Bba L08 Dt Social Mobility


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Bba L08 Dt Social Mobility

  1. 1. Welcome Class BBA-L08- / / Social Mobility
  2. 2. Today’s Objectives <ul><li>to clarify the concept of Social Mobility along with its Factors and Types. </li></ul><ul><li>To understand the nature and other relevant Aspects. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Social Mobility? <ul><li>“ Social Mobility is a change of position and status of any person or transformation from one level to another is Social Mobility.” (David Popnoe). </li></ul><ul><li>“ Social Mobility is a transformation from one state to another state.” (Fare Child) </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Changes taking place in the position and status of an individual in his / her Social life is Social Mobility.” (P.A Morkin). </li></ul>
  4. 4. Conclusion <ul><li>The wish for a higher status and income than one’s parents had is the global dream. The process where people achieve or fail to achieve this is called Social Mobility. It is natural desire of every human to lead a convenient and well-situated life. A one has to attain better adjustment with its geographical and social environment to realize its this desire. To fulfill his needs and desires he / she changes the locality and some time changes the profession, this process of change in profession or geographical environment is called Social Mobility. e.g. in our society most of the people living in Rural areas change their locality and profession to bring change in their Social Status. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Nature of Social Mobility <ul><li>Social Mobility may be defined as the act of moving from one social class to another. An open class society is one in which mobility is high; a closed class is one in which there is little mobility. The caste system in which people are confined to the occupations and statuses of their ancestors is the most extreme example of an closed class society (Berreman, 1981). India is often sited the world’s most caste-ridden country. Its government now is opening higher status occupations to low- caste groups which, for centuries, have been limited to low- status work. It is trying to move India toward an open class society ( Gandhi, 1980 ). In the modern world, many countries are seeking to increase social mobility in the belief that this makes people happier and enables them to do the kind of work for which they are best situated. If social mobility is high, even though individual have unequal social origins, all may believe that they are equal in having position. If social mobility is Low, then it is clear that most people are frozen into the status of their ancestors. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Individual and Group Mobility <ul><li>Mobility applies to both groups and Individuals. For instance, the success of the Kennedy Family is an example of individual social mobility, while the Irish and Polish Catholics march form the slums to the suburbs illustrates group mobility (Greeley, 1976). </li></ul><ul><li>The two kinds of mobility very often go together. A disadvantaged group may produce an occasional celebrity, but the higher the status of the group, the greater the number the high achievers. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Types of Social Mobility <ul><li>Vertical Mobility-: if a great shift occurs in the position of any individual and this shift is quite prominent and visible in society is vertical mobility. e.g. A son of a poor former of remote village joint military after basic education can reach to the post of Military General is, Vertical Mobility. </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal Mobility-: if a person or Group change its profession and locality but if no change occurs in his / her position and status is Horizontal Mobility. e.g. even a Rich Land Lord or Feudal migrate to the city but if he is not able to attain a different position and status despite desire and effort is Horizontal Mobility. </li></ul>
  8. 8. ( Continue ) Types of Social Mobility <ul><li>Upward Mobility-: under this type of social mobility the people moves towards to highest position. e.g. a university lecturer joins university but ultimately achieve the post of Vice chancellor is Upward Mobility. </li></ul><ul><li>Downward Mobility-: if some one undergoes demotion in his profession and position is Downward Mobility. e.g. if a Police I.G is demoted to lower rank is a Downward Mobility. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Causes of Social Mobility <ul><li>Geographical Causes-: The peculiar Geographical Conditions pay vital role in Social Mobility in certain country. The people migrate from the area where the geographical condition are conducive for them. The migrate to those areas or countries where the geographical conditions considered are to be good. e.g. in extreme winter the people of that area comes to plain cities. </li></ul>
  10. 10. (Continue) Causes of Social Mobility <ul><li>Political and Economic Causes-: if there are conducive and suitable Politico-Economic conditions the people take active part in the process of social Mobility. The position and status of the individual continues to change with progress of the country. That is why, the ratio of social mobility is high in developed countries like U.S.A, UK and Switzerland. On the other hand in undeveloped countries this ratio is normally lower enough. e.g. as compare to past, due to economic development of the country the Rural Urban migration has increased a lot. </li></ul>
  11. 11. (Continue) Causes of Social Mobility <ul><li>Desire of Better Living Standard-: The desire of better living standard is also triggers the process of social mobility. The people to struggle to realize this desire. e.g. that is why in our country the people migrate from Rural setting to Urban and even to abroad for this purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Desire of Higher Education-: Youth has to engage in the process of social mobility for Higher Education. e.g. The people comes to cities for Higher Education and even to Foreign Countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Development of Communication and Media-: These days, the development of means of communication and Media is also responsible for Social Mobility. The people can easily go to any country which leads the trend of Social Mobility. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Positive Effects of Social Mobility <ul><li>Betterment in Living Standard- : Social Mobility bring about the cause of Betterment in the living Standard of the people. The people change their professions which ultimately improve their Living Standard. e.g. people migrate from villages to cities and change their professions. </li></ul><ul><li>National Unity is Increased -: Due to social mobility the people move to other areas of the country. They interact in new cultures which increases social interaction of the different communities of the country. This large scale interaction increases National Unity and Solidarity. e.g. the Pathan community migrated from their original territory to every part of the country and they are contributing in National Unity through their intensive interaction and handwork. </li></ul>
  13. 13. ( Continue ) Positive Effects of Social Mobility <ul><li>Projection of different Ideas -: when the people of certain community or areas go to other parts of the country of world they also promote their Ideas. Similarly, they learn about the Ideas of other community and areas which brings about the cause of cultural expansion. e.g. The Muslims of Arab come to ancient India and promoted the Islamic Ideology. </li></ul>
  14. 14. ( Continue ) Positive Effects of Social Mobility <ul><li>Tendency of Personal Freedom-: Due to social mobility the level of education is increased by which the Tendency of Personal Freedom grows Quickly. e.g. with the expansion of literacy in Pakistan the influence of feudalism us lessening gradually. </li></ul><ul><li>End of Obsolete Customs-: when the people interact with new culture they learn new customs, tradition, norms etc. the people some time adopt some positive traditions replacing the obsolete norms. e.g. in the rural setting normally girl education is not liked but when the people migrate to the cities influenced by the new culture they start to engage their girls to in education process. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Negative Effects of Social Mobility <ul><li>Ethnic and Cultural Problems-: Social Mobility effects negatively on the demography of the territory. It creates state of collision in the interest of the different groups. This creates problem of law and order and social disorder. e.g. situation and circumstances of Sindh are the examples of this problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal Division of Population-: Social Mobility brings about because of over population in industrial areas or cities. It disturbs balance of population in different areas which leads to further serious problems. e.g. due to over population in cities huge problem has made the life in the city vulnerable similarly due to huge migration from Rural to Urban setting has caused deficiency of agricultural laborers in the villages. </li></ul>
  16. 16. ( Continue ) Negative Effects of Social Mobility <ul><li>Unemployment-: the trend of social Mobility increases unemployment in the country. In every some professions are highly valued. For example in our society the professions of Medical, Engineering and Military are highly regarded. Consequently the people move to these professions in great numbers. As a result of this, on the one hand discard other ancestry professions. e.g. the youth of our country prefers to other professions then agricultural, on the other hand in other professions the room to adjust so many people becomes less which leads to further down and right sizing. </li></ul>
  17. 17. ( Continue ) Negative Effects of Social Mobility <ul><li>Increase in Crime-: Social Mobility increases the crime rate as well. Due to social mobility the trend of lavish life is developed in people. They do not concentrate on hard work similarly in some cases, the people have to go to other counties. In the absence of the head of the family the children become delinquent which leads the increase crime. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Thank you and Goodbye, </li></ul><ul><li>Till Next Class </li></ul>