Infinitives and gerunds
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Infinitives and gerunds






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    Infinitives and gerunds Infinitives and gerunds Presentation Transcript

    • THE GERUND functions
      • Subject of the sentence :
        • Seeing is believing
        • Drinking and driving is really dangerous.
      • Complement of a preposition :
        • She came in without greeting anyone .
        • Check the petrol before travelling.
      • Complement of a verb.
      • It often comes after the following:
      • Admit
      • Avoid
      • Consider
      • Deny
      • Detest
      • Dislike/like
      • enjoy
      • Finish
      • Go + leisure activity
      • Imagine
      • Involve
      • Love/hate
      • Mean
      • Miss
      • Postpone
      • Practise
      • Recommend
      • Risk
      • suggest
      • The thief admitted stealing the money.
      • Do you go shopping every week?
      • A dog can’t avoid barking to strangers, it’s in its nature.
      • Being a student involves putting in a lot of time revising lessons.
      • I’d never risk cheating in a test for fear of being caught.
      • Just imagine travelling all around the world! That would be amazing.
      • I’ve never enjoyed reading a book so much. It’s been both interesting and great fun!
      • The waiter suggested ordering lobster. He was right; expensive, but really delicious!
    • As complement of some phrases: Can't help Can't stand Spend (time) Feel like Don't mind/would mind Be/get used to
      • It's no use
      • It's worth
      • Look forward to
      • I'm looking forward to hearing from you.
      • I can't help feeling sorry for him.
      • It’s no use crying over past errors.
      • I' m not used to driving in Manhattan traffic.
      • Would you mind opening the window, please?
      • She spent seven hours making Christmas dinner.
      • Is the film worth seeing?
    • THE INFINITIVE functions
    • Subject of a sentence:
      • It is sometimes the subject of a sentence, but then it refers to a single occasion (not in general):
        • To marry you is the best thing I've ever done.
        • To divorce would be stupid.
      • Complement of a verb.
      • An infinitive usually comes after the following:
      • Agree
      • Afford
      • Appear
      • Ask
      • Beg
      • Choose
      • Dare
      • Decide
      • Expect
      • Fail
      • Hate
      • Help
      • Hesitate
      • Hope
      • Learn
      • manage
      • Offer
      • plan
      • Pretend
      • Promise
      • Refuse
      • Seem
      • Used to
      • Want
      • wish
      • John always manages to get what he wants.
      • Sylvia hoped to find a job in advertising, but she refused to work long hours, so she decided to quit.
      • Will you agree to leave Madrid and come to live in Toledo?
      • There appears to be a mistake in these calculations.
      • She helps to do the laundry and the ironing.
      • Did you learn to drive in that driving school?
      • I wish to help you, and I promise to do my best to get on with you.
      • We used to eat grilled bread with a sprinkle of olive oil for breakfast for many years.
    • Verb + object + infinitive
      • Advise
      • Allow
      • Ask
      • Encourage
      • Forbid
      • Help
      • Invite
      • Like
      • Persuade
      • Remind
      • Recommend
      • Request
      • Teach
      • Tell
      • Want
      • Warn
      • I don’t permit my employees to be late.
      • My sister wanted me to help her with her homework.
      • If you forbid everybody to smoke in public areas, more people will stop smoking.
      • The boss persuaded me to remain in the company.
      • I recommend everybody to take exercise regularly. It makes you feel great.
      • I would like the company to be successful, but the sales keep going down.
      • The doctor advised the patient to stay in bed for three days.
      • If you ask David to lend you money, he’ll probably say no.
      • Sally reminded Bob to brush his teeth.
    • Some verbs are followed by gerund/infinitive with no change of meaning:
      • She started to make a cake/making a cake for the party.
      • I prefer to climb/climbing in the mountains after it has snowed.
      • Why don't you continue to make/making plans after dinner?
      • Most of my classmates intend to take/taking a scientific degree
      • As the temperature fell, the baby began to shake/shaking .
    • Infinitive or gerund with change of meaning.
      • Regret
        • I regret upsetting my boyfriend, and I hope he’ll forgive me soon.
        • I regret to tell you that you no longer work here, you are fired.
      • Try
        • She tried taking an aspirin, but the pain didn't stop.
        • Try to concentrate or you will fail the answers.
      • Forget
        • I'll never forget seeing George Clooney in Cannes.
        • Don't forget to bring your passport.
      • Remember
        • Please remember to send Mary my regards.
        • She didn't remember meeting us last summer.
      • Stop
        • Why don't we stop to have a coffee?
        • I'm going to stop smoking one of these days.
    • Other structures with the infinitive
      • Following many adjectives (happy, sad, glad, afraid, busy, tired, easy, nice...)
      • In the structure adj. + enough + to + infinitive
      • In the structure too + adj. + to + infinitive
      • In the phrases would like, would love, would prefer.
      • The boy was happy to get his ice-cream.
      • Joanna was too tired to run the marathon.
      • It's never too late to master a new skill.
      • The water is not hot enough to boil.
      • I' d like to eat some plain yoghurt with honey for dessert.
      • Would you prefer to stay overnight and leave tomorrow?
    • Verbs followed by infinitive without “to” (base form)
      • Verbs of perception: see, feel, hear, notice, watch .
      • These verbs can also go with a gerund to signal that the peception doesn’t last.
        • I haven't seen Selena Gomez dance in her latest videoclip .
        • We heard Coldplay sing in Madrid.
      • Compare to
        • Can't you hear a wolf howling in the distance?
      • With the verbs let and make.
        • Dad made us learn five new words every day.
        • Let me play in the garden, please!
    • Additional points: the noun followed by the infinitive:
      • Some nouns can take infinitive as complement: chance, hope, promise, wish,intention, refusal , etc. or we can use the infinitive with nouns when we want to say the purpose or the effect that they will have:
        • I have no intention to go.
        • They made a promise to change for the better.
        • Have you got a key to open this cabinet?
        • We all need a friend to trust.
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