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The  Norman  Conquest
<ul><li>The Norman king William I crosses the channel </li></ul><ul><li>The  Battle  of  Hastings  </li></ul><ul><li>Anglo...
<ul><li>tells the story of the Norman Conquest </li></ul><ul><li>is 231 feet long </li></ul><ul><li>commissioned by bishop...
<ul><li>French and Latin elements predominate in aristocratic circles </li></ul><ul><li>Anglo-Saxon elements – among lower...
<ul><li>Their fellow countrymen in France </li></ul><ul><li>England & France – almost one country </li></ul><ul><li>Numero...
<ul><li>2.  Their Scottish, Irish, Welsh neighbours </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts to conquer Scotland unsuccessful </li></ul>...
<ul><li>FEUDAL  SYSTEM  –  strict distinction between classes </li></ul><ul><li>KING  – most powerful </li></ul><ul><li>Ow...
<ul><li>MIDDLE  CLASSES : </li></ul><ul><li>KNIGHTS  –  soldiers who fought for the lords </li></ul><ul><li>MERCHANTS  – B...
<ul><li>LOWER  CLASS: </li></ul><ul><li>VILLEINS  or SERFS –  are given land to work, but don’t own any; most produce goes...
<ul><li>POLITICAL  POWER  belongs  to the  KING : </li></ul><ul><li>gives land, grants privileges, levies taxes </li></ul>...
<ul><li>MAGNA  CARTA – 1215. King John agrees to consult a council of the aristocracy. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1240, the coun...
<ul><li>The greatest power after the king and the nobles </li></ul><ul><li>11th century – king controls the Church, appoin...
<ul><li>Majority of people  illiterate </li></ul><ul><li>11th century -- the Church set up schools  </li></ul><ul><li>Mona...
<ul><li>Economically -- a  developing  country  </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants traded in wool and textiles </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Life very hard </li></ul><ul><li>95% of people live in the country </li></ul><ul><li>Land – major source of food <...
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Britain 1066 1485

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Leelo Kaskmann: history

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Transcript of "Britain 1066 1485"

  1. 1. The Norman Conquest
  2. 2. <ul><li>The Norman king William I crosses the channel </li></ul><ul><li>The Battle of Hastings </li></ul><ul><li>Anglo-Saxons are defeated, king Harold II dies </li></ul><ul><li>The Normans crush resistance in the rest of the country </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>tells the story of the Norman Conquest </li></ul><ul><li>is 231 feet long </li></ul><ul><li>commissioned by bishop Odo for the Bayeux Cathedral </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>French and Latin elements predominate in aristocratic circles </li></ul><ul><li>Anglo-Saxon elements – among lower classes </li></ul><ul><li>French – spoken at court </li></ul><ul><li>Latin – in the church </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Their fellow countrymen in France </li></ul><ul><li>England & France – almost one country </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous wars – esp. the Hundred Years War (1337-1431) </li></ul><ul><li>The battle of Agincourt </li></ul><ul><li>Joan of Arc </li></ul><ul><li>England -- separate from France </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>2. Their Scottish, Irish, Welsh neighbours </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts to conquer Scotland unsuccessful </li></ul><ul><li>11th century – Henry II sends an army to Ireland – not very successful </li></ul><ul><li>End of 13th century – resistance in Wales broken </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>FEUDAL SYSTEM – strict distinction between classes </li></ul><ul><li>KING – most powerful </li></ul><ul><li>Owns land, leads the army, makes laws </li></ul><ul><li>ARISTOCRACY : </li></ul><ul><li>BARONS AND LORDS – have absolute power in their territories </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>MIDDLE CLASSES : </li></ul><ul><li>KNIGHTS – soldiers who fought for the lords </li></ul><ul><li>MERCHANTS – Britain’s first businessmen, lived in towns </li></ul><ul><li>YEOMEN – farmers, owned small pieces of land </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>LOWER CLASS: </li></ul><ul><li>VILLEINS or SERFS – are given land to work, but don’t own any; most produce goes to the lord </li></ul><ul><li>SLAVES – 1/10th of the population, are owned by the lord </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>POLITICAL POWER belongs to the KING : </li></ul><ul><li>gives land, grants privileges, levies taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Domesday Book (1086)– the first census lists names of landowners and their land </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>MAGNA CARTA – 1215. King John agrees to consult a council of the aristocracy. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1240, the council is called a “parliament” </li></ul><ul><li>In 1349, the Council of the Commoners is formed </li></ul><ul><li>Dynastic conflicts – Wars of the Roses – end in 1471 – the House of York winning the war </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>The greatest power after the king and the nobles </li></ul><ul><li>11th century – king controls the Church, appoints bishops </li></ul><ul><li>12th century – conflict between Church and State </li></ul><ul><li>The murder of Thomas Becket , the Archbishop of Canterbury </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Majority of people illiterate </li></ul><ul><li>11th century -- the Church set up schools </li></ul><ul><li>Monasteries – leading centres of culture </li></ul><ul><li>13th century -- Oxford and Cambridge Universities </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Economically -- a developing country </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants traded in wool and textiles </li></ul><ul><li>Lived in towns </li></ul><ul><li>London – a busy trading centre </li></ul><ul><li>Many Anglo-Saxon laws in force </li></ul><ul><li>New laws by Normans – Common Law </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Life very hard </li></ul><ul><li>95% of people live in the country </li></ul><ul><li>Land – major source of food </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing population – not enough food </li></ul><ul><li>Disease widespread </li></ul><ul><li>Black Death – bubonic plague – 1348 </li></ul><ul><li>1/3 of the population dies </li></ul>
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