Using Semantics to Improve Corporate Online Communities
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Using Semantics to Improve Corporate Online Communities

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Invite talk at the COIN@MALLOW 2009 Workshop - http://www.cs.bath.ac.uk/coin-at-mallow-2009/

Invite talk at the COIN@MALLOW 2009 Workshop - http://www.cs.bath.ac.uk/coin-at-mallow-2009/

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Using Semantics to Improve Corporate Online Communities Using Semantics to Improve Corporate Online Communities Presentation Transcript

  • Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Using Semantics to Improve Corporate Online Communities Alexandre Passant Digital Enterprise Research Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway COIN@MALLOW - Invited Talk 09/11/2009, Torino, Italy © Copyright 2009 Digital Enterprise Research Institute. All rights reserved.
  • Introduction Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie   Postdoctoral researcher at DERI, NUIG   Since September 2008   Research interests   Social Web and Semantic Web   Especially the combination of both   Ph.D. from Université Paris-Sorbonne   Semantic Web technologies for Enterprise 2.0   Industrial collaboration with EDF R&D   The following talk is mainly based on my Ph.D. thesis and its viva presentation   More at http://apassant.net 2 of XYZ
  • Agenda Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie   Enterprise 2.0 and corporate online communities   Tools, applications and social implications   Technical issues with Enterprise 2.0 ecosystems   Using semantics to improve Enterprise 2.0   SemSLATES: A social semantic middleware architecture   Socio-structural metadata   Collaborative ontology population   Semantic tagging   Building new applications   Questions and discussion 3 of XYZ
  • Enterprise 2.0 Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie   Enterprise 2.0 is the use of emergent social software platforms within companies, or between companies and their partners or customers   [McAfee, 2006]   Introduction of well-known services and practices such as blogs, wikis, RSS feeds, tagging in the professional sphere   Serious usages of Web 2.0 applications   A new Information Ecology   [Davenport & Prusak, 1997]   Users and online communities are as important (sometimes more) than the IT components of such ecosystems
  • The SLATES acronym Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie   Search   Mainly plain-text or tag-based   Links   Internal and external   Authoring   Simple user-interfaces (e.g. wiki syntax)   Tags   User-driven annotation   Extensions   Suggesting relevant content   Signals   RSS feeds, microblogging, etc.
  • Social aspects of Enterprise 2.0 Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie   New paradigms with regards to knowledge sharing and communication patterns in organisations   E.g. Anyone can edit / remove content from a senior researcher in a wiki or publicly disagree with him by commenting a blog post   Social aspects are as important as the technical ones   Breaking the “Knowledge = Power” schema   “Enterprise 2.0 is a philosophy”   Success depends on a company’s background   A study by AIIM showed that 41% of companies do not have a clear understanding of what Enterprise 2.0 is while this percentage goes down to 15% in KM-oriented ones
  • Technical issues of Enterprise 2.0 Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie   Based on our experience within an Enterprise 2.0 platform deployed at EDF R&D   Information fragmentation   Knowledge modelling and re-use   Tagging issues   Some of these issues are not new per se   But Enterprise 2.0 strengthens them by providing more and more data, voluntary published by end-users   Enterprise 2.0 eases the process of collaboratively publishing information thanks to and within corporate online communities   But efficiently exploiting it is a complex issue
  • Information fragmentation Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie   Heterogeneity of people, community, services, needs and practices leads to various services and applications being deployed in organisations   Generally using different APIs, databases structure, etc.   Information is fragmented over the company’s network   E.g. description of a project in a wiki, latest news in blog posts, partners news in RSS feeds, etc.   Getting the global picture of a given object (people, project, etc.) is difficult   Moreover, data integration is a costly task due to heterogeneity issues
  • Knowledge modelling and re-use Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie   Most of Enterprise 2.0 applications acts as independent and closed-world data silos and provide only plain-text information   Information is not interoperable   Information is limited to human consumption   Complex queries cannot be answered, even when the information exists !   List all French companies involved in sustainable energies   How many institutes are part of project X   List the latest 10 blog posts written by Bob dealing with a research institute working on Web-based technologies
  • Tagging issues Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie   Tag ambiguity   apple: fruit, computer brand, or record label ?   Tag heterogeneity   Semanticweb, semweb, web_semantique, etc.   Lack of organisation   No links between the tags SPARQL and RDF, while there is obviously a link between the two domains   Leads to various issues when searching for information   Noise: content not corresponding to the expected topic   Silence: non-identified content as searched for using a different keyword
  • Tagging and expertise Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie   Expertise level in corporate online communities   Based on their individual experience and background, people have different ways to approach a domain and tag related content (basic level [Takana & Taylor, 1991])   Use-case at EDF R&D   194 items tagged with “TF” (= Thin Film, a particular kind of solar cell) –  Only 1% of them tagged with “solar” ! –  < 0.5% of “solar” items tagged “TF” –  Clustering algorithms cannot be efficiently applied   Another issue when searching for tagged content   Valuable information (written and tagged by domain experts) gets lost as non-expert cannot access it
  • SemSLATES Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie   The SemSLATES methodology   A social semantic middleware architecture for Enterprise 2.0 dedicated to solving the previous issues and bringing additional and innovative services to end-users   Middleware   Add-ons to existing Enterprise 2.0 ecosystems, do not require to rebuild the complete architecture   Semantic   Based on Semantic Web technologies [Berners-Lee et al., 2001]   Social   Online communities play a core role in producing and using structured knowledge
  • The Semantic Web Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  • SemSLATES overview Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Browsing and querying interfaces Semantic mediation architecture (Ontologies, semantic annotations) Enterprise 2.0 information system
  • Different layers of annotations Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Socio-structural Ontology population Ontologies Semantic indexing meta-data Energy Company located in Country Ontologies and Semantic annotations is a is a produces EDF located in France has topic Blog post has link Wiki page 2 has author is part of AP Wiki A Enterprise 2.0 ecosystem hyperlink Blog post creates Wiki page 2 contains has tag EDF Wiki A
  • Socio-structural metadata Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Socio-structural Ontology population Ontologies Semantic indexing meta-data Energy Company located in Country Ontologies and Semantic annotations is a is a produces EDF located in France has topic Blog post has link Wiki page 2 has author is part of AP Wiki A Enterprise 2.0 ecosystem hyperlink Blog post creates Wiki page 2 contains has tag EDF Wiki A
  • FOAF Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie   FOAF – Friend-Of-A-Friend   [Brickley & Miller, 2000]   http://foaf-project.org   An ontology for describing people and the relationships that exist between them   From online communities to semantically-enriched online communities   Particularly suited for social networking purposes   FOAF in Enterprise 2.0 settings   Model individuals, teams, relations between both, etc.   As well as linking people to their interests and skills   Identity unification across enterprise applications
  • SIOC Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie   SIOC - Semantically-Interlinked Online Communities   [Breslin et al., 2005]   http://sioc-project.org   SIOC - Semantically-Interlinked Online Communities   A model to represent activities of online communities and the related content   Who is writing what, who is answering to who   Relationships between documents (blog posts, wikis pages) and their container   One core ontology, several modules   Published as a W3C Member Submission in 2007
  • The SIOC Ontology Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  • Producing FOAF and SIOC data Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie   Automatically generated from existing Enterprise 2.0 applications   Lots of applications / plug-ins already available   Completely transparent for the end-user   Use-case at EDF R&D: > 20000 instances of sioc:Item created
  • Collaborative ontology population Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Socio-structural Ontology population Ontologies Semantic indexing meta-data Energy Company located in Country Ontologies and Semantic annotations is a is a produces EDF located in France has topic Blog post has link Wiki page 2 has author is part of AP Wiki A Enterprise 2.0 ecosystem hyperlink Blog post creates Wiki page 2 contains has tag EDF Wiki A
  • Defining domain ontologies Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie   A need to represent particular objects that are being discussed in corporate online communities   Industrial domains, projects, agents, etc.   Domain ontologies are required to represent these entities   Depend on the use-casebut SemSLATES offers a set of best practices   Re-using existing models from the Web (FOAF, SKOS, geonames …) to benefit from return on experience and build semantic mash-ups   Use-case at EDF R&D   Developed several models, combining lightweight ontology design and knowledge engineering [Masolo & al., 2005]
  • SKOS skos:Concept Role Ontology Geonames rdfs:subClassOf rdfs:subClassOf Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie geonames:Feature role:Type role:Domain rdf:type rdf:type rdf:type rdf:type http:// sws.geonames.org/ 3017382/ athena:Producteur rdf:type athena:EnergieNucleaire geonames:parentFeature role:hasDomain http:// geonames:locatedIn role:hasType sws.geonames.org/ skos:broader Ontologies 2988507/ athena:Constructeur athena:Role1 athena:CentraleNucleaire Base de connaissances geonames:locatedIn role:hasType role:hasDomain role:hasRole athena:Role2 role:hasRole athena:PierreGadonneix foaf:member athena:EDF partenariat:hasDomain partenariat:hasMember athena:Areva athena:part1 rdf:type rdf:type rdf:type rdf:type foaf:Person foafplus:Company partenariat:Partenariat rdfs:subClassOf rdfs:subClassOf FOAFplus foaf:Agent Partenariat FOAF
  • Ontology population Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie   Once the ontologies are provided, the related knowledge base(s) must be created and maintained   Usual applications for ontology population are dedicated to advanced users; not suitable in many contexts   Our approach: Semantic Wikis   Using online communities and wiki philosophy to build and maintain structured knowledge bases   An open, collaborative and evolutive vision of ontology population   No technical nor knowledge engineering skills required   Anyone can contribute
  • From wikis to structured knowledge Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie hyperlink is a Enterprise EDF France Ontologies and Documents EDF Country produces instances located in Energy is a hyperlink Energy France Wiki Semantic wiki
  • UfoWiki Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie   Various semantic wikis prototypes dedicate to ontology population available as open-source apps   However, none fulfilled all our requirements, especially in terms of user-friendliness (i.e. not dedicated to SW-people)   UfoWiki   Ontology-based information modeling   Simple form-based user-interfaces   Modeling both domain and structure metadata   Immediately using created knowledge   Using public data to improve browsing interfaces   Use-case at EDF R&D   About 25 users, > 350 instances collaboratively maintained
  • Maintaining ontology instances Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Simple autocomplete field Complex instance field
  • Semantic tagging Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Socio-structural Ontology population Ontologies Semantic indexing meta-data Energy Company located in Country Ontologies and Semantic annotations is a is a produces EDF located in France has topic Blog post has link Wiki page 2 has author is part of AP Wiki A Enterprise 2.0 ecosystem hyperlink Blog post creates Wiki page 2 contains has tag EDF Wiki A
  • MOAT Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie   MOAT – Meaning Of A Tag [Passant & Laublet, 2008]   http://moat-project.org   Using ontologies to support free-tagging activities   Using Semantic Web resources (from internal knowledge bases and from the Web) to represent the meaning of tags   From free-tagging to ontology-based semantic indexing   A model and a framework   A model to link each tag to its local and global meaning(s)   A framework to collaboratively manage these meanings in online communities   Use-case at EDF R&D   1176 tags linked to 715 resources, 39 URIs w > 4 related tags!
  • MOAT: Example data Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie tag:RestrictedTagging http://example.org/tag/ apple rdf:type tag:associatedTag http://example.org/ tagging1 tag:taggedBy tag:taggedResource Tag Ontology moat:tagMeaning http://example.org/ http://dbpedia.org/ post/1 resource/Apple_Inc. foaf:maker dct:title rdf:type MOAT + DBpedia http://apassant.net/alex/ Nouvel iPhone disponible sioct:BlogPost FOAF SIOC + DC
  • MOAT: Framework Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie User creates content and tag it Client queries the MOAT server <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Apple> Server returns the set for global meaning URIs User chooses local meaning URI <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Apple_Inc.> <http://example.org/id/myappleresource> tags:associatedTag User saves the content http://example.org/ http://example.org/tag/ tagging1 apple moat:tagMeaning Content enters tags:taggedResource http://dbpedia/org/resource/ the Web of Data Apple_Inc. tags:taggedBy http://example.org/ post/1 http://apassant.net/alex
  • Building new applications Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie   Use all the annotations created from different tools Browsing and querying interfaces   Blogs, wikis, RSS feeds …   Combine ontologies, socio- structural metadata and knowledge bases Semantic mediation architecture (Ontologies, semantic annotations)   For advanced querying capabilities   Hide the complexity of tools to the end-users   So that everyone can benefit from it Enterprise 2.0 information system
  • UfoWiki macros Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie   Embedding SPARQL query results in wiki pages without the complexity of such queries   Mapping between macro syntax and SPARQL (inspired by Semantic MediaWiki)   E.g. [onto|members] to list all members of a company   Taking context into account   E.g. Listing related blog posts from a wiki page (via MOAT)   Support a subset of RDFS inference   E.g. Listing enterprise and research institutes when asking for organisations in general   Different ways of browsing the results   XHTML snippets, Geolocation, Faceted browsing
  • Semantic mashups Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie   Re-using RDF data from the LOD cloud internally   Low-cost Semantic mash-ups   E.g. Geolocation of internal wiki data using Geonames
  • Semantic Search Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie   Solving the information fragmentation issue   Delivering all information about a particular object in a single page   Using different level of annotations   Hiding RDF(S)/OWL and SPARQL to the users
  • Solving the Expertise Gap Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie   Defining rules to extend information retrieval by suggesting nearest entities for a given search   Solving the issues of free-tagging related to heterogeneous expertise levels in online communities Ontologies skos:Concept sioc:Post foaf:Person rdf:type rdf:type rdf:type athena:Solaire moat:taggedWith :post1 foaf:maker :NonExpert Non-expert level skos:broader athena:TF moat:taggedWith :post2 foaf:maker ::Expert Expert level
  • Conclusion Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie   Enterprise 2.0 enables interactions in corporate online communities and ease content-generation   But introduces new issues / emphasizes existing ones   Semantic Web technologies can help   Various ontologies for distinct levels of representation   Lightweight software add-ons for semantic annotations   New applications can be build on the top of it   Consuming RDF(S)/OWL data to solve the initial issues   And bring new services to online communities   Some more challenges need to be solved …   Trust, context-awarness, privacy, etc.
  • Thank you ! Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie   Questions and discussion   Contact   alexandre.passant@deri.org   http://apassant.net (blog, papers, etc.)