Bba L10 Dt Social Interaction And Social ProcessesPresentation Transcript
Welcome Class BBA-L10- / / Social Interaction and Social Processes
To clarify the concept of social interaction along with its meaning definition and form etc.
To discus important social processes.
Definitions of Social Interaction
What is Social Interaction?
“ Social interaction is the reciprocal influence that human beings exert on each other through inter stimulation and response.” ( Gist )
“ By social interaction is meant the mutual influence that individuals and groups have upon one another in their attempts to solve problems and in their striving towards goals.” ( A.W.Green )
“ Social interaction is thus the general process where by two or more persons are in meaningful contact as a result of which their behavior is modified, however slightly.” (Elderege and Merrill).
Society is the web of social relationships. Social relationships are established through mutual behavior of and intercourse between the various member of the society, males and females, children, old men and young juveniles.
The behavior takes the form of mutual activity. In this way, social relationships depend upon the social interaction of the constituent member of the society. Some or the other kind of social interaction is set into motion whenever two of its members come into contact. When a man and a women come into contact there may be attraction or repulsion, co-operation or conflict. Various groups in society are always undergoing strains of mutual conflict, competition, co-operation and synthesis and other activity. All these are social interactions. The term social interaction is applicable only to the action which produces some defend influence upon social relations that exist among human beings, hence, social interaction serve to establish mental among persons.
( Continue ) Conclusion
Individuals tend to be influenced by the ideas, achievements and emotions of others. Thus social interaction is the reciprocal influence mutually exerted human beings through inter stimulation and mutual response. The activities among the individuals based on the contact and communication are social interaction. Social interaction is communicative interaction. Interaction is the simplest form of social process. In any society all the constituents, be they individual or groups of individual are perpetually engaged in solving problems and attaining some predetermined ends. In the process of performing both these functions they also influence each other. This influence is social interaction.
Conditions of Social Interaction
1) Social Contact- : Social contact differs from physical or bodily contact, bodily contact being unnecessary for social contact. Social Contact can be established through the medium of radio, letters, telephone, telephonic contact and other media communication even between people who are separated by thousands of miles of land and water. But social contacts are strengthened by physical contact. While physical contact in the carious forms such as hand shaking, embracing, kissing, etc., increases social contact, it also on the other hand, symbolized the permanence and strength of theses social relations.
( Continue ) Conditions of Social Interaction
2) Communication - : Social contacts are always established through the medium of some sense organ. And an object can be perceived by the sense organ only when that object causes communication within that sense organ. Hence, the means of communication are essential adjuncts of social contact. The more important means of communication are the sense organs of man, Language, script, gestures, symbols, radio, television, post and telegraph services, newspaper, etc. in fact, society cannot even be conceived without communication.
Importance of Social Interaction
Existence of social society is based on social interaction. To understand every society it is relevant and important to study the nature of social interaction in particular society. Social interaction is the basis of not only society but of culture as well. Both culture and society are the products of social interaction. Thus, society has risen out of social interactions. Its very existence is impossible without social interaction. They form the ground on which culture arises and thus ensure its continued existence. Hence, the study if social interactions should in fact be the first step to the study of society itself. An understanding of social interaction is an essential prerequisite for the understanding of social relations.
Forms of Social Interaction
Disjunctive Social Interaction- :
Competition -: According to Biesanz and Biesanz “ is striving of two or more persons for the same goal.”
Characteristics of Competition- :
Competition is an unconscious action-
Competition is an impersonal action-
Competition is a continues activity-
Competition is a universal action-
Forms of Competition-:
Economic Competition- : it is found in production, exchange and distribution as well as consumption in the field of economic activities.
Cultural Competition- : cultural competition is found among different cultures. Taking the history of any country, it can be seen that there has always been a great difference in the cultures of the natives and the invaders.
Social Competition- : to get a high status in society, every body seems to be engaged in competitive activity.
Racial Competition- : In South Africa, there is an intense competition between the black and white races.
( Continue ) Forms of Competition- :
Political Competition- : In all countries competition is oblivious between the various political parties, and even between the different members of a political power.
Importance of competition -: Competition is very important for increase in personal efficiency of the individuals. It is important for personal group and community development. However the competition should be controlled to avoid controversy and chaos in the society.
Conflict - : “Conflict is the social process is which individuals or groups seek their ends by directly challenging the antagonist by violence or the threat of violence.” (Gillin and Gillin).
Characteristics of Conflict - :
Conflict is a conscious action-
Conflict is a personal activity-
Conflict lacks continuity-
Conflict is universal-
Forms of Conflict
Personal Conflict- In it the conflicts arises between different ideas and aims. e.g. there arises conflict when two professors of a college contest with each other to get into the principal’s chair.
Class Conflict- Conflict arises between the classes having different interests. e.g. Marx rightly said a conflict is inevitable between the laborers and the capitalists.
Caste Conflict- Superiority complex has caused a conflict between different castes.
( Continue ) Forms of Conflict
Racial Conflict- sometimes, a particular race some how manages to acquire the notion that it is the best fitted of all human races to dominate and govern the world and that this would do the world a lot of good. e.g. “the notion of Nordicism led to a prolonged conflict between the Germans and the Jews.
Group Conflict- In politics, the different groups having different interests and motives try to fulfill their own interests and this leads to conflict. In this way, group conflict can arise any where.
International Conflict- Some times there occurs serious international conflict when a nation tries to suppress the other to fulfill some particular aim.
Importance of Conflict
Unlike competition the conflict is also very important and necessary. How ever, it is use full until there is no element of violence if it is controlled it is also helpful in social progress and development. It can help the society to identify the negative elements of the society. Conflict is also help full in identifying the limits, utility and pace of competition.
Conjunctive Social Interaction-:
Accommodation-: “ As a process, accommodation is the sequence of steps by which persons are reconciled to changed conditions of life through the formation of habits and attitudes made necessary by the changed conditions themselves.” (Reture and Hart)
“ In one sense, accommodation is the basis of all formal social organization.” ( Biesanz and Biesanz )
“ The term accommodation refers particularly to the process in which man attains a sense of harmony with his environment.” ( Maclver and Burgees )
Accommodation is the first step from conflict to reconciliation and cooperation. Man cannot always remain conflicting with and struggling against his environment and all the people who surround him. Even if he some times fails to agree with them, he usually has to tolerate or to suffer them. One has to come to some sort of understanding with life. Without it, life is no path strewn with rose petals. Coming to an understanding or common agreement is accommodation. This is an unconscious process that is forever active in some or the other sphere of life.
Assimilation-: “ Assimilation is process whereby attitudes of many persons are united and thus develop into a unified group.” ( Bogardus )
“ Assimilation is the social process whereby individuals and groups come to share the same sentiments value and Goals.” ( Biesanz and Biesanz )
“ Assimilation is a process of interpenetration and fusion in which persons and groups acquire the memories, sentiments, and attitudes of the other persons or groups, and by sharing their experience and history are incorporated in a common cultural life.”
Assimilation is a form of social adjustment. In this process the individual or group begins to absorb slowly and gradually, some what unconsciously, the new circumstances in which it find itself. It results in the modification of social attitudes. e.g. in many parts of India the Hindus and Muslims have become so intimate and well acquainted with each other that they have assimilated many points of each others, culture into their own and have made them integral part of their own social conduct. American society is a prominent example of assimilation of different culture and society.
“ Co-operation, thus, may be defined as a form of social interaction wherein two or more persons work together to gain a common end.” ( Merill and Fldrege )
“ Co-operation is the process by which individuals or groups combine their efforts, in a more or less organized way, for the attainment of common objectives.” ( Fairchild )
Co-operation is the form of social interaction in which two or more persons work for the achievement of a common end. e.g. the aim of all the teachers in a college is the maintenance of high standard of education and creating and maintaining a responsible position of the college in social circles. Thus the process of cooperation involves two elements, those of common end and organized efforts. e.g. the teachers in an educational institution combine and organized their effort to maintain both a high level of education within the institution and its respected place in society outside.
Distinguish between Social Interaction and social Action
Social interaction is a process which is necessarily carried out by two or more persons where as social action is an individual act. e.g. A person can do a social welfare activity.
Social interaction is a two way process of relationships where as social action is an activity.
In the process of social interaction the people address each other where as it is not necessary for social action. Any person can perform social action without directly addressing other person.