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The spatial shift of the Cretan ecumene during the 2nd millenium BC
The spatial shift of the Cretan ecumene during the 2nd millenium BC
The spatial shift of the Cretan ecumene during the 2nd millenium BC
The spatial shift of the Cretan ecumene during the 2nd millenium BC
The spatial shift of the Cretan ecumene during the 2nd millenium BC
The spatial shift of the Cretan ecumene during the 2nd millenium BC
The spatial shift of the Cretan ecumene during the 2nd millenium BC
The spatial shift of the Cretan ecumene during the 2nd millenium BC
The spatial shift of the Cretan ecumene during the 2nd millenium BC
The spatial shift of the Cretan ecumene during the 2nd millenium BC
The spatial shift of the Cretan ecumene during the 2nd millenium BC
The spatial shift of the Cretan ecumene during the 2nd millenium BC
The spatial shift of the Cretan ecumene during the 2nd millenium BC
The spatial shift of the Cretan ecumene during the 2nd millenium BC
The spatial shift of the Cretan ecumene during the 2nd millenium BC
The spatial shift of the Cretan ecumene during the 2nd millenium BC
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The spatial shift of the Cretan ecumene during the 2nd millenium BC

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This presentation focuses on the Bronze Age landscape evolution of Central Crete, which was investigated on the basis of a geoarchaelogical research design. A multi-method approach using geophysics, …

This presentation focuses on the Bronze Age landscape evolution of Central Crete, which was investigated on the basis of a geoarchaelogical research design. A multi-method approach using geophysics, sedimentological analyses, terrestrial laser scanning, GIS and 3D visualization software was applied. According to the findings, human-environmental interactions such as extensive clearing, soil erosion and climate change led to the complete degradation of the mountains of Crete. Until today, the region was never colonized again due to unfavorable environmental conditions. In contrast to the current conditions, Central Crete experienced an era of bloom during the 2nd millenium BC that allowed people to settle and cultivate this remote landscape. A first-time visualization of the former landscape gives insight into this significant transition, which occurred at the end of the Minoan period around 1200 BC.

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  • 1. Les Journées des Jeunes Géomorphologues, Avignon, February 2011Christoph Siart 1, Matthieu Ghilardi 2, Markus Forbriger 1 , Olaf Bubenzer 1 The spatial shift of the Cretan ecumene  during the 2nd millennium BC:  climate, social upheaval or both? 1 Geographical Institute – University of Heidelberg, Germany 2 CEREGE/CNRS – Aix‐en‐Provence, France
  • 2. Les Journées des Jeunes Géomorphologues, Avignon, February 2011Siart et al.: The spatial shift of the Cretan ecumene during the 2nd millennium BC Objectives • reconstructing the Holocene environmental change in Crete • natural impact on ancient cultures? • human impact and landuse?  investigation of karst depressions (geoarchives) Methods • terrestrial laserscanning (TLS), remote sensing & GIS • geophysical prospection (ERT) & percussion drilling • sedimentological analysis & datings • mineralogical provenance (XRD, SEM‐EDX, EPMA etc.) • 3D visualisation
  • 3. Les Journées des Jeunes Géomorphologues, Avignon, February 2011Siart et al.: The spatial shift of the Cretan ecumene during the 2nd millennium BC Case studies A)  Zominthos (~ 1650 BC, Minoan period)
  • 4. Les Journées des Jeunes Géomorphologues, Avignon, February 2011Siart et al.: The spatial shift of the Cretan ecumene during the 2nd millennium BCZominthos: Electrical resistivity tomography ‐ off‐site studies subsurface karst relief
  • 5. Les Journées des Jeunes Géomorphologues, Avignon, February 2011Siart et al.: The spatial shift of the Cretan ecumene during the 2nd millennium BCZominthos: ERT on‐site studies subsurface archaeological remains
  • 6. Les Journées des Jeunes Géomorphologues, Avignon, February 2011Siart et al.: The spatial shift of the Cretan ecumene during the 2nd millennium BCZominthos: Subsurface karst relief modeltransferring geophysics into 3D Data: ER‐ & SR tomographies 1.5 m high resolution DEM Hydrologic analysis ‐ ArcGIS Quickbird MS pansharpened
  • 7. Les Journées des Jeunes Géomorphologues, Avignon, February 2011Siart et al.: The spatial shift of the Cretan ecumene during the 2nd millennium BCZominthos: Sedimentological investigations AMS 14C datings: palaeosoils ~2900 BC Santorini ash in depths of 10 m b.s (~ 1620 BC)  geomorphodynamic activity only since  CPX Late Minoan / Subboreal (1600 BC)  massive erosion and colluviation OPX  complete degradation in only a few centuries OPX  &  glass
  • 8. Les Journées des Jeunes Géomorphologues, Avignon, February 2011Siart et al.: The spatial shift of the Cretan ecumene during the 2nd millennium BCClimate change in the Eastern Mediterranean
  • 9. Les Journées des Jeunes Géomorphologues, Avignon, February 2011Siart et al.: The spatial shift of the Cretan ecumene during the 2nd millennium BC Case studies B)   Lato (~ 1400 / 800 BC, Mycenean / Dorian period)
  • 10. Les Journées des Jeunes Géomorphologues, Avignon, February 2011Siart et al.: The spatial shift of the Cretan ecumene during the 2nd millennium BC Lato: ERT off‐site studies subsurface karst relief superficial high resistivities (colluvium, footslope deposits) fine‐grained,  unconsolidated sediment transition zone high basal resistivities (limestone detritus mixed  (limestone bedrock) with loose material)  thick fill with loamy sediment (~ 25m), conical subsurface relief with  dip towards doline center, bedrock in depths of approx. 20‐25 m
  • 11. Les Journées des Jeunes Géomorphologues, Avignon, February 2011Siart et al.: The spatial shift of the Cretan ecumene during the 2nd millennium BC Lato: ERT on‐site studies subsurface archaeological remains heterogeneous surface caused by anthropogenic perturbation archaeological finds? fine‐grained, unconsolidated  sediment below 2.5 m, no structures identified
  • 12. Les Journées des Jeunes Géomorphologues, Avignon, February 2011Siart et al.: The spatial shift of the Cretan ecumene during the 2nd millennium BC Lato: ERT‐TLS on‐site studies the morphological context spring  S R recent surface drainage A (active gully) ancient drainage channel or water harvesting system (subsurface structures)
  • 13. Les Journées des Jeunes Géomorphologues, Avignon, February 2011Siart et al.: The spatial shift of the Cretan ecumene during the 2nd millennium BCThe Cretan mountains todaylandscape degradation and climate alteration
  • 14. Les Journées des Jeunes Géomorphologues, Avignon, February 2011Siart et al.: The spatial shift of the Cretan ecumene during the 2nd millennium BCThe Cretan mountains BC3D visualisation of the ancient landscape
  • 15. Les Journées des Jeunes Géomorphologues, Avignon, February 2011Siart et al.: The spatial shift of the Cretan ecumene during the 2nd millennium BC General conclusions •dolines and poljes as favorable sites for land use since Bronze  Age (water supply, agriculture, etc.) • karst depressions as promising palaeoenvironmental archives  •vast colluviation & decameters of infills since Bronze‐Age as a  result of land degradation and climatic change •water supply, the primary settlement determinant, displays  profound dependency on climatic conditions and changes •neo determinism: man‐environment interactions led to spatial  shift of the ecumene  multi‐causal approach
  • 16. Les Journées des Jeunes Géomorphologues, Avignon, February 2011Siart et al.: The spatial shift of the Cretan ecumene during the 2nd millennium BC Thank you for your attention, merci beaucoup pour votre attention!

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