1. T E R R A C E L I B R A R Y
Adapted from: King, J. (n.d.). In-text referencing for A+ Assignments
[powerpoint]. School Library Association of Queensland.
2. APA REFERENCING
• APA is the referencing style used at Terrace
• To acknowledge information and ideas from other
• To identify sources - to verify quotations and to
enable readers to follow up information used.
• To avoid plagiarism.
• To give your work academic integrity.
• To add value and quality to your work.
3. THREE STEPS OF REFERENCING
• 1. As you read and take notes, record the full
bibliographic details and relevant page
numbers/URL of the sources from which information
• 2. As you write the assignment, insert in-text citations
at the appropriate places.
• 3. At the end of your assignment, include a List of
References (or Bibliography) that includes all
4. APA REFERENCING
In-text Referencing End-text Referencing
• Refers to sources used within
• Includes written quotes,
summaries or paraphrasing.
• Includes graphic references:
• Graphs, maps, diagrams
labelled as „Figures‟
• Tables labelled „Tables‟
• Uses (author, date, page. #).
•List of References = a list of
sources used as in-text reference in
the assignment OR
• Bibliography = all sources used
in preparation of assignment,
whether used in-text or not.
• Check with your teacher which
type of end-text reference they
would prefer. Most will prefer a
bibliography at school level.
5. WHEN SHOULD I USE IN-TEXT
• You need to reference information such as statistics and research
findings, as well as the ideas, concepts and theories of other authors.
• ‘Common knowledge’ information does not need referencing.
TOPIC: Climate Change
Common knowledge information
which does NOT need to be
Information which does need to
The climate change debate
involves both sceptics and
supporters arguing the extent
and nature of changes in the
• Australian temperatures have
risen by about 1C since 1910.
• Last year’s spring season saw
above average mean
temperatures across the entire
6. Cardiff University Information Services 2006
7. TYPES OF IN-TEXT REFERENCES
• “Obesity in Australian children has reached crisis proportions” (Stanton,
2008, p. 82).
• Nutritionist Dr Rosemary Stanton (2008, p. 82) warns, “Obesity in Australian
children has reached crisis proportions”. (Keep citation close to name).
• Nutritionists have warned that child obesity is a critical issue in Australian
health (Stanton, 2008, p. 82).
• Nutritionist Dr Rosemary Stanton (2008, p. 82) warns that child obesity is a
critical issue in Australian health. (Keep citation close to name).
Direct Quote Indirect Quote
8. YOUR TURN
• “Smoking is a lethal
habit” (Jones, 2012, p. 6).
• Smoking is a deadly
activity (Jones, 2012, p.6).
• According to Dr Jones
(2012, p. 6) smoking is a
• Dr Jones (2012, p. 6)
warns, “Smoking is a
9. DIRECT QUOTES
• Are the actual words of the author.
• Place direct quote in double inverted commas.
• Direct quotes do not add to the word count.
• The citation should include author surname, year
published, page number. For example (Smith, 2013,
• Place the full stop after the brackets.
10. INDIRECT QUOTES
• These use the author’s ideas but not author’s exact
• They summarise or paraphrase an idea, a finding, or
an opinion of an author.
• Indirect quotes are usually included in a word count.
11. EXAMPLE OF IN-TEXT REFERENCING
A Year 12 PE assignment on Sports Psychology and Volleyball:
Sports psychology is now a vital aspect of modern professional
sports. It has been defined as “that field of psychology which is
primarily concerned with the scientific investigation of the
psychological aspects of sport” (Wills & Quinlivan, 1991, p. 161).
They emphasise that the power of the mind to fuel and
enhance successful performance is equally as important as
improving the techniques fundamental to each sport. Morris
and Summers (1995, p. 18) agree with this view, positing that the
role of the sports psychologist is now integral to the success of
high-achieving sportsmen and women. Volleyball is an ideal
sport to incorporate aspects of sports psychology because
success here depends heavily on non-physical attributes.
12. IN-TEXT REFERENCING A WEBSITE
• Never include the URL in an in-text reference.
• Show the author, year and page number.
• If there is no page number, include the paragraph
• (You will need to count the paragraphs yourself).
The Reserve Bank has encouraging evidence to suggest
that, "businesses outside the resources sector were
showing some signs of investing” (Janda, 2012, para. 7).
13. IN-TEXT REFERENCING A FIGURE
• All maps, graphs, charts, diagrams and images are
referred to as a ‘Figure’.
• Include an in-text reference under each figure.
• Mention the figure in your writing. For example: As
Figure 1 illustrates, the Daintree contains vegetation
strata typical of tropical rainforests.
• Then enter all the bibliographic details in your List of
14. IN-TEXT REFERENCING A FIGURE
Figure 1: Rain Forest Daintree Australia. From
Australian, 2005, Retrieved from
15. IN-TEXT REFERENCING A TABLE
Table 1: Fluctuation of Cane Revenue 2001-2010
Adapted from Sugar of Australia, (p.26), by F. Richards, 2011,
Sydney: Random House
Then comment in-text: Sugar prices were at their lowest in
2003, but have risen dramatically in recent years (See
Table 1). Then enter all the details (not just author & date)
in your bibliography.
16. THE BASICS – BIBLIOGRAPHIC DETAILS
FOR A BOOK
• Author’s surname and initials OR corporate author
• Most recent year of publication
• Title of book
• Place of publication
17. BOOK – BIBLIOGRAPHY
Gaddis, J.L. (2007). The cold war. London: Penguin.
Title - in italics
18. THE BASICS – BIBLIOGRAPHIC DETAILS
FOR A WEB PAGE
• Author’s surname and initials OR corporate author
• Date of publication - use (n.d) for no date
• Title of web page
• Date retrieved if the web page is likely to change
19. WEB PAGE – BIBLIOGRAPHY
Australian Government Bureau of Meteorology. (2014).
Climate change and variability. Retrieved April 21, 2014
20. LIST OF REFERENCES
• Put on separate page
• Put entries in alphabetical order of author’s
surname or corporate author (or title if no author).
• No numbers or bullet points
• No subheadings
• Include a reference of all sources used – print,
online, images, graphs.
21. EXAMPLES OF END-TEXT REFERENCES
• Book Example:
McGregor, C. (1974). The Great Barrier Reef. Amsterdam: Time-Life Publications.
• Database Example:
Willandra Lakes Region. (1999). Encyclopaedia of Australia. Webster Publishing. Retrieved from
• Website Example:
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation. (2013). Lord Howe Island Group.
Retrieved from http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/186
• Image Example:
Schoch, T. (2005). Rain Forest Daintree Australia [Image]. Retrieved April 30, 2013, from
• Online Encyclopaedia Example:
Fraser Island. (2013). In Britannica Student Encyclopaedia. Retrieved April 29, 2013 from
• Case Law Example:
Commonwealth v. Tasmania (1983) 158 CLR 1 (Tasmanian Dam Case)
22. Commonwealth v. Tasmania (1983) 158 CLR 1 (Tasmanian Dam Case)
Fraser Island. (2013). In Britannica Student Encyclopaedia. Retrieved April 29,
2013 from http://school.eb.com.au/eb/article-9035206
McGregor, C. (1974). The Great Barrier Reef. Amsterdam: Time-Life
Schoch, T. (2005). Rain Forest Daintree Australia [Image]. Retrieved April 30,
2013, from http://www.retas.de/thomas/travel/australia2005/index.html
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation. (2013). Lord
Howe Island Group. Retrieved from http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/186
Willandra Lakes Region. (1999). Encyclopaedia of Australia. Webster
Publishing. Retrieved from http://elibrary.bigchalk.com
23. LIBRARY WEBSITE
• For further information go to the Terrace Library
website, APA Referencing page:
• This page includes:
• Bibliographic generators
• Tutorial on Word References Function
• Link to QUT Cite/Write website
• University of Queensland Referencing Guide PDF