punishment?		<br />Need to look whether time out is increasing or decreasing the frequenc...
 ABC Data	 <br />    Without taking baseline data to identify the Antecedent, Behavior and Consequence (Module One), it is...
Functions of ProblemBehavior<br />To obtain something desirable such as: Attention, Tangibles, Sensory Stimulation.<br />T...
Functions of ProblemBehavior<br />To obtain something desirable such as: Attention, Tangibles, Sensory Stimulation.<br />T...
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Applied behavior analysis

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Transcript of "Applied behavior analysis"

  1. 1. Applied Behavior Analysis<br />Dr. Terrasi 2010<br />1<br />
  2. 2. ABA as the treatment of choice<br />Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is the<br />only scientifically validated treatment for<br />autism and is recommended by the U.S.<br />Surgeon General.<br />2<br />Dr. Terrasi 2010<br />
  3. 3. Applied Behavior Analysis(ABA)<br /> Definition<br /> “Applied behavior analysis is the science<br /> in which procedures derived from the<br /> principles of behavior are systematically<br /> applied to improve socially significant<br /> behavior.”<br /> (Cooper, Heron, and Heward)<br />3<br />Dr. Terrasi 2010<br />
  4. 4. Basic Principles of ABA<br />Behavior is defined in objective and measurable terms<br />Examines the functional relationship between behavior and its controlling<br /> variables<br />Analyzes socially significant behavior in need of improvement<br />Analyzes behavior through a three term contingency (Module 1)<br />4<br />Dr. Terrasi 2010<br />
  5. 5. The next slide provides examples of the three term contingency. <br />Note how significant MOTIVATION is!<br />5<br />Dr. Terrasi 2010<br />
  6. 6. Three Term Contingency<br />Antecedent-- Behavior— Consequences<br />“Touch nose”- Child touches nose- receives piece of cookie<br />“Do Puzzle”- Child falls to floor- Demand withdrawn<br />6<br />Dr. Terrasi 2010<br />
  7. 7. You use the principles ofABA all day long!<br /> ABA is used to:<br />Increase positive behaviors such as language, manners, self care and academic skills.<br /> 2. Decrease negative behaviors such as tantrums, biting, kicking and crying.<br />7<br />Dr. Terrasi 2010<br />
  8. 8. $1000 Activity<br />Think of a child you know with challenging behaviors:<br />If I gave you $1000 for that child to have a “good day” with little to no problem behavior, what would you do?<br />8<br />Dr. Terrasi 2010<br />
  9. 9. Pick one or two targetbehaviors<br /> Select the target behavior to be reduced by examining…<br /> a. The seriousness of the behavior…target behaviors that are self injurious or could injure others before….behaviors such as eye contact or not paying attention.<br /> b. The frequency of the behavior<br />9<br />Dr. Terrasi 2010<br />
  10. 10. Define Setting Event<br />Aspects of a person’s environment or daily routine that do<br />not necessarily occur immediately before the behavior.<br /> – Medication Change<br /> – Medical problems (bladder infection, rash, sick)<br /> – Sleep problems<br /> – Number of people in room<br /> – Daily schedule<br /> -how predictable<br /> -how much choice does the child have<br />10<br />Dr. Terrasi 2010<br />
  11. 11. Immediate Antecedents<br />What triggered the behavior?<br />What happened IMMEDIATELY before the problem behavior started?<br /> - told child no<br /> - desired activity was terminated<br />11<br />Dr. Terrasi 2010<br />
  12. 12. Using the principles ofABA to reduce problembehavior<br />Be SPECIFIC when you define the target behavior!<br /> Not SpecificSpecific<br /> Kicks Kicks feet against the chair.<br /> Irritable Bites his forearm.<br /> Frustrated Hits his head with his fist.<br />12<br />Dr. Terrasi 2010<br />
  13. 13. The C= Consequences<br />Reinforcement<br />- A consequence that results in increasing or maintaining the future rate of the behavior it follows.<br />Punishment<br />- A consequence that results in decreasing the future rate of the behavior it follows.<br />13<br />Dr. Terrasi 2010<br />
  14. 14. Consequences<br />Any behavior that occurs repeatedly is serving<br />some useful function and producing some type<br />of reinforcement!<br />14<br />Dr. Terrasi 2010<br />
  15. 15. Consequences<br /> After a behavior has occurred <br /> the environment can change in <br /> several ways:<br />15<br />Dr. Terrasi 2010<br />
  16. 16. Consequences<br /> 1. A neutral event can happen: if nothing<br /> happens that is relevant, the consequence will<br />likely have no effect on the behavior.<br /> 2. Things can get better: if things get better, the<br /> behavior will likely occur again under similar<br /> conditions. This is called reinforcement.<br /> 3. Things can get worse: if things get worse, the<br /> behavior will likely not occur again under<br /> similar conditions. This is called punishment.<br />16<br />Dr. Terrasi 2010<br />
  17. 17. Things Get Better:Reinforcement<br /> Reinforcement is a change in the environment following a behavior that increases the future probability of that behavior under similar<br /> circumstances.<br />17<br />Dr. Terrasi 2010<br />
  18. 18. Things Get Worse:Punishment<br />When things get worse following a behavior, the<br />behavior is less likely to occur in the future<br />under similar circumstances. This is punishment.<br />18<br />Dr. Terrasi 2010<br />
  19. 19. Remember<br />Reinforcement (even negative reinforcement) increases behavior so Reinforce behaviors you WANT!<br />Punishment decreases the likelihood of behavior so Punish behaviors you DON’T WANT!<br />19<br />Dr. Terrasi 2010<br />
  20. 20. Is Time Out a Reinforcement or a Punishment? <br />Need to look whether time out is increasing or decreasing the frequency of the target behavior.<br />Most people think Time Out is a punisher but it functions as a reinforcement for many children.<br />20<br />Dr. Terrasi 2010<br />
  21. 21. ABC Data <br /> Without taking baseline data to identify the Antecedent, Behavior and Consequence (Module One), it isn’t wise to implement a behavior reduction program.<br />21<br />Dr. Terrasi 2010<br />
  22. 22. Functions of ProblemBehavior<br />To obtain something desirable such as: Attention, Tangibles, Sensory Stimulation.<br />To avoid or escape something undesirable such as Task avoidance.<br />22<br />Dr. Terrasi 2010<br />
  23. 23. Functions of ProblemBehavior<br />To obtain something desirable such as: Attention, Tangibles, Sensory Stimulation.<br />To avoid or escape something undesirable such as Task avoidance.<br />23<br />Dr. Terrasi 2010<br />
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