Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
The Respiratory System
Function of the Respiratory SystemFunction of the Respiratory System
Slide 13.2Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. pu...
Organs of the Respiratory systemOrgans of the Respiratory system
Slide 13.1Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publis...
Slide 13.3bCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 13.2
Upper Respiratory TractUpp...
Anatomy of the Nasal CavityAnatomy of the Nasal Cavity
Slide 13.4aCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as B...
Anatomy of the Nasal CavityAnatomy of the Nasal Cavity
Slide 13.4bCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as B...
Paranasal SinusesParanasal Sinuses
Slide 13.5aCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• C...
Paranasal SinusesParanasal Sinuses
Slide 13.5bCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• F...
Pharynx (Throat)Pharynx (Throat)
Slide 13.6Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Musc...
Slide 13.3bCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 13.2
Upper Respiratory TractUpp...
Structures of the PharynxStructures of the Pharynx
Slide 13.7Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjam...
Larynx (Voice Box)Larynx (Voice Box)
Slide 13.8Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• ...
Structures of the LarynxStructures of the Larynx
Slide 13.9aCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjami...
Structures of the LarynxStructures of the Larynx
Slide 13.9bCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjami...
Trachea (Windpipe)Trachea (Windpipe)
Slide 13.10Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
•...
Primary BronchiPrimary Bronchi
Slide 13.11Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Forme...
LungsLungs
Slide 13.12a
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Occupy most of the thor...
LungsLungs
Slide 13.12b
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 13.4b
Coverings of the LungsCoverings of the Lungs
Slide 13.13Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cu...
Respiratory Tree DivisionsRespiratory Tree Divisions
Slide 13.14Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Ben...
BronchiolesBronchioles
Slide 13.15a
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 13.5a
...
BronchiolesBronchioles
Slide 13.15b
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 13.5a
...
BronchiolesBronchioles
Slide 13.15cCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Terminal
bro...
Respiratory ZoneRespiratory Zone
Slide 13.16Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Str...
AlveoliAlveoli
Slide 13.17Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Structure of alveoli
...
Respiratory MembraneRespiratory Membrane
(Air-Blood Barrier)(Air-Blood Barrier)
Slide 13.18a
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Educ...
Respiratory MembraneRespiratory Membrane
(Air-Blood Barrier)(Air-Blood Barrier)
Slide 13.18b
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Educ...
Gas ExchangeGas Exchange
Slide 13.19Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Gas crosses...
Events of RespirationEvents of Respiration
Slide 13.20a
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cu...
Events of RespirationEvents of Respiration
Slide 13.20b
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cu...
Mechanics of BreathingMechanics of Breathing
(Pulmonary Ventilation)(Pulmonary Ventilation)
Slide 13.21a
Copyright © 2003 ...
Mechanics of BreathingMechanics of Breathing
(Pulmonary Ventilation)(Pulmonary Ventilation)
Slide 13.21b
Copyright © 2003 ...
InspirationInspiration
Slide 13.22a
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Diaphragm a...
InspirationInspiration
Slide 13.22b
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 13.7a
ExhalationExhalation
Slide 13.23a
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Largely a pas...
ExhalationExhalation
Slide 13.23b
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 13.7b
Nonrespiratory Air MovementsNonrespiratory Air Movements
Slide 13.25Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as...
Respiratory Volumes and CapacitiesRespiratory Volumes and Capacities
Slide 13.26Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. p...
Respiratory Volumes and CapacitiesRespiratory Volumes and Capacities
Slide 13.27a
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc....
Respiratory Volumes and CapacitiesRespiratory Volumes and Capacities
Slide 13.27b
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc....
Respiratory Volumes and CapacitiesRespiratory Volumes and Capacities
Slide 13.28Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. p...
Respiratory Volumes and CapacitiesRespiratory Volumes and Capacities
Slide 13.29Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. p...
Respiratory CapacitiesRespiratory Capacities
Slide 13.30Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cu...
Respiratory SoundsRespiratory Sounds
Slide 13.31Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
•...
External RespirationExternal Respiration
Slide 13.32a
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cumm...
External RespirationExternal Respiration
Slide 13.32b
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cumm...
Gas Transport in the BloodGas Transport in the Blood
Slide 13.33a
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as B...
Gas Transport in the BloodGas Transport in the Blood
Slide 13.33b
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as B...
Internal RespirationInternal Respiration
Slide 13.34a
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cumm...
Internal RespirationInternal Respiration
Slide 13.34b
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cumm...
External Respiration,External Respiration,
Gas Transport, andGas Transport, and
Internal RespirationInternal Respiration
S...
Neural Regulation of RespirationNeural Regulation of Respiration
Slide 13.36Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publi...
Neural Regulation of RespirationNeural Regulation of Respiration
Slide 13.37Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publi...
Factors Influencing RespiratoryFactors Influencing Respiratory
Rate and DepthRate and Depth
Slide 13.38Copyright © 2003 Pe...
Factors Influencing RespiratoryFactors Influencing Respiratory
Rate and DepthRate and Depth
Slide 13.39a
Copyright © 2003 ...
Factors Influencing RespiratoryFactors Influencing Respiratory
Rate and DepthRate and Depth
Slide 13.39b
Copyright © 2003 ...
Respiratory Disorders: ChronicRespiratory Disorders: Chronic
Obstructive Pulmonary DiseaseObstructive Pulmonary Disease
(C...
Respiratory Disorders: ChronicRespiratory Disorders: Chronic
Obstructive Pulmonary DiseaseObstructive Pulmonary Disease
(C...
Respiratory Disorders: ChronicRespiratory Disorders: Chronic
Obstructive Pulmonary DiseaseObstructive Pulmonary Disease
(C...
EmphysemaEmphysema
Slide 13.41Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Alveoli enlarge a...
Chronic BronchitisChronic Bronchitis
Slide 13.42Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
•...
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary DiseaseChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
(COPD)(COPD)
Slide 13.43Copyright © 2003 Pearso...
Lung CancerLung Cancer
Slide 13.44Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Accounts for ...
Sudden Infant Death syndromeSudden Infant Death syndrome
(SIDS)(SIDS)
Slide 13.45Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. ...
AsthmaAsthma
Slide 13.46Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Chronic inflamed hypers...
Developmental Aspects of theDevelopmental Aspects of the
Respiratory SystemRespiratory System
Slide 13.47a
Copyright © 200...
Developmental Aspects of theDevelopmental Aspects of the
Respiratory SystemRespiratory System
Slide 13.47b
Copyright © 200...
Aging EffectsAging Effects
Slide 13.48Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Elasticit...
Respiratory Rate ChangesRespiratory Rate Changes
Throughout LifeThroughout Life
Slide 13.49Copyright © 2003 Pearson Educat...
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  1. 1. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Respiratory System
  2. 2. Function of the Respiratory SystemFunction of the Respiratory System Slide 13.2Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Oversees gas exchanges (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between the blood and external environment • Exchange of gasses takes place within the lungs in the alveoli(only site of gas exchange, other structures passageways • Passageways to the lungs purify, warm, and humidify the incoming air • Shares responsibility with cardiovascular system
  3. 3. Organs of the Respiratory systemOrgans of the Respiratory system Slide 13.1Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Nose • Pharynx • Larynx • Trachea • Bronchi • Lungs – alveoli Figure 13.1
  4. 4. Slide 13.3bCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13.2 Upper Respiratory TractUpper Respiratory Tract
  5. 5. Anatomy of the Nasal CavityAnatomy of the Nasal Cavity Slide 13.4aCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Olfactory receptors are located in the mucosa on the superior surface • The rest of the cavity is lined with respiratory mucosa •Moistens air •Traps incoming foreign particles
  6. 6. Anatomy of the Nasal CavityAnatomy of the Nasal Cavity Slide 13.4bCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Lateral walls have projections called conchae •Increases surface area •Increases air turbulence within the nasal cavity • The nasal cavity is separated from the oral cavity by the palate •Anterior hard palate (bone) •Posterior soft palate (muscle)
  7. 7. Paranasal SinusesParanasal Sinuses Slide 13.5aCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Cavities within bones surrounding the nasal cavity •Frontal bone •Sphenoid bone •Ethmoid bone •Maxillary bone
  8. 8. Paranasal SinusesParanasal Sinuses Slide 13.5bCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Function of the sinuses •Lighten the skull •Act as resonance chambers for speech •Produce mucus that drains into the nasal cavity
  9. 9. Pharynx (Throat)Pharynx (Throat) Slide 13.6Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Muscular passage from nasal cavity to larynx • Three regions of the pharynx •Nasopharynx – superior region behind nasal cavity •Oropharynx – middle region behind mouth •Laryngopharynx – inferior region attached to larynx • The oropharynx and laryngopharynx are common passageways for air and food
  10. 10. Slide 13.3bCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13.2 Upper Respiratory TractUpper Respiratory Tract
  11. 11. Structures of the PharynxStructures of the Pharynx Slide 13.7Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Auditory tubes enter the nasopharynx • Tonsils of the pharynx •Pharyngeal tonsil (adenoids) in the nasopharynx •Palatine tonsils in the oropharynx •Lingual tonsils at the base of the tongue
  12. 12. Larynx (Voice Box)Larynx (Voice Box) Slide 13.8Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Routes air and food into proper channels • Plays a role in speech • Made of eight rigid hyaline cartilages and a spoon-shaped flap of elastic cartilage (epiglottis)
  13. 13. Structures of the LarynxStructures of the Larynx Slide 13.9aCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Thyroid cartilage •Largest hyaline cartilage •Protrudes anteriorly (Adam’s apple) • Epiglottis •Superior opening of the larynx •Routes food to the larynx and air toward the trachea
  14. 14. Structures of the LarynxStructures of the Larynx Slide 13.9bCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Vocal cords (vocal folds) •Vibrate with expelled air to create sound (speech) • Glottis – opening between vocal cords
  15. 15. Trachea (Windpipe)Trachea (Windpipe) Slide 13.10Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Connects larynx with bronchi • Lined with ciliated mucosa •Beat continuously in the opposite direction of incoming air •Expel mucus loaded with dust and other debris away from lungs • Walls are reinforced with C-shaped hyaline cartilage
  16. 16. Primary BronchiPrimary Bronchi Slide 13.11Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Formed by division of the trachea • Enters the lung at the hilus (medial depression) • Right bronchus is wider, shorter, and straighter than left • Bronchi subdivide into smaller and smaller branches
  17. 17. LungsLungs Slide 13.12a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Occupy most of the thoracic cavity •Apex is near the clavicle (superior portion) •Base rests on the diaphragm (inferior portion) •Each lung is divided into lobes by fissures •Left lung – two lobes •Right lung – three lobes
  18. 18. LungsLungs Slide 13.12b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13.4b
  19. 19. Coverings of the LungsCoverings of the Lungs Slide 13.13Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Pulmonary (visceral) pleura covers the lung surface • Parietal pleura lines the walls of the thoracic cavity • Pleural fluid fills the area between layers of pleura to allow gliding
  20. 20. Respiratory Tree DivisionsRespiratory Tree Divisions Slide 13.14Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Primary bronchi • Secondary bronchi • Tertiary bronchi • Bronchioli • Terminal bronchioli
  21. 21. BronchiolesBronchioles Slide 13.15a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13.5a • Smallest branches of the bronchi
  22. 22. BronchiolesBronchioles Slide 13.15b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13.5a • All but the smallest branches have reinforcing cartilage
  23. 23. BronchiolesBronchioles Slide 13.15cCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Terminal bronchioles end in alveoli Figure 13.5a
  24. 24. Respiratory ZoneRespiratory Zone Slide 13.16Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Structures •Respiratory bronchioli •Alveolar duct •Alveoli • Site of gas exchange
  25. 25. AlveoliAlveoli Slide 13.17Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Structure of alveoli •Alveolar duct •Alveolar sac •Alveolus •Gas exchange
  26. 26. Respiratory MembraneRespiratory Membrane (Air-Blood Barrier)(Air-Blood Barrier) Slide 13.18a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Thin squamous epithelial layer lining alveolar walls • Pulmonary capillaries cover external surfaces of alveoli
  27. 27. Respiratory MembraneRespiratory Membrane (Air-Blood Barrier)(Air-Blood Barrier) Slide 13.18b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13.6
  28. 28. Gas ExchangeGas Exchange Slide 13.19Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Gas crosses the respiratory membrane by diffusion •Oxygen enters the blood •Carbon dioxide enters the alveoli • Macrophages add protection • Surfactant coats gas-exposed alveolar surfaces
  29. 29. Events of RespirationEvents of Respiration Slide 13.20a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Pulmonary ventilation – moving air in and out of the lungs • External respiration – gas exchange between pulmonary blood and alveoli
  30. 30. Events of RespirationEvents of Respiration Slide 13.20b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Respiratory gas transport – transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide via the bloodstream • Internal respiration – gas exchange between blood and tissue cells in systemic capillaries
  31. 31. Mechanics of BreathingMechanics of Breathing (Pulmonary Ventilation)(Pulmonary Ventilation) Slide 13.21a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Completely mechanical process • Depends on volume changes in the thoracic cavity • Volume changes lead to pressure changes, which lead to the flow of gases to equalize pressure
  32. 32. Mechanics of BreathingMechanics of Breathing (Pulmonary Ventilation)(Pulmonary Ventilation) Slide 13.21b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Two phases •Inspiration – flow of air into lung •Expiration – air leaving lung
  33. 33. InspirationInspiration Slide 13.22a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract • The size of the thoracic cavity increases • External air is pulled into the lungs due to an increase in intrapulmonary volume
  34. 34. InspirationInspiration Slide 13.22b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13.7a
  35. 35. ExhalationExhalation Slide 13.23a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Largely a passive process which depends on natural lung elasticity • As muscles relax, air is pushed out of the lungs • Forced expiration can occur mostly by contracting internal intercostal muscles to depress the rib cage
  36. 36. ExhalationExhalation Slide 13.23b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13.7b
  37. 37. Nonrespiratory Air MovementsNonrespiratory Air Movements Slide 13.25Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Can be caused by reflexes or voluntary actions • Examples •Cough and sneeze – clears lungs of debris •Laughing •Crying •Yawn •Hiccup
  38. 38. Respiratory Volumes and CapacitiesRespiratory Volumes and Capacities Slide 13.26Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Normal breathing moves about 500 ml of air with each breath (tidal volume [TV]) • Many factors that affect respiratory capacity •A person’s size •Sex •Age •Physical condition • Residual volume of air – after exhalation, about 1200 ml of air remains in the lungs
  39. 39. Respiratory Volumes and CapacitiesRespiratory Volumes and Capacities Slide 13.27a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) •Amount of air that can be taken in forcibly over the tidal volume •Usually between 2100 and 3200 ml • Expiratory reserve volume (ERV) •Amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled •Approximately 1200 ml
  40. 40. Respiratory Volumes and CapacitiesRespiratory Volumes and Capacities Slide 13.27b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Residual volume •Air remaining in lung after expiration •About 1200 ml
  41. 41. Respiratory Volumes and CapacitiesRespiratory Volumes and Capacities Slide 13.28Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Vital capacity •The total amount of exchangeable air •Vital capacity = TV + IRV + ERV •Dead space volume • Air that remains in conducting zone and never reaches alveoli • About 150 ml
  42. 42. Respiratory Volumes and CapacitiesRespiratory Volumes and Capacities Slide 13.29Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Functional volume •Air that actually reaches the respiratory zone •Usually about 350 ml • Respiratory capacities are measured with a spirometer
  43. 43. Respiratory CapacitiesRespiratory Capacities Slide 13.30Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13.9
  44. 44. Respiratory SoundsRespiratory Sounds Slide 13.31Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Sounds are monitored with a stethoscope • Bronchial sounds – produced by air rushing through trachea and bronchi • Vesicular breathing sounds – soft sounds of air filling alveoli
  45. 45. External RespirationExternal Respiration Slide 13.32a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Oxygen movement into the blood •The alveoli always has more oxygen than the blood •Oxygen moves by diffusion towards the area of lower concentration •Pulmonary capillary blood gains oxygen
  46. 46. External RespirationExternal Respiration Slide 13.32b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Carbon dioxide movement out of the blood •Blood returning from tissues has higher concentrations of carbon dioxide than air in the alveoli •Pulmonary capillary blood gives up carbon dioxide • Blood leaving the lungs is oxygen-rich and carbon dioxide-poor
  47. 47. Gas Transport in the BloodGas Transport in the Blood Slide 13.33a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Oxygen transport in the blood •Inside red blood cells attached to hemoglobin (oxyhemoglobin [HbO2]) •A small amount is carried dissolved in the plasma
  48. 48. Gas Transport in the BloodGas Transport in the Blood Slide 13.33b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Carbon dioxide transport in the blood •Most is transported in the plasma as bicarbonate ion (HCO3 – ) •A small amount is carried inside red blood cells on hemoglobin, but at different binding sites than those of oxygen
  49. 49. Internal RespirationInternal Respiration Slide 13.34a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Exchange of gases between blood and body cells • An opposite reaction to what occurs in the lungs •Carbon dioxide diffuses out of tissue to blood •Oxygen diffuses from blood into tissue
  50. 50. Internal RespirationInternal Respiration Slide 13.34b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13.11
  51. 51. External Respiration,External Respiration, Gas Transport, andGas Transport, and Internal RespirationInternal Respiration SummarySummary Slide 13.35Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13.10
  52. 52. Neural Regulation of RespirationNeural Regulation of Respiration Slide 13.36Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Activity of respiratory muscles is transmitted to the brain by the phrenic and intercostal nerves • Neural centers that control rate and depth are located in the medulla • The pons appears to smooth out respiratory rate • Normal respiratory rate (eupnea) is 12–15 respirations per minute • Hypernia is increased respiratory rate often due to extra oxygen needs
  53. 53. Neural Regulation of RespirationNeural Regulation of Respiration Slide 13.37Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13.12
  54. 54. Factors Influencing RespiratoryFactors Influencing Respiratory Rate and DepthRate and Depth Slide 13.38Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Physical factors •Increased body temperature •Exercise •Talking •Coughing • Volition (conscious control) • Emotional factors
  55. 55. Factors Influencing RespiratoryFactors Influencing Respiratory Rate and DepthRate and Depth Slide 13.39a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Chemical factors •Carbon dioxide levels • Level of carbon dioxide in the blood is the main regulatory chemical for respiration • Increased carbon dioxide increases respiration • Changes in carbon dioxide act directly on the medulla oblongata
  56. 56. Factors Influencing RespiratoryFactors Influencing Respiratory Rate and DepthRate and Depth Slide 13.39b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Chemical factors (continued) •Oxygen levels • Changes in oxygen concentration in the blood are detected by chemoreceptors in the aorta and carotid artery • Information is sent to the medulla oblongata
  57. 57. Respiratory Disorders: ChronicRespiratory Disorders: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary DiseaseObstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)(COPD) Slide 13.40a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Exemplified by chronic bronchitis and emphysema • Major causes of death and disability in the United States
  58. 58. Respiratory Disorders: ChronicRespiratory Disorders: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary DiseaseObstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)(COPD) Slide 13.40b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Features of these diseases •Patients almost always have a history of smoking •Labored breathing (dyspnea) becomes progressively more severe •Coughing and frequent pulmonary infections are common
  59. 59. Respiratory Disorders: ChronicRespiratory Disorders: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary DiseaseObstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)(COPD) Slide 13.40cCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Features of these diseases (continued) •Most victimes retain carbon dioxide, are hypoxic and have respiratory acidosis •Those infected will ultimately develop respiratory failure
  60. 60. EmphysemaEmphysema Slide 13.41Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Alveoli enlarge as adjacent chambers break through • Chronic inflammation promotes lung fibrosis • Airways collapse during expiration • Patients use a large amount of energy to exhale • Overinflation of the lungs leads to a permanently expanded barrel chest • Cyanosis appears late in the disease
  61. 61. Chronic BronchitisChronic Bronchitis Slide 13.42Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Mucosa of the lower respiratory passages becomes severely inflamed • Mucus production increases • Pooled mucus impairs ventilation and gas exchange • Risk of lung infection increases • Pneumonia is common • Hypoxia and cyanosis occur early
  62. 62. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary DiseaseChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)(COPD) Slide 13.43Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13.13
  63. 63. Lung CancerLung Cancer Slide 13.44Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Accounts for 1/3 of all cancer deaths in the United States • Increased incidence associated with smoking • Three common types •Squamous cell carcinoma •Adenocarcinoma •Small cell carcinoma
  64. 64. Sudden Infant Death syndromeSudden Infant Death syndrome (SIDS)(SIDS) Slide 13.45Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Apparently healthy infant stops breathing and dies during sleep • Some cases are thought to be a problem of the neural respiratory control center • One third of cases appear to be due to heart rhythm abnormalities
  65. 65. AsthmaAsthma Slide 13.46Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Chronic inflamed hypersensitive bronchiole passages • Response to irritants with dyspnea, coughing, and wheezing
  66. 66. Developmental Aspects of theDevelopmental Aspects of the Respiratory SystemRespiratory System Slide 13.47a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Lungs are filled with fluid in the fetus • Lungs are not fully inflated with air until two weeks after birth • Surfactant that lowers alveolar surface tension is not present until late in fetal development and may not be present in premature babies
  67. 67. Developmental Aspects of theDevelopmental Aspects of the Respiratory SystemRespiratory System Slide 13.47b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Important birth defects •Cystic fibrosis – oversecretion of thick mucus clogs the respiratory system •Cleft palate
  68. 68. Aging EffectsAging Effects Slide 13.48Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Elasticity of lungs decreases • Vital capacity decreases • Blood oxygen levels decrease • Stimulating effects of carbon dioxide decreases • More risks of respiratory tract infection
  69. 69. Respiratory Rate ChangesRespiratory Rate Changes Throughout LifeThroughout Life Slide 13.49Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Newborns – 40 to 80 respirations per minute • Infants – 30 respirations per minute • Age 5 – 25 respirations per minute • Adults – 12 to 18 respirations per minute • Rate often increases somewhat with old age

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