Bba L12 Dt Poupulation And DemographyPresentation Transcript
Population and Demography Welcome Class BBA-L12- / /
To understand the concept of population in sociological angle and its theories.
To understand the phenomenon population with reference to Pakistan.
Definition of Population what is population
“ the term population is referred to the cluster of people living in certain geographical boundaries such as village, town or a country.”
What is Demography?
Demography is referred to the organized study of division population, volume, composition and social mobility of the population.
Population -: The sciences of population and demography are relatively new born disciplines in the social sciences. They are strictly interrelated and tide up with each other. However, it is directly to indirectly effect the social change and social development. Population is a broader term which is used in sociology fro the huge number of people living in certain areas. This population carries some particular characteristics. The population science studies the nature and historical background of the certain population. The nature of the society is effected by the nature volume and historical composition of the population.
Demography- : Demography is the organized and statistical study of the population in certain geographical boundaries. It studies the increase of population in the society. The prime objective of the demography is to population. Population senses is done through the demographist.
Population Theory and Demography
The theories of population and demography are so much integrated that it become to difficult to distinguish between them practically, the demography encompasses the major three factors Birth, Death and Migration. Demography discuses the formal changes taking place in the mentioned areas in certain population. It is and analysis of the population which includes dynamic statistics and the effects of continues migration.
On contrary the population studies those theories and factors which bring about the cause of major changes in the society. These aspects may be social, economic and historical. The ultimate objective of the population study is to analysis the factors which influence the nature and balance of population.
Sociology and Demography
There is close relationship sociology and demography. It is because the Birth, Death and Migrations are not purely biological phenomena but they have social connections and orientation. The mentioned demographic factors are greatly effected by the social and cultural factors. Social factors identifies that how much and which type population is required with in the society. Other than this for better demographic analysis of the population is division and composition the study of sociology is very important. More over for the better human adjustment it is expected from every group of the society to maintain the balance of the population for overall social welfare. So the sciences of population assist the social scientists to analysis the various dynamic properly .
Population and structure
There is a close relationship between population and structure. Population and structure each other in different several methods. e.g. for rational control of members social planning is depends upon prevailing tendencies and values system about birth, Death and Migration. Social planning is depended upon the public reaction to achieve certain goals. It is incase if a plan is particularly prepaid for population control. Social and cultural factors work together to particular attitude of the towards the reproductive process. Reproductive process is very much inter connected with the social and cultural attitude of the people. There is direct and indirect relationship between population and social composition. In agricultural and primitive societies because of strong cohesion of the people with their on going social and familial patterns they do not accept the new ways of population control. There are three major areas of interest which are studied for better understanding of population and its structure both by the sociologist and demographists.
1. To study the nature, division, and composition of the population.
2. To study the changes in the attitudes of reproductive process of the people.
3. To study the proposed programs population welfare and control initiated in the different part of the country.
Theory of professor Car-Saunders
Prof. Car-Saunders presented the theory of optimum numbers of population. According to this theory when there is balance in capital, resources and the needs of individuals it created the optimum number of population. If the situation is different then this scenario it created several population problems. For optimum number of population it is necessary that the standard of living of the people should be better and there should be room for improvement in it. In every society the desire to create optimum number of population is present.
Theory of Professor Thompson
In this theory it has asserted that the population of every country passes the three stages.
1. Static condition of quantity of population in this stage the difference between the ratio birth and death Is very miner. It is mostly visible In backward countries where there is no control over population. At the same because of poor medical facilities the rate remain high.
2. In the 2 nd stage because of better medical facilities the death toll is reduced but the population. At the same because of poor medical of it. In these societies disorganization is quite visible.
3. In 3 rd stage the birth ratio is decreased. The people adopt the methods of population control. The population becomes once again static. The developed countries are the example of this.
Problem of Over population in Pakistan
When the birth is higher then death rate in a country in a country it is problem of over population. In this case the population increases very rapidly. This kind of situation is also existing in Pakistan. In Pakistan last 30 years death rate decreased almost half the birth rate in Pakistan is almost 3% and death rate is almost 1.4% due to over population we are confronting several problems such as shortage of food unemployment and increase in crime etc. the living standard of the majority of the people is going towards decline. Over population is leaving harmful effects on the economy of the country. That is why population considered major problem of country.
Causes of Over Population in Pakistan
The desire of male child is the one of the major cause of over population. Normally it is considered that the more is number of children the more will be earning hands. Due to this miss conception the population is increasing quickly.
Poverty is also one of the reason behind over population. Due to poverty educational facilities and social awareness is limited so because of lack of awareness the population is increasing in the presence of different miss conception
Early age marriages and polygamy marriages are also considered to be the cause of over population