Word order

10,986 views
10,249 views

Published on

Presentation that tries to summarize the basic word order in English and the correct placement of Adjectives and Adverbs in the sentence.

Published in: Education
0 Comments
12 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
10,986
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
395
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
562
Comments
0
Likes
12
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Word order

  1. 1. W O R D O R D E R
  2. 2. BASIC WORD ORDER IN ENGLISH <ul><li>(TIME) SUBJECT + VERB + OBJECT(S) + ADVERBIAL PHRASE(S) </li></ul>thing + to + person person + thing place + time Susan went to school on Monday . I eat bananas twice a week . My father gave me a present for my birthday . We will send this letter to Peter tomorrow morning. Last week, I didn’t enjoy Sam’s party.
  3. 3. ADJECTIVES <ul><li>They can be part of the predicate after some verbs: be, look, feel, sound … </li></ul><ul><li>She looks beautiful today. </li></ul><ul><li>They can be part of a noun phrase. </li></ul><ul><li>In a noun phrase, they should be placed after the determiner ( articles, demonstratives, quantifiers, possessives, etc) and before the noun . </li></ul><ul><li>When there’s more than one adjective before the noun, the correct order is: </li></ul><ul><li>NUMBER + OPINION + SIZE + AGE + SHAPE + COLOUR + ORIGIN + MATERIAL + PURPOSE </li></ul><ul><li>1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 </li></ul><ul><li>1- Numbers: ordinal ( first, second, third …) + cardinal ( one, two, three …) ; </li></ul><ul><li>2- O pinion  adjectives: silly, beautiful, horrible, difficult </li></ul><ul><li>3- S ize  adjectives: large, tiny, enormous, little </li></ul><ul><li>4- A ge  adjectives: ancient, new, young, old </li></ul><ul><li>5- S hape  adjectives: square, round, flat, rectangular </li></ul><ul><li>6- C olour  adjectives: blue, pink, reddish, grey </li></ul><ul><li>7- Origin  adjectives: French, lunar, American, eastern, Greek </li></ul><ul><li>8- M aterial  adjectives: wooden, metal, cotton, paper </li></ul><ul><li>9- P urpose  adjectives: sleeping (as in &quot;sleeping bag&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, you will write the noun in apposition (as in “ car keys ”) </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>NUMBER + OPINION + SIZE + AGE + SHAPE + COLOUR + ORIGIN + MATERIAL + PURPOSE </li></ul><ul><li>1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 </li></ul><ul><li>This is a huge three-year-old car. “three-year s -old car” is incorrect! </li></ul><ul><li>He was a difficult , stubborn child. </li></ul><ul><li>I bought a wonderful old Italian clock. </li></ul><ul><li>She’s got lovely long wavy brown hair. </li></ul><ul><li>He is an extraordinary tall thirty-nine-year-old well-built Italian actor. </li></ul><ul><li>These are the first two cars to reach the end. </li></ul><ul><li> ordinal + cardinal </li></ul><ul><li>The Irish Philology students must enter this room. </li></ul><ul><li>noun in apposition </li></ul><ul><li>I’ve found a disgusting pink plastic ornament. </li></ul><ul><li>In my nice big flat </li></ul><ul><li>There's an old round box </li></ul><ul><li>For my green Swiss hat </li></ul><ul><li>And my woolly walking socks. </li></ul>Use commas to coordinate adjectives from the same group.
  5. 5. ADVERBS <ul><li>BEGINNING OF SENTENCE (before the subject ): </li></ul><ul><li>Connecting adverbs : Then, next, however, suddenly, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Suddenly the door opened. </li></ul><ul><li>Next, a ghost floated into the room. </li></ul><ul><li>Comment adverbs: Luckily, unluckily, fortunately, surprisingly, stupidly, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Stupidly, I forgot my keys. </li></ul><ul><li>Fortunately, she has decided to help us. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency adverbs (special emphasis, indefinite frequency ) : usually, normally, often, frequently, sometimes and occasionally (NOT: always, ever, rarely, seldom and never ). </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes I think I’d like to live somewhere else. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually I get up early. </li></ul><ul><li>Some adverbs of certainty : maybe, perhaps. </li></ul><ul><li>Maybe I’m right. </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps her train is late. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Adverbs of place (special emphasis ): here, there, at the end, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Here comes your bus. The word order changes in this sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>There she is. </li></ul><ul><li>On the bus sat a pretty girl with a blue hat. The word order changes here. </li></ul><ul><li>Adverbs of time (special emphasis ): today, in 1956, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, I’m going to London. </li></ul><ul><li>In June we went to Cornwall. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>MID-POSITION (before the main verb, after an auxiliary verb or after “be” ) : </li></ul><ul><li>Adverbs of certainty : certainly, definitely, clearly, obviously, probably; </li></ul><ul><li>He probably thinks you don’t like him. </li></ul><ul><li>There is clearly something wrong. </li></ul><ul><li>It will certainly rain today. </li></ul><ul><li>Adverbs of frequency : never, rarely, sometimes, often, usually, always, ever, seldom, etc </li></ul><ul><li>We usually go to Scotland in August. </li></ul><ul><li>I’m seldom late for work. </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing adverbs : even, only, also, mainly, etc </li></ul><ul><li>She’s also my friend. </li></ul><ul><li>We are only going for two days. </li></ul><ul><li>Some adverbs of time: already, still, finally, eventually, soon, last, just; </li></ul><ul><li>She’s still working in the office. </li></ul><ul><li>They’ve just arrived. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Adverbs of manner (when they are not important): slowly, suddenly, happily, etc </li></ul><ul><li>I slowly started to feel better again. </li></ul><ul><li>We will happily start moving to London next month. </li></ul><ul><li>Some a dverbs of degree: almost, greatly, mostly, etc </li></ul><ul><li>She’s almost finished. </li></ul><ul><li>He totally agrees with you. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>END OF SENTENCE (after the verb ): </li></ul><ul><li>A dverbs of manner: slowly, suddenly, badly, quietly, etc </li></ul><ul><li>He drove off angrily . </li></ul><ul><li>You speak English well. </li></ul><ul><li>Adverbs of place: upstairs, around, here, to bed, from school, etc </li></ul><ul><li>The children are playing upstairs . </li></ul><ul><li>Come and sit here . </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency expressions (definite frequency) : once a month, every week, etc </li></ul><ul><li>She buys the newspaper twice a week . </li></ul><ul><li>I visit my grandma every day . </li></ul><ul><li>Adverbs of time: today, finally, soon, yet, etc </li></ul><ul><li>I’m going to Paris today . </li></ul><ul><li>She’ll be coming soon . </li></ul><ul><li>Expressions of purpose: to + infinitive, in order to + infinitive, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>I will use this new red pen to mark the exams . </li></ul><ul><li>You have to study in order to pass the school year . </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>If there’s more than one adverb after the </li></ul><ul><li>verb, the correct order is: </li></ul><ul><li>Manner + place + frequency + time + purpose </li></ul><ul><li>1 2 3 4 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Beth swims enthusiastically in the pool every morning before lunch to keep in shape . </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Adverbs can also modify adjectives and other adverbs: </li></ul><ul><li>He is very talkative. Mark is exceptionally bright . </li></ul><ul><li> adverb adjective adverb adjective </li></ul><ul><li>He speaks too slowly. Tom ran extremely fast. </li></ul><ul><li> adverb adverb adverb adverb </li></ul><ul><li>Commas with adverbs: </li></ul><ul><li>Use a comma after certain adverbs: however, in fact, therefore nevertheless, moreover, furthermore, still, instead, too (meaning 'also'). </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore , he didn't say a word. </li></ul><ul><li>If these adverbs appear in the middle of a sentence, they are enclosed </li></ul><ul><li>in commas. </li></ul><ul><li>The thief , however , was very clever. </li></ul><ul><li>The comma is optional in many cases, depending on the context and on the intention of the writer. </li></ul><ul><li>  So , she entered the house. </li></ul><ul><li>  So she entered the house. </li></ul>

×