Silvopastoral systems  in tropical dryland and highland   Teresa Fresu , Agronomist MSc  SUTROFOR 2012 30th November 2010 ...
Miller, J.B. 1999, The feasibility of agroforestry interventions for traditionally nomadic pastoral people, Agriculture an...
SILVOPASTORAL* Systems : Fodder production (cut-and-carry) Live-fences of fodder trees and hedges Trees and shrubs on past...
Examples of traditional combinations of  PASTORALISM* and AGRICULTURE:  East Africa – Maasai: pastoralism + sub-group of f...
THREATENS to the SUSTAINABILITY  of traditionally nomadic pastoralism: Overgrazing, deforestatio, erosion, desertification...
“ The tragedy of the commons” Hardin (1968): justification for an anti-nomadic perspective and privatizations. The insecur...
Agroforestry interventions  in pastoral areas:  The conservation and management of existing trees, shrubs and grasses, inc...
Silvopastoral systems  in tropical dryland and highland for the diversification of banana plantations in Guadeloupe  (West...
Guadeloupe:  Capesterre-belle-eau
The importance of the tenure land system (Schema d’amenegement Regional de la Guadeloupe 2001 – Capesterre-belle-eau)
Banana monocolture for exportation.  Other crops: ananas, christophine, tomate, banane plantain, aubergine, for self conso...
Livestock farming on fallow after several years of banana plantations : L ivestock on highlands and plain to improve soil ...
Bois de Fefé (Capesterre-belle-eau):  on the highlands  breeding  and  flowers crops  are the two major ways of  diversifi...
Guadeloupe, Capesterre-belle-eau  (Photo T. Fresu)
(Photo  T. Fresu) Alpinia spp. (Guadeloupe)  Alpinia spp. + Papaya (Dominica): long rotation + improved fallow with livest...
Guadeloupe, Capesterre-belle-eau  (Photo T. Fresu)
Species used for edgerows  and living fences for livestock  (Portecop, 2003)  :  Semi – humid zones (mountain, Basse Terre...
Thanks for your attention… ...questions? [email_address] (Photo  T. Fresu)
Sylvipastoral Systems
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Sylvipastoral Systems

  1. 1. Silvopastoral systems in tropical dryland and highland Teresa Fresu , Agronomist MSc SUTROFOR 2012 30th November 2010 – Life Faculty of Copenhagen University
  2. 2. Miller, J.B. 1999, The feasibility of agroforestry interventions for traditionally nomadic pastoral people, Agriculture and Human Values 16: 11-27.   Chara, J. and Murgueitio, E. 2005. The role of sylvipastoral systems in the rehabilitation of Andean stream habitats. Livestock research for rural development 17(2). P.K. Ramachandran Nair: An Introduction to Agroforestry, Kluwer Academic Press 1993. MEMENTO de l’Agronome, CIRAD – GRET , Montpellier, 2002. Overview : 1) Definition of silvopastoral systems according a short bibliography: 2) Presentation of mixed silvopastoral systems in the diversification of banana plantations in Guadeloupe (West French Indies)
  3. 3. SILVOPASTORAL* Systems : Fodder production (cut-and-carry) Live-fences of fodder trees and hedges Trees and shrubs on pasture (or grazing under plantation crops) Nair (1993): AGROSYLVOPASTORAL* Systems :   Woody hedges for browse, mulch, green manure, soil conservation Homegardens (involving a large number of herbaceous and woody plants and/or livestock) * A pastoral system implies LIVESTOCK
  4. 4. Examples of traditional combinations of PASTORALISM* and AGRICULTURE: East Africa – Maasai: pastoralism + sub-group of farmers Andes: agricultural and pastoral communities exploit different ecological zones (plain cultivators and Andean mountain pastoralists) Miller (1999)/1: AGROSYLVOPASTORAL* Systems:   Sahel: in the sub-humid regions agriculture and grazing production systems overlap, both characterized by dispersed indigenous trees Middle East: Oasis system * Synonymous of nomadism
  5. 5. THREATENS to the SUSTAINABILITY of traditionally nomadic pastoralism: Overgrazing, deforestatio, erosion, desertification, overpopulation, break-down of sociocultural systems, encroachments of other groups. Miller (1999)/2: BENEFITS of LIVESTOCK:   Pastoralism is multi-resource activity: a natural oscillation beetwen existing patterns (flexibility, adaptability, variability). Producing organic fertilizer, reducing risk in the case of crop failure, replacing mechanical power. Different livestock provide different quantities of milk (goats: milk during dry season), chickens and ducks: eggs and rapid reproduction. BENEFITS of TREES and SHRUBS:   Shade for human and livestock, reducing wind speed and evapotraspiration, counteracting variability in the production of browsing, producing nutrient rich pods and leaves. Indigenous and exotic trees, shrubs and grasses with different degrees of palatability of browse (preferable) and bark (problematic), resistance to drought, ability to regenerate naturally.
  6. 6. “ The tragedy of the commons” Hardin (1968): justification for an anti-nomadic perspective and privatizations. The insecurity of land tenure is always a disincentive to tree planting, which itself may increase the security of land tenure. Pastoral modes of production proved ecologically sustainable and appropriate for millennia before the colonial era, that drastically altered the structural and political conditions for pastoralists (see also the studies concerning the commons of E.Ostrom). Land and tree tenure:
  7. 7. Agroforestry interventions in pastoral areas: The conservation and management of existing trees, shrubs and grasses, including natural regeneration. Water-resource management policy. Reinforcement of the traditional land-management systems through collaboration with resource de facto users Pastoralists could utilize agroforestry to meet their social, cultural, livelihood needs.
  8. 8. Silvopastoral systems in tropical dryland and highland for the diversification of banana plantations in Guadeloupe (West French Indies)
  9. 9. Guadeloupe: Capesterre-belle-eau
  10. 10. The importance of the tenure land system (Schema d’amenegement Regional de la Guadeloupe 2001 – Capesterre-belle-eau)
  11. 11. Banana monocolture for exportation. Other crops: ananas, christophine, tomate, banane plantain, aubergine, for self consomption or selling. Field area less than 1 ha of average. On 2005, ananas was the only crop with remarkable economic value.  Very low rate of diversification (Source : L. Guillou, CIRAD, 2005) Overview of small farms:
  12. 12. Livestock farming on fallow after several years of banana plantations : L ivestock on highlands and plain to improve soil quality after banana plantations… ...but with some problems of contamination with chlordecone... One of the major way of diversification for middle and small farmers. (Photo T. Fresu)
  13. 13. Bois de Fefé (Capesterre-belle-eau): on the highlands breeding and flowers crops are the two major ways of diversification for banana plantations (Photo A.Cavasino) Alpinia purpurata
  14. 14. Guadeloupe, Capesterre-belle-eau (Photo T. Fresu)
  15. 15. (Photo T. Fresu) Alpinia spp. (Guadeloupe) Alpinia spp. + Papaya (Dominica): long rotation + improved fallow with livestock
  16. 16. Guadeloupe, Capesterre-belle-eau (Photo T. Fresu)
  17. 17. Species used for edgerows and living fences for livestock (Portecop, 2003) : Semi – humid zones (mountain, Basse Terre): Pois doux blanc ( Inga laurina ) : max 15 m h, very branchy Bois carré ( Citharexylym spinosum ) : 8 – 10 m h, thorny Dry zones (plateaux, Grande Terre) : Bois cannelle ( Canella winterana ) : 4 (shrubs habitus ) – 8 m h (tree habitus ), with strong smell of cassis Gommier rouge ( Bursera simaruba ) : 5 – 15 m h, very thorny and with aromatic juice
  18. 18. Thanks for your attention… ...questions? [email_address] (Photo T. Fresu)

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