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Mathematical applications in DNA research emerged in the 1950’s, when Crick and Watson produced the now familiar double helix model of DNA. Even at this time, Crick and Watson noted that some mechanism must exist to deal with the tangles that would inevitably occur from this structure. The discovery of DNA knotting 30 years later reignited interest in knot theory by biologists and biochemists. Knotting is involved in many of the biological processes of DNA, including the action of enzymes called topoisomerases, which wind and unwind DNA so that critical processes such as replication can occur.