Writing researchpaper

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  • Handout and activity 1
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  • 1. WRITING A RESEARCH PAPER: AN INTRODUCTION Presented by Pema Yangchen Ed. D. 1
  • 2. Source for this presentationUnless indicated, the primary sourcefor the following presentation isCambridge Rindge and LatinResearch Guide which can be foundat http://www.crlsresearchguide.orgThe handouts and activities too havebeen either taken or adapted from thesame source. 2
  • 3. What is Research? Research is the systematic process of collecting and analyzing information to increase our understanding of the phenomenon under study. It is the function of the researcher to contribute to the understanding of the phenomenon and to communicate that understanding to others. 3
  • 4. What is Research? Continued Writing a research paper involves: 1. Familiarizing yourself with the works of "experts"--for example, on the page, in cyberspace, or in the flesh through personal interviews--to build upon what you know about a subject. 2. Comparing their thoughts on the topic with your own.Source: (http://owl.english.purdue.edu/workshops/hypertext/Researc hW/what.html) 4
  • 5. Types of Educational Research Quantitative Research follows a deductive research process and involves the collection and analysis of quantitative (i.e., numerical) data to identify statistical relations of variables. Qualitative Research follows an inductive process and involves the collection and analysis of qualitative (i.e., non-numerical) data to search for patterns, themes, and holistic features. Mixed research combines or mixes quantitative and qualitative research techniques in a single study. 5
  • 6. Types of Research Paper Analytical papers uses evidence to analyze facets of an issue. Argumentative papers uses evidence to attempt to convince the reader of your particular stance on a debatable topic. 6
  • 7. Tools of Research Six general tools of research that researchers use to derive meaning and draw conclusions from data. the library and its resources. the computer and its software. techniques of measurement. statistics. the human mind. facility with language. 7
  • 8. Basic Steps in the Research Process 1. Select a general topic that interests you in some way. 2. List key words to help you look up information about the topic. 3. Go to an encyclopedia, or other reference source, to get an overview of the topic. 4. Make source cards for whatever sources you will use for information. 5. Using the general overview, begin to focus the topic into something you can cover well. 6. Write a statement of purpose about the focused topic. 8
  • 9. Basic Steps Continued 7. Brainstorm questions about the focused topic. 8. Group questions under similar headings. 9. Add any new questions you can think of under those headings. 10. Repeat step 2, listing more key words from your newly focused topic and questions. 11. Make a list of possible sources that can answer your questions. Identify the best sources to use. 9
  • 10. Basic Steps Continued12. Find the sources in the library, on the computer, etc. Make a source card for each one you use.13. Begin making notecards. Use your brain stormed questions to guide your note taking.14. Change your statement of purpose into a draft thesis statement.15. Make an outline of your headings. If you are ready to print your outline, try the Outline Maker16. Refocus your thesis statement if necessary. 10
  • 11. Basic Steps Continued17. Write the body of your paper from your notes.18. Cite any necessary information with parenthetical citations.19. Write your introduction and conclusion.20. Write your Works Cited (it is similar to a bibliography).21. Create a title page.22. Evaluate your work.23. Turn in your paper on time. 11
  • 12. Selecting a Research TopicThree ways for you to get a topic toresearch:1. Your teacher assigns one to you.2. Your teacher gives you some guidelines for choosing one.3. Your teacher gives you complete freedom to choose whatever topic you want. 12
  • 13. Listing Key Words1. Write one or two sentences about your topic.2. Underline all of the specific words that describe your topic.3. Make a separate list of these specific words.4. Add to your list any other words that mean the same thing (synonyms) or are related terms.5. Think of more words or phrases that describe the larger topic, of which your topic is a part. Add those to the list.6. Think of more words or phrases that are subtopics of your topic which might help you find useful information. Add those to the list. 13
  • 14. Getting an Overview It should answer the questions; "who", "what", “when”, and "where", and only briefly some of the "why" and "how" questions. It will help you to: - get a general understanding of your topic. - begin to know what kinds of subtopics are within the general topic. - begin to ask some questions that you will answer later in the research process. - begin to focus your topic into one you can handle in your project. 14
  • 15. Making Source Cards They will help you to: identify the sources of quotations and ideas for citing your sources later (giving credit to your sources). find sources again if you need them. make your works cited/references (a list of the sources from which you used borrowed material in your project). 15
  • 16. An Example 16
  • 17. Focus the Topic The Encyclopedia Method - Use an encyclopedia article to provide you with the information you need to focus your topic. The Subtopic Method - You decide on a certain general subtopic word by which to focus your topic. The Question Method - You will need to have a fairly good overview of your topic already to develop a question. 17
  • 18. Writing a Statement of Purpose A Statement of Purpose is a sentence that you write, which states, in some detail, what you want to learn about in your research project. The statement guides you as you work so that you will read and take notes only on whats needed for your project. It will help you develop a Thesis Statement, which comes later on in the research process. 18
  • 19. How to Write a Statement of Purpose To write the sentence, first answer these questions for yourself as best as you can: 1. What is my real personal interest in the topic? 2. What do I specifically want to learn about my topic? Start your Statement of Purpose with words like "I want to learn about..." For example: I want to learn about what is being done by our government to stop air pollution. 19
  • 20. Brainstorming Questions It is the process of thinking up and writing down a set of questions that you want to answer about the research topic you have selected. Involves making two lists of questions 1. Asking Factual Questions 2. Asking Interpretive Questions a. Hypothetical b. Prediction c. Solution d. Comparison or analogy e. Judgement 20
  • 21. Grouping Questions Look over the questions you brain stormed. Decide on some words or phrases that are common to groups of questions. Turn those words or phrases into specific subtopic headings. Write each subtopic heading and rewrite under it the questions that go with it. Now add any other new questions that come to mind under any of the headings. 21
  • 22. Making Notecards: An Example 22
  • 23. Thesis Statement A thesis statement is a strong statement that you can prove with evidence. It is not a simple statement of fact. A thesis statement should be the product of your own critical thinking after you have done some research. Your thesis statement will be the main idea of your entire project. It can also be thought of as the angle or point of view from which you present your material. 23
  • 24. Drafting a Thesis Statement Look again at your Statement of Purpose Look at the kinds of information you have been finding while taking notes. Decide what kind of statement you have enough evidence to prove. (Be sure that you have done enough research to make a strong argument. You may be challenged.) Write that as your thesis statement. 24
  • 25. Making an Outline An outline is an abbreviated picture of the parts of your paper or project and the order in which they will come. You can think of it as a "road map" of your journey toward making a final product. Figure out the most logical flow of information, the best order for the information to be in, using the subtopics you created earlier. 25
  • 26. Writing the Body of the Paper Use your outline and your notecards. Write your first paragraph about the first subtopic in your outline. Introduce that subtopic in the first sentence. The body of that paragraph will be more information about the first subtopic and your evidence for why it supports your thesis statement. Use your note cards to get borrowed material (quotes, statistics, etc) to use as evidence. You must cite all borrowed material immediately after you use it. Continue in this manner until you reach the conclusion section of your outline. 26
  • 27. Citing Sources: ParentheticalDocumentation It lets your reader know that you want to make clear to them which are your ideas/words/pictures, etc. and which are someone elses. Avoids PLAGIARISM (Plagiarism is an unlawful act in which you use someone elses work as if it is your own.) It gives your Thesis Statement a lot more credibility. 27
  • 28. Writing Introduction and ConclusionIntroduction:1. A general introduction to the topic you will be discussing2. Your Thesis StatementConclusion:1. You restate your thesis.2. Summarize your main points of evidence for the reader. 28
  • 29. Making a Works Cited An alphabetical list of the sources (also called "works") you used in the body of your project. It should be the last page in your project. Irrespective of whether you use a complete piece of someone elses material or only a recognizable part of that material, you must cite your sources to avoid Plagiarism. 29
  • 30. Research Ethics: Some EthicalPrincipals Honesty Responsible Mentoring Objectivity Respect for colleagues Integrity Social Responsibility Carefulness Non-Discrimination Openness Competence Respect for Legality Intellectual Property Animal Care Confidentiality Human Subjects Responsible Protection Publication 30
  • 31. THANK YOU GOOD LUCK! Have Questions?Email: pemayang@yahoo.com 31