Bba L07 Dt Deviation And Social Control


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Bba L07 Dt Deviation And Social Control

  1. 1. Welcome class BBA-L07- / /08 Deviation and Social Control
  2. 2. Today’s objectives <ul><li>To clarify the concept of deviation along with its Types and Forms. </li></ul><ul><li>To clarify the concept of Social Control and to Discus other relevant aspects such as Types and Agencies of Social Control. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definitions of Deviation <ul><li>What is Deviation? </li></ul><ul><li>“ To adapt unusual Social Behavior other then on going Social Patterns is Social Deviation” ( David Popnoe ) </li></ul><ul><li>“ No system of Social control works perfectly. Some persons fail to behave as expected in known societies, although nonconformity may be defined as Social Deviation.” (Edgerton, 1976) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Conclusion <ul><li>Every Society has its own principles laws, folkways, and mores. These are formed according to socio economic and religo-geographical particular environment of the each society. These are made for the welfare and betterment of the masses so that system of rights and duties agreed in society continue smoothly. That’s why in child hood it is taught to the children to follow these patterns of social behavior through socialization. Despite this fact, some people break folkways, mores and laws or they don’t act upon them. Such people are called Deviant Character in Society. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Kinds of Deviation <ul><li>1) Disapproved : some people in the society violate the existing patterns and rules of the society for their personal benefits e.g. Criminals, Robbers, Smugglers etc. this is a sort of Disapproved Deviation. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Approved : there are some people in the society who do not like the prevalent norms and laws. They consider their right to violate such norms and laws. They even express their violation through their words and acts. They do not hide from the others. They even instigate others to imitate them. Such people are normally called revolutionary people which is some how approved in different societies. </li></ul>
  6. 6. ( Continue ) Kinds of Deviation <ul><li>3) Relative and Absolute Deviation : most people in modern societies are neither completely conformist nor completely deviant. A completely deviant person would have a hard time staying alive. Even the more spectacular deviants, such as pyromaniacs, revolutionists, or hermits, are generally fairly conventional in some of their activities. And nearly all “Normal” people occasionally deviant. (Wallerstein and Wyle, 1974; Gold, 1970). It is clear that nearly everyone in our society is Deviant to some degree, but some are more frequently and broadly deviant than others, and some conceal their deviant actions more fully than others. To some extent the deviant is one who does openly what others do secretly. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Distinguish between Deviant and Criminal </li></ul><ul><li>Normally criminal is such person who breaks the law of the land. But Deviant is such person who breaks the folkways, mores and norms of the society. </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish between Deviant and Delinquent </li></ul><ul><li>Delinquent is such person in the society who breaks existing folkways, mores and norms and social patterns. An age limit for the Delinquent is 7 to 18 years but for Deviant there is no age limit. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Causes of Social Deviation <ul><li>Lake in Socialization : Socialization plays vital role in forming a good and responsible citizen if the process of socialization is not given proper attention then, the degree of social deviation increases in society. Due to lake in socialization by the relevant social institution such as family. </li></ul><ul><li>Ridged : if the culture of society is un-flexible and un-compatible to the changing circumstances the new generation expresses its anxiety over this rigidity. They deviate from such norms e.g. the norm inter caste marriages exchanged marriages (watta – satta) and dowry. </li></ul>
  9. 9. ( Continue) Causes of Social Deviation <ul><li>Unpopular Social Laws : some time the governments in acts such laws which may be in the interest of the government but not in the public interest. So, the people deliberately deviate from them they protest against such things e.g. some years ago the laws of south African apartheid government were not in the interest of the majority of Black population so they use to Deviate from them. </li></ul><ul><li>Extra Ordinary Exploitation : if any group or nation is suffering from extra ordinary exploitation then such group or nation may Deviate and protest over the exploitation to attract the attention of the government or international community. e.g. the object of freedom fighter in Kashmir is to attract the attention of Indian Government and international community to wards their rights of self determination. </li></ul>
  10. 10. ( Continue) Causes of Social Deviation <ul><li>5. Cultural Invasion : if any is confronting the cultural invasion of any other culture to the extreme degree the people deviate from their on cultural patterns and do adopt the others cultural patterns. e.g. in our society we are heavily influence by the Indian and western culture. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Negative Effects of Deviation <ul><li>S ocial Deviance weakens the grip of norms which causes social disorganization. </li></ul><ul><li>S ocial Deviance creates sense of insecurity which bring about separatist movement in society. </li></ul><ul><li>N ormally, social norms are the reflection of generally social environment of society. If people break them they may indulge in various problems. e.g. increase of love marriages has enhanced the divorce in Pakistan. </li></ul><ul><li>I t increases the crime rate. </li></ul><ul><li>D ue to social deviation social institution become weak enough by which the process of socialization get effected negatively raising delinquency in the society. e.g. the collapse of family institution has created great vacuum in European societies. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Positive Effects of Deviation <ul><li>N ormally social deviants are those whose behavior is different than prevalent social norms. In ancient time when human being use to spend natural life there were so many uncivilized norms in practice. If people have not deviated from them the society would have the same as it was thousand years before. So, social deviance is necessary for social development and betterment. </li></ul><ul><li>S ocial deviance becomes the cause of social revolutions. e.g. the revolution of Karl Marx was because of his Deviance from economic system of the time. Similarly, Muslims of sub content deviated from socio economic and political system of sub content India which led the creation of new Islamic state Pakistan. </li></ul>
  13. 13. ( Continue ) Positive Effects of Deviation <ul><li>S everal autocrats governments impose laws opposite to the will of the people. In this cause deviance becomes necessary for the protection of the rights of the people. e.g. it was necessary for the people of south Africa to deviate from the laws promulgated by apartheid regime of that time. </li></ul><ul><li>S ome time, social deviance reclaims in the existing social norms which benefit the society in large. e.g. in past it was social norm to keep the girls un educated but these this social norm is totally otherwise which has improved the status of women in society. </li></ul>
  14. 14. ( Continue ) Positive Effects of Deviation <ul><li>I n our society the people mostly act upon the negatives social norms because of the fear of the society. e.g. dowry, inter caste marriage and exchange marriages. If the people would not dare to deviate from them the society would continue to indulge in many problems. If social deviance is for social welfare and value able objective is beneficial but if it is only personal benefits it is harmful. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Definition of Social Control <ul><li>What is Social Control? </li></ul><ul><li>B rearly- “ Social control is collective term for those processes and agencies, planned and unplanned, by which individuals are taught, persuaded or compelled to conform to the usages and life value of the group to which they belong.” </li></ul><ul><li>G illin and Gillin- “ Social control is that system of measures, suggestion, persuasion, restraint and coercion by whatever means, including physical force, by which a society brings into conformity to the approved pattern of behavior a subgroup or by which a group moulds in to conformity its members. ” </li></ul>
  16. 16. ( Continue ) Definition of Social Control <ul><li>M aclver and Page- “ By social order is meant the way in which the entire social order coheres and maintains itself, how it operates, as a changing equilibrium.” </li></ul><ul><li>G urvitch and Moore- “ Social control can be defined as the some total or rather whole of cultural patrons, social symbols, collective spiritual meanings, values, ideas and ideals, as well as acts and process, directly connected with them, where by inclusive of society, every particular group and every participating individual member over come tensions and conflicts with in themselves through temporary equilibrium and takes steps for new creative efforts.” </li></ul>
  17. 17. Conclusion <ul><li>Social control is the control of society over the individual, some of man’s tendencies are beneficial to society while others are detrimental to its interest. Their can be no question of controlling the beneficial tendencies. Thus social control is exercised by society over the undesirable or harmful tendencies of man. This is not governmental control. Governmental control is based upon force and is enforced upon the individual externally. Social control is self control. It keeps on changing in accordance with the changes in Society. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Types of Social Control <ul><li>Karl Mannheim- </li></ul><ul><li>1) Direct Social control- this is the control exercised upon the individual by the reactions of the people living in proximity. Such control is found existing in the family, neighborhood, play group, and other primary groups. An individual is deeply influenced by the opinion and views of his parents, colleagues, neighbors and those who work with him. His behavior is determined Ed or controlled by their criticism, derogation, praise, suggestion or persuasion, etc. </li></ul>
  19. 19. ( Continue ) Types of Social Control <ul><li>2) Indirect Social Control- this is control exercised upon the individual by factors which are separated from him Control of the individual by secondary groups is of this type. Its prominent means are traditions, institutions, customs, rationalized behavior, changes in situations and social mechanism, etc. the means of social control are invisible and subtle. In the existing complex society, the influence of the opinion, law, custom, etc., is conveyed in this way. This is not that there are no individuals behind this control but these individual are not seen by the persons affected. </li></ul><ul><li> ( Kimball Young ) </li></ul>
  20. 20. ( Continue ) Types of Social Control <ul><li>3) Positive Social Control- Rewards has an immense value upon the activities of an individual. A large part of the population of society desires to be rewarded by the society. And, consequently, they constantly Endeavour to conform to the traditions, mores, values and ideals accepted by the society. For this, they are rewarded in the form of social recognition, fame, respect, etc. </li></ul>
  21. 21. ( Continue ) Types of Social Control <ul><li>4) Negative Social Control- under this are comprehended those types of social control in which a person is prevented from doing some thing by threat of punishment. Society, while it is encourages to peoples indulge in certain type of activity of promising reward, also discourages and prevents people from many activities by fear of punishment, which can be moderate severe physical or verbal or in any other form. Examples of Verbal punishment are defamation, criticism, ridicule, etc. an example of physical punishment is extradition from the caste. Fear of these punishments helps to prevent people from violating the socially accepted customs, traditions, values and ideals, etc. </li></ul>
  22. 22. ( Continue ) Types of Social Control <ul><li>Other views- </li></ul><ul><li>Formal Social Control-: The formal types are those which are specifically designed for control, and include government, law, police, army, jail, penal code, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Informal Social Control-: Informal Social control is those methods which develop by themselves according to the needs of society and are, mores, traditions, customs, social ideals, etc. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Agencies of Social Control <ul><li>1) Customs-: In controlling of an behavior of an individual in society, customs play an important role. They regulate the life of an individual In a way so that he experiences the minimum of pressure. Generally, the people themselves want to live according to the custom as such a course firstly saves them from the objections and ridicule of the society and secondly they do not have to resort to original thinking on every respect. By means of customs they are provided with a clear guidance for every activity. To make an example, among the Hindus there are various definite customs relation to their day to day activity, education, behavioral concepts procedures. Marriage, etc. said by Ginsberg “ The role played by customs in life is comparable to the role of instincts in living beings. instincts guide the living beings in his struggle for existence. Customs enlighten man in his life. From his very childhood man forms the habit of obeying them and he follows them without raising any hue or cry.” </li></ul>
  24. 24. ( Continue ) Agencies of Social Control <ul><li>2) Public Opinion-: In the present democratic age public opinion is supremely power full it control the government. Even the most power full government have resign if they oppose it. This public opinion is formed by propaganda, newspaper, cinema, radio, etc. Public Opinion Controls the conduct behavior, way of living and methods etc. of the individual to fairly extent. </li></ul>
  25. 25. ( Continue ) Agencies of Social Control <ul><li>3) Family-: family has great importance as an instrument of social control. The first place where an individual is socialized is family. It is in the family that he learns the various methods of living, behavior, conversion, etc. in the family he learns obedience and respect for the opinion of others. The control of the parents upon the child is the control of the Society upon the individual. In this way the family has control on individual not merely in his childhood but from his infancy to senility. </li></ul>
  26. 26. ( Continue ) Agencies of Social Control <ul><li>4) Education-: According to Ruskin, “ Education consists in making people polite what they ought to be.” The ideals and patterns of politeness differ from society to society. An individual is trained in these through education, here the word “ Education” does not merely literacy but is employed in its most comprehensive sense. It is only in this meaning of the word that the sociologist studies or contemplates it. Education teaches man the use of the various capacities, abilities, intelligence, etc. bestowed upon him by nature. Education gives him ability to succeed in his struggle for existence. Education is an art of adaptation for man, adaptation is more social than natural. Hence, education adapts man to society. In this way, education is an important means of social control. Education is in the family, school, playground, club, office, in fact everywhere. At every place the individual is taught something and socialized. In the family, in school, on playground, the child learns the use of polite behavior, learns to respect the opinion and advice of others and learns to comply with the traditions and mores. </li></ul>
  27. 27. ( Continue ) Agencies of Social Control <ul><li>5) Law-: According to Ross, “ law is most specialized and highly furnished engine of social control employed by society.” Ross has enumerated two functions of law. (1 st ) To crush completely of the homicidal activities of the individual and (2 nd ) To persuade the individual to both pay attention to the rights of others and to act cooperatively. In this way law does not merely protect society or insure its existence but also contributes to its welfare. </li></ul>
  28. 28. ( Continue ) Agencies of Social Control <ul><li>6) Communal Codes-: Communal codes include all those laws of the community by means of which the community exercises its control over the individual. Customs, folkways, mores, morals and rituals, etc., are enumerated under it. </li></ul>
  29. 29. ( Continue ) Agencies of Social Control <ul><li>7 ) Religion-: The control of religion is very strong in the social sphere. Every religion has determined some laws of the behavior the obedience of which is considered compulsory. At the base of these religious laws is the fear of divine displeasure and suffering of hell, coupled with a love and respect for invisible power. The individual feels the pressure of this belief even more than the pressure exerted by the state and the society. In this way religion is powerful weapon of social control. </li></ul>
  30. 30. ( Continue ) Agencies of Social Control <ul><li>8) Recreational Group-: In the group a person undergoes specialization and learns the methods of behavior towards other people. Hayes has written, “ By supervised play children learn by experience that the civilized life is far superior for all concerned than savagery.” Games are based upon laws without following which the game can not be played. In this way game instill in man the habit of remaining in control and obeying the law. The makes a person pliable and teaches him to obey of the orders of the leader and cooperate with other people. As a result sense of group responsibility is awakened in participants. </li></ul>
  31. 31. ( Continue ) Agencies of Social Control <ul><li>9) Art-: Art also controls the behavior of men, poetry, folksongs, drawings, sculptures, music, etc. have their effect on man’s emotions and sentiments. Art is a pleasant social control. Its influence is universal. Folksongs are important in every society. Music makes human tendencies refined. Community feelings is enhanced by communal singing and dancing. </li></ul>
  32. 32. ( Continue ) Agencies of Social Control <ul><li>10) Social Ideals-: The activities of individuals are affected by the social ideals. Social ideals are subject to change, and are relevant in their own context. But in every country most of the people Endeavour to mould their lives according to these social ideals. In modern times, the conduct and behavior of people of democratic countries has been influenced by democratic ideals liberty, equality and fraternity while the conduct of the communist population has been swayed by communist ideals. </li></ul>
  33. 33. ( Continue ) Agencies of Social Control <ul><li>11) Leadership-: the leaders have also shown the way for the masses to follows. The path followed by great men in the path to be followed by others. In this way leaders in the religious, social, political and other fields have had great influence upon the lives of peoples. “ Mahatma Gandhi ” and “ Karl Marx ” converted the lives of millions of people. And even otherwise, it is the leaders in every society who enforce the social control. </li></ul>
  34. 34. ( Continue ) Agencies of Social Control <ul><li>12) Fashion-: In the present day, fashion has become an important means of social control. In civilized societies the determinant in the field of thought and conduct, dress, belief, opinions, recreations, jewelry, adornment of house, way of talking, literature, music, art, in brief, all fields of life, is mainly fashion. With the increase in the means of transport and communication, the influence of fashion spreads over a greater range. Fashion is constantly changing but the people are ever desirous of changing with it. </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Thank you and Goodbye, till Next Class </li></ul>