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Crime is an antisocial behavior to which a group rejects and to which attaches penalties. In this way, all those activities for which the state lays down punishments are crime. Those activities to which no punishment is attached may be sinful but they will not be Criminal.
Crime is a violation of social values and norms. In societies crime is directly related with violation of religion. The violation of folkways and mores is Crime, but when the violation of these cultural traits is continuous and harmful for others, it is taken as a Crime. The Crime is anti thesis to the spirit of state and law which are mostly based on social and cultural traits.
Crime leads to the social disorganization in the society. Crime undermines the social Fabric of the society. It is anti to the social justice, equality, and harmony of the society.
According to this School, Crime increases when the religious tendencies are diminished but it is not inevitable that a religious person will not do Criminal act while an atheist will do it. Some times even the religious people are seen committing the most heinous Crimes.
2. Hedonistic School
According to this school, an individual indulges in a Criminal activity when he thereby stands to gain more pleasure than pain. The believers of this theory maintain that the Crime can be Checked only when the pleasure by them is lesser than the pain the consequent of punishment. The hedonistic interpretation of crime has attained much support every where but modern criminologists do not conceder pleasure to the sole motive of crime. It goes without say that many people commit crime by causes other than for the search for the pleasure .
According to explained by Adolf Quetlet generally in the hot countries one fine violent Crimes and Crime against Persons where as in cold there are more Crimes Concerning to the Properties. Thus, according to geographic school the causes of the Crime are the Geographic factors like Climate, and Whether etc. infect, no one can deny that whether place an important role in setting up the trend to wards Crime.
According to this view point, Ecological elements play the most important role in the determination of the Crime the followers of this view have compared crises in Urban and rural ecological situations and find close relation between ecological situations minds and rate of Crime. The modern Criminologists accept the fact that ecological situations determine the environment which in its turn determine Crime.
According to this School a criminal is a particular type of person. This type has been determine both on anthropological and psychological basis. Lombroso has maintained an intimate relation between physical and mental tendencies. The criminal, according to him, is a prototype of the primitive man. He is morally insane. Right from the birth, he is of a particular type having peculiar facial characteristics. This particular type of person commit crime whatever may be his conditions. Thus, according to this view, the criminal is a particular type of a person
View of Mental testers
According to Goddard nearly 25% criminals are feeble-minded persons. Thus, some mental testers conceder feeble-mildness to be an important determinant of crime. On the other hand, it has been found that not all criminals are feeble minded nor do all feeble-minded persons turn into criminals.
According to the psycho analysts, the criminal is a psychopathic person and the causes of crime are in the repressed desire, emotional imbalance and different types of mental diseases. e.g., persons suffering from Kleptomania have a tendency to steal whatever thing they may find.
According to socialists, the main causes of crime are economic conditions and class struggle. This view also has a grain of truth and yet being one-sided, it is not applicable to a large number of crimes.
According to this view main determinant of crime is the social endowment which determines the responses of the criminal. The form of social organization has an important relation with the type of rate of crime. Crimes are determined by the social factors such as social mobility, cultural conflict, economic competition, social stratification, political, religious and economic aims and ideals, the density and quality of population, the distribution of wealth, etc.
Many geographical causes also stimulate the crimes. According to the Criminologists the geographical factors influences the crimes directly of indirectly. The crimes like Rape are more common planes than in the mountains.
Many Political causes also encourage the crime. Now a days, many criminals go Scot free with proper legal advice because there is an opportunity to prove the truth a fall and falsehood in a true. This encourage them to engage in criminal activities. On the other hand, innocent persons who are prosecuted and convicted in there place also become criminal as a reaction.
Roughly Speaking, the way to prevent crime is counteract The various causes that has been mentioned above. Many new suggestions are being made in this connection. Some important means to prevent the crime are:
Probation is the postponement of the punishment on the certain conditions laid down the prosecuting authority of the punishment due a criminal by law. These individual are kept under the guardianship of probation officer instead of being imprisoned. The decision to place a criminal on probation is taken after due consideration of several factors such as age, way of life, general conduct, physical and mental conditions of the person.
Pay role is also a mean of reforming the criminals. Under probation the criminal is given over to the protection of the probation officer without being punished but a criminal is placed on Pay Role after he has served short prison sentence.
He is also placed under the pay role officer. The pay role officer maintains contact with the criminal, keep on eye on him and tries to reform him. Probation is more popular than pay role.
In 1876 the Elmira Reformatory was established in New York, U.S.A. Since then this method of reforming criminals has been gaining favor in all civilized countries. Reformatories are of the following two kinds:-
Another means of reforming juvenile offenders is the Borstal School. Only the criminals between the ages of 16 and 21 are kept in these schools. There are many institution of this kind in different states of India. Here the juvenile delinquents are educated and efforts are made to turn them into good citizens by providing adequate care.
According to the retributive theory, the purpose of punishment is to seek revenge. It is described in the Old testament as an eye for an eye and tooth for a tooth. According to the German philosopher Kant, the offender should not be punished for the reason that it is means to his or another’s benefit but for the simple reason that he has committed a Crime .
According to the preventive theory the aim behind the punishment is to set an example to others and to prevent them form criminal tendencies. In the way the object of punishment is prevention. The theory is expressed by the Judge’s formula, “ You are not punished for stealing sheep, but in order that the sheep may not be stolen.
According to the reformative theory, the aim of punishment is the improvement of the Offender himself. The modern age seems generally to favor and apply this theory. Under this theory the behavior directed at the criminal shows him the consideration due to an individual and not conduct analogous to treatment of objects and means.