Painting and formwork

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Painting and formwork

  1. 1. Civil Engineering Department NPIC matika CMBUk 1- sMPar³GMBIeQI 1- lkçN³TUeTArbs;edIm,IeQI 1-2 TMrg;rbs;edImeQI 1-3 rsμIsMeyaKénrukçCati 1-4 TMrg;éneQI 2- karERbRbYleQI 2-1 dMeNIrkarpøas;bþÚr 2-2 karsMgYteQI 3- kareRCIserIseQI 3-1 karEbgEck 3-2 karxUcxatelIeQI 4- KuNPaBéneQI 4-1 lkçN³FmμCati 5- eQITn; 5-1 eQITn;tamtMbn;énBiPBelak 5-2 bnÞHkþareQIminrwg ¬eQITn;¦ 5-3 bMlas;bþÚrBN’ 5-4 RbePTéneQITn; 6- eQIrwg 6-1 eQIrwgtamtMbn;énBiPBelak 6-2 RbePTéneQIrwg 7- snøWkBas;lMGr 7-1 karplitsnøWkBaslMGr 7-2 karkat;eFVIsnøwkBas;lMGr CMBUk 2 ]bkrN_eRbIedayéd 1- ]bkrN_KMnUsRBag 1-1 ]bkrN_rgVas; Carpenting Works -5-
  2. 2. Civil Engineering Department NPIC 1-2 ]bkrN_KUs 2- karxYg nig ]bkrN_kat; 2-1 sVanéd 2-2 EpønsVan 2-3 bec©keTssVan 2-4 EdkecaH 2-5 EdkxYgéd ¬Edkéx¦ 2-6 sVanedayéd 2-7 BnøakRkck 2-8 BnøaksMEb:t 2-9 EdkQUs 2-10 kareRbIEdkQUs 2-11 karsMelogEpøBnøak nig EpøEdkQUs 2-12 karRcwb 2-13 BUefA 2-14 kaMbit 2-15 Rbdab;ekas 2-16 rNar: 2-17 rNar:eFμjl¥it 2-18 rNar:RbCaCnkUer: 2-19 rNar:Biess CMBUk 3 ma:sIunGarGKÁisnIcl½t)an 1- ma:sIunGarEpømUl sVan nig Garevol 1-1 ma:sIunGar 1-2 m:asIunsVan 1-3 m:asIunsMelog 1-4 m:asIunevog 2- ma:sIunQUs lk nig xat; Carpenting Works -6-
  3. 3. Civil Engineering Department NPIC 2-1 ma:sIunQUs 2-2 m:asIunlk 2-3 ma:sIunxat; 3- ]bkrN_sMrab;cak;P¢ab; 3-1 ]bkrN_)aj;RKab;kib nig EdkeKal CMBUk 4 ma:sIunGKÁisnIGcl½t 1- ma:sIunGarEpøhñwg nig édEpøeyal 1-1 ma:sIunGarEpøhñwg 1-2 ma:sIunGarmanédEpøeyal 2- ma:sIunGarExS QUs eFVIdMNab; nig sVansgát; 2-1 ma:sIunGarExS 2-2 ma:sIunQUs 2-3 ]bkrN_eRbIR)as;CamYydMNab; 2-4 ma:sIunsVansgát; CMBUk 5 kargarGnuvtþn_ 1- karGar 1-1 karGaredayéd 1-2 karGarCamYyrNartMrwm 1-3 karGarCamYyrNarFñÚ 1-4 karGarCamYyrNarknÞúykNþúr 1-5 karGaredayma:sIuncl½tEpømUl 1-6 karGaredayma:sIunGarEpøhñwg 1-7 karGarCamYym:asIunGarExS 1-8 karGarCamYyma:sIunGarmanédEpøeyal 2- EdkQUs 2-1 karQUssMGat 2-2 karQUslb;RCug ¬b¤mMu¦ 2-3 karQUsmuxkat;sac;eQI Carpenting Works -7-
  4. 4. Civil Engineering Department NPIC 2-4 karQUsbnÞareQIedayeRbIma:sIunQUsGcl½t 2-5 karQUseTaleQI ¬kMras;¦ eRbIma:sIunGcl½t 2-6 eRbIma:sIunQUsGcl½tedIm,IQUseGayRtUvxñatR)akddUc²Kña 2-7 kareRbIma:sIunQUscl½t 3- kargarlk 3-1 TMhMEdlQUslk 3-2 TMhMEpølk 3-3 kartMelIgEpølk 3-4 CMhandMbUgkñúgkarlk 3-5 eRbIBumÖCMnYylk 3-6 eRbIk,allkenAelIma:sIunsVanbBaÄr 3-7 eFVIBnøÜjedayeRbIEdkQUslk 4- eQIbYnRCugesμIr 4-1 kareFVIeGayeQIbYnRCugesμIedayéd 4-2 kareFVIeGayeQIbYnRCugesμIedaym:asIun 5- tMN 5-1 erobcMeQIsMrab;eFVItMN 5-2 plittMNedaybnÞHkþar 5-3 eKalbMNgrbs;tMNeQI 5-4 viFanéntMN x-y 5-5 tMNFmμta 5-6 eKalbMNgrbs;tMNeQI 5-7 RbePTéntMN 5-8 PaBbiunRbsb;kñúgkareFVItMNeGayENn 6- tMNBnøÚj nig dMNab; 6-1 cegáamBnøÚj nig dMNab; 6-2 kareFVIBnøÚj nig dMNab;edayéd Carpenting Works -8-
  5. 5. Civil Engineering Department NPIC CMBUk 1 sMPar³GMBIeQI Carpenting Works -9-
  6. 6. Civil Engineering Department NPIC 1- lkçN³TUeTArbs;edImeQI 1-1 TMrg;rbs;edImeQI CaEbbEpnEpñkrbs;edImeQI EdlsMxan;bMputKWedImRtUvsÁal;taMgBIdI ¬rwseRkamdI¦ rhUtdl;Emk. EmkCaEpñkmYyenAcugeK ehIyenAelIEmkmanFagtUc²rYmTaMgsøwkpg . rwsCaRKwHmYymaM Edlcak;cUleTAkñúgdI sMrab;RTRTg;edImeQI nig vamantYnatId¾sMxan;sMrab;bWtyk Twknig CIvCati . rukçrsenH )anmkBIrwsehIybBa¢ÚnsarCatiTaMgenaHciBa©wmekasikaedImEmknwgsøwk . 1-2 kEnøgpÞúkCIvCati karrMhYtBIsøwknaMeGaymankarbWtykrukçrsBIekasikarbs;tYedImeQI kae)anDIGuksIutenAkñúgxül; RtUvRsUbykedayedImeQItamrn§rbs;søwk . karsMeyaKrbs;søwk )anEckcayeTAeGayEpñklUtlas;énedImeQI vapÞúkeGaydl;ekasikaxøH )anl¥RbesIr . 1-3 rsμIsMeyaKrbs;rukçCati rsμIsMeyaK ¬CaRbtikmμmYyénesrIragÁ rYmpSMBIkae)anDIGuksIut nig Twk¦ vaeFVIsMeyaKxøaMgenAeBl yb;edayRsUmykkør:UPIl EdlmanCatiBN’ébtgkñúgsøwk EdlCaeRKOgsMrab;eFVIeGayFMFat;dl;edImeQI . edaysar eFVIrsμIsMeyaKrebobenH søwkmantYnaTIya:gsMxan;sMrab;sMGatxül;kñúgbriyakas edaybeBa©j xül;GuksIuEsneTAxageRkA . 1-4 TMrg;éneQI eQICadMudul énsac;eQIEdlmanragCabMBg; ehIycgP¢ab;eTAedayekasikarYménesrIragÁ . ekasikaenH vamanTMrg; nig TMhMxus²Kña b:uEnþCaFmμtavaEvgehIyqμarrt;tambeNþayedIm b¤ EmkeQI . tamkarbgðajmkenH ekasikava)anlUtlas;tamTisénsésrsac;eQI . ekasikava)anpþl;nUvkarciBa©wmcMeBaHedImeQI va)ansayPayénrukçrs nig CakEnøgpÞúkCIvCatipg Edr . cMeBaHeQIrEdlmansPaBTn; vaeRcInEtmanTMrg;ekasikaFmμtaénsrés va)anpþl;nUvrukçrsdMbUg sMrab;naMeTAciBa©wmCIvit . TMrg;rbs;BYkva)ansayPayCaCYr ehIykekIteLIgeTARKb;sarBagÁkayrbs; edImeQI . cMeBaHeQIEdlmansPaBrwg b¤ edImeQIEdleKniymcUlcitþ vamanPaBCasréssac;eQIticCag eQIEdlTn; mansrésrn§CIvCatisMrab;naMrukçrs nig pþl;nUvkarciBa©wm . cMeBaHekasikaqμar²enH vaGacCYy Carpenting Works -10-
  7. 7. Civil Engineering Department NPIC eyIgkt;sMKal;fa CaeQIEdlTn; b¤ rwg)anedaysareFVIkarkat;sac;eQI . karEbgEckRbePTekasika vaxusKñaBIRbePTmYyeTARbePTmYy sMrab;bMerIeGaykarplit)anl¥RbesIréneRKOgeRbIR)as;GMBIeQI . cMeBaHeQIEdlmansPaBrwg b¤ edImeQIEdleKniymcUlcitþ vamanPaBCasréssac;eQIticCag eQIEdlTn; mansrésrn§CIvCatisMrab;naMrukçrs nig pþl;nUvkarciBa©wm . karEbgEckRbePTekasika vaxusKñaBIRbePTmYyeTARbePTmYy sMrab;bMerIeGaykarplit)anl¥RbesIréneRKOgeRbIR)as;GMBIeQI . PaBlUtlas;rbs;edImeQI GaRs½yBImYyqñaMeTAmYyqñaM EdlmanTMrg;CaRsTab;²elIsac;eQI . RsTab;esþIgCakg;²enHsßitenARbeLaHsMbkeQIeTAbNþÚleQI . ry³eBlénkarlUtlas;rbs;sac;eQIfμI EdlekItmanenAelIRsTab;xageRkAénrgVg;RsTab; ehIyeRsabsMbkBIelI ¬Calika)aneFVIsMeyaKCIvCati eTAeGayRKb;EpñkTaMgGs;énrukçCati¦ . cMeBaHkarrIkmaDrbs;edImeQI)aneFVIeGayrEhkdac;sMbkeQIcas; ehIyTMrg;sMbkeQIfμI)ankekIt eLIg . kasikaeQIfμIenH )anbegáItCaBiessnUvRTg;RTaysac;eQIx©I . edayGenøIsac;eQIx©IenH)anrIkFM Fat;enAkEnøgpÞúkCIvCatirbs;ekasika nig edayELkkEnøgxøHmansPaBRkin edaysarxVHekasika nig CIvCati . karlUtlas;rbs;sac;eQImanenARKb;kEnøgtaMgBIKl;rhUtdl;cug ehIysac;eQIvacab;rIkmaD ecjBIcMNuckNþalénedImeQI . cMeBaHsac;eQIEdlx©IvaRtUvkarCIvCatieRcInedIm,IFanakarlUtlas;rbs; sac;eQI . sréssac;eQI eyIggayRsYlemIleTAelIeQIEdlmansPaBTn;RCay nig mankarBi)ak cMeBaHeQIrwgxøH dUcCaedImEsn (Oak) enAeBlNaEdleyIgeFVIkarBuHCabYn cMENkeTAelIsac;eQI TaMgenaH. cMeBaHkarlUtlas;rbs;sac;eQI eyIgeXIjfa enAelIsac;eQImansPaBCaExSrgVg; EdlekItman eLIg KWCaEpñkmYyEdleKsnμt;faCakarlUtlas;rbs;eQIBImYyeTAmYyqñaM . sac;eQIRsay Edlcas;CageK va)anpøas;edaysnSwm²eTACasac;eQIxøwm sac;eQIxøwmenHva)an rIkmaD EdlmanRTg;RTayecjBItYedImmk enAeBlEdlTMhMrbs;sac;eQIRsay)anrIkFM EdlmanTMnak; TMngERbRbYleTAnwgCIvitrbs;edImeQI . eQIRsay nig eQIxøwm ³ eQIRsayvamanBN’Rsal EdlCaFmμtavaxusKñaeTAnwgxøwmeQIEdlmanBN’ragRkem:A . cMeBaHsac;eQI vamanBN’xus²KñaEdr EdlnaMeGaymankarBi)akcMNaMEdr . vaGn;CageQIxøwm EdlCaerOy² )anRtUvCagsgðarwm eRcokykecj vaminGacTb;Tn;nwgkarBukpuy ehIyvak¾qab;rh½sman stVl¥itmkyaryIEdr BIeRBaHenAkñúgekasikavaxøHmankae)anGIuRdat PñasekasikavaesþIgEdlnaMeGay Carpenting Works -11-
  8. 8. Civil Engineering Department NPIC RCabsMeNIm)anrh½s . tamlT§pl sac;eQIRsaymanPaBrYjCagsac;eQIxøwm . eTaHbIya:gNak¾ eday sac;eQIvagayRsUbykfñaMkarBar edIm,IbgáarkMueGayxUcBuks¥úy . edayehtufaeQIxøwmvaCaEpñkxagkñúgénedImeQIeBjv½y EdlRTg;RTayva)anmkBIsac;eQIRsay EdlmancMNas; . Epñkrbs;vaenHminskmμdl;karlUtlas;rbs;edImeQIeLIy dUecñHehIy)anCaekasika Gacgab; ehIyP¢itCamYysrIragÁ Pñasekasika)anbMElgBN’edaysarFatuKImI . sarCatiKImIenH CaedIm ehtusMrab;begáIteGayBN’eRcInenAelIeQIrwgCaeRcIn . BBYkeQITaMgenH vamankarTb;Tl;BIemeraKpSit nig karyaryIrbs;stVl¥itpgEdr . eQIenAtMbn;RtCak; nig tMbn;ekþA ³ CamYyrukçCatiCaeRcIn edImeQIlUtlas;edayBwwgBak;eTAelIlkçxNÐénGakasFatu . enAkñúg lkçxNÐsItuNðPaBmYy CaTUeTAvalUtlas;ya:grh½senArdUvrMehIy enArdUvekþAkarlUtlas;mantic nig KμankarlUtlas;esaHenAkñúgrdUvFøak;Twkkk . eQIenAtMbn;RtCak; enAelIExSrgVg;rbs;karlUtlas;RbcaMqñaM varYmrIk)anGaRs½yeTAedayPaB lUt las;rbs;rdUvnImYy²Edr . eQIEdlmansac;Tn;RCay vamansésrsac;eQIragdUcCabMBg;TIb EdlmanPñasekasikaesþIg . cMENkÉeQIrwgvij ekasikavaragdUcCa PaCn_eQI enAtMbn;RtCak; maDsac;eQIva)ansMrbsMrYly:agrh½s CamYy nwg GkasFatu . eQIenAtMbn;RtCak;CaFmμtaGacsÁal;)annUvbnÞaExSrgVg;énkarlUtlas;RbcaMqñaMnImYy² )anedayva manBN’søaMg . cMeBaHExSrgVg;lUtlas;RbcaMqñaMrbs;eQIenAtMbn;ekþAvij mankarGPivDÆn_yWt eTAtamkarlUtlas; énrdUv nig Pñasrbs;ekasikaRkas; . CaFmμtavamanBN’Rkem:A CMrabTwktic b:uEnþvaCYyciBa©wmdl;edImeQI Edr . ExSrgVg;énkarlUtlas;tamrdUvnImYy² vasßitenARtYtsIuKñaCakg;² bgðajeGaydwgBIGayuénedIm eQI nig eTAtamRbePTlkçxNÐGakasFatukñúgkarkMNt;PaBlUtlas;rbs;va . bnÞarrgVg;lUtlas;RbcaM qñaM)anbgðajtamry³GakasFatul¥ b¤ minl¥ ¬rdUvraMgePøógd¾yUr b¤ xøI¦ . kñúgeRKOgeRbIR)as;BIeQI vamanPaBxusKñarvageQItMbn;RtCak; nig eQItMbn;ekþA vamansar³sMxan; nig manRbeyaCn_Nas;eTAnwgkargarCageQI edayehtufa kic©karvaTak;TgeTAnwgsac;eQIEdlRtUvyk mkeFVIenaH . sac;eQItMbn;RtCak;CaRbePTeQIRsal ehIygayRsYlGarkat;Cagsac;eQIenAtMbn;ekþA . Carpenting Works -12-
  9. 9. Civil Engineering Department NPIC TaMgenHk¾minCabBaðaGVIFMdMu EdlsMrab;eyIgykeTAeFVIkarenAelIma:sIun b¤ edayédEdlmanmuxbnSúI]bkrN_ kat;)anmutRsYc . dUecñHehIyPaBrwg vamanlkçN³xusKñarvageQIenAtamtMbn; . bnÞb;BI)aneFVIkarxat;mk CaTUeTA eQIEdlmansac;ExSrgVg;lUtlas;rabesμI vagayRsYlNas;kñúgkarxat; lab . karEbgEckcMeBaHeQIrwgk¾mankarkt;sMKal;pgEdr enAelIeRKOgeRbIR)as;GMBIeQI . dUcenHman karlM)akxus²KñaenAeBleyIgeFVIkarxat; labeTAelIBBYkeQITaMgenaH . 2- karERbRbYlrbs;eQI enAkñúgkMLúgeBlrab;ryqñaMmkenH xagBaNiC¢kmμeK)anEbgEckCaRbePTeQI edaysMercyktam TMhM GaRs½yeTAtamkarlUtlas;rbs;edImeQI . viTüasa®sþTMenIbxagkardaMéRB )aneFVIeGaymankarlUt las;qab;rh½s dUcCaedImRsl; EdlmanragedImRtg;RsLÚn nig gayRsYlkñúgkarkat;eRcok . edayehtu fa slrkUlmanTMnak;TMngeTAnwgkarlUtlas;ya:gqab;rh½s rYmCamYynwgkarEfrkSaedayRbugRby½tñ nig kareFVIkarRtYtBinitü pÁt;pÁg;cMeBaHesckþIRtUvkarénRbePTeQITn;enH . vak¾manRBYy)armÖmYyEdr EdléRBeQIenAelIBiPBelaknwgRk CaBiesscMeBaHkarlUtlas;yWt rbs;BBYkeQIrwg . rUv 1-1 RkLaeQImanépÞrab 2-1 dMeNIrkarpøas;bþÚr PaKeRcInGñkCMnYjeQIRtUvkarkat;yktYedImTaMgmUlrbs;edImeQInigEmkFM²xøH Gaccat;cUlkñúg cMeNameQIh‘ubEdr . bu:EnþEpñksaxaEmkeQIeBlykeTAplit sac;vamanPaBgayRsYlBIRtg;eTACaekag rmYl b¤ eRbHEbk . cMeBaHRbtikmμxagelI edIm nig EmkFM² vaminmanGVIxøaMgkøaeT . cMeBaHsac;eQITn;eK eRcInEtplitCarebobsgát;eGayENnsac;eQIEdlenARsTab;xagkñúg ÉeQIrwgvijeKeRbIenARsTab;xag Carpenting Works -13-
  10. 10. Civil Engineering Department NPIC elI . karrlMedImeQIkat;Cah‘ub b¤ eFVIkardwkCBa¢ÚneTAeragGarEtmþg sMrab;EkécñeGayeTACaeQIGar eRKOg tubEtgCaFmμtaeKplitCabnÞHesþIgéneragcRkeFVIkþarbnÞH . cMeBaHeQIh‘ubEdl)anGarrYcGacTak;TgeTAnwgkarnaMecj b:uEnþbc©úb,nñRbePTeQIrwg)anplitecj BIRbeTsxøHdUcCa ma:eLsIu NÐÚensIu hVIlIBIn nig eRbsIul kñúgenaHk¾RtUvmanviFankaredIm,IkarBaréRB eQITaMgenaHBIsMNak;Gñkkab;éRBeQIEdr nig naMmknUvkarbegáInR)ak;cMNUlCYydl;RbCaCnTaMgenaH . eQIh‘ubNaEdlEvg ehIyFMvaCaeQIEdlmanKuNPaB nig EpñkeQIxøHeTot EdleKkMum:g; vamantMélx<s; nig CaFmμtaeKEkécñvaeGayeTACasnøwkBaslMGr . eragGareQI ³ sBVéf¶enH eQIh‘ubeK)anEkécñeGayeTACaRbePTeQIGar edayeFVIkarGarCamYyma:sIunGarExS b¤ edayma:sIunGarfas . BIedImeLIy EdlKμanma:sIun kic©karenHeKeFVIedayéd edayeRbIrNaykS KWkñúgkar GarmanmnusSBIrnak; mñak;QrenAeRkameQIh‘ub nig mañk;eTotQrBIelIeQIh‘ubruj nig TajrNacuHeLIg eKGarCaRbePTbnÞHkþar b¤ eQIRCug . viFIGarrebobfμI manBIrRbePTKWGarCasnøwkbnÞHkþar nig GarBuHCabYn . karGarCabnÞHkþarCaTUeTA enAeBlEdlExSrgVg;lUtlas; vaeTACYbépÞelIbnÞHkþarsßitenAmMutUcCag 45 dWeRk . karGarBuHCabYn CaTUeTAkMNt;eQIEdlmanExSrgVg;lUtlas;vamin)antUcCag 45 dWeRk eTAnwgépÞelIénbnÞHkþar . eRkABIviFIGarTaMgBIrrebobenH k¾GacmanviFId¾éTeTot EdlGacykmkGnuvtþpgEdr . eKGacdwg fa karGarsnøwkbnÞHkþar)anedaysÁal;sac;eQIrabesμI nig GarBuHCabYnedaysac;eQImansñameRbH sac; eQImanEPñk sac;eQIenAEpñkcMehog . dMueQIbnÞb;BIGarBuHCabYnRCug)anRtwmRtUvehIyeKGacGareRcokCabnÞHkþar edayGarBuHTTwgRtg;BI épÞmuxrbs;bnÞHkþar b:uEnþenAeBlGnuvtþbnÞHkþarEdlGar)anmk RtUvdak;cUleTAtamRbePTrbs;va . bnÞH kþarenHGanykeTAécñenAelIma:sIun Garevol edIm,IeFVIrbs;tubEtgénrUbragBgRkeBIr . karGarbMEbkCabnÞHkþar KWCakareRcokRtg;rYmCamYyTMhMKMrUxøH nig eBlxøHvaGaRs½yeTAnwgsac; eQI . karGarBuHCabYn )anbgðajeGayeXIjkat;ExVgKñaRtg;énbnÞHkþar EdlmanbeNþayEvg EdleKeRcIn ykRbePTeQIrwgmkGadUcCaedImEsn (Oak) CaedIm . karécñeQIh‘ub ³ ragerAeQIGar eGay)anRtwmRtUvvaGaRs½yeTAnwgEpørNa nig vamanTMnak;TMngeTAnwgExSlUtlas; RbcaMqñaMpgEdr . viFIsnSMsMéc)aneRcInenAelIkarEkécñeQIh‘ub Kwkarkat;eRcokCacenøaH² eFVIrebobenH KW Carpenting Works -14-
  11. 11. Civil Engineering Department NPIC karGareRcokRtg;tambeNþayeQIh‘ub edayEckCaGarépÞrabesμIr GarbMEbk bMEbklMGit CabnÞHtUc² eTot . kareRcokeQIh‘ubénrNarExS )anbMEbkCaEpñkcenøaH² edayGareRcoklayKña rvagGarépÞrabesμIr nig GarbMEbk edIm,eFVIbnÞHkþar . karEkécñeQIh‘ubeGayeTACabnÞHkþaréneQIBuH GaceFVIeTA)aneTAtam cMnYnpøÚvénEpørNar . pøÚvEdleRcokenH vaRsbKñaCanic©énbnÞHkþarnImYy² b:uEnþviFIenHvax¢Hx¢aybnþic EdleK minsUveRbIkñúgkareFVICMnYjeLIj . tamvIFIFmμta eKGarBuHeQIh‘ubCa 1 PaK 4 sin rYceKGareRcoktam RbePTnImYy²CabnÞHkþar . kñúgrbrCMnYjeQIh‘ubEdl)anGarBuHCa 1 PaK bYn ehIy eKRtUvGareRcokCa bnÞHRCugRkas;sin rYc)anécñCabnÞHkþar . edIm,IeRCIserIseQIykmkGar 1 PaK bYn RtUvemIlEpñkxagcugénmuxkat;sac;eQI eRCIserIsbnÞH kþarEdlmanExSrgVg;lUtlas;RbEhl 90 dWeRk eTAnwgépÞelIrbs;bnÞHkþar kñúgenaHGñkRtUvKitfa kareRCIs erIsbnÞHkþarNaEdlmantMéledIm,IeFVIkarplitecjmuneK . 2-2 karsMgYteQI eQIh‘ubEdl)ankab;mkfμI² vamanPaKrysMeNImx<s;Nas; PñasekasikaEdlRbehag)anepSIm ya:geCaKeTAedayTwk . karsMgYteQICaviFImYyEdleFVIeGays¶ÜténsMeNIm nig TwkecjBIPñasekasika . tamGñksMgYt eQI TwkEdl)at;bg;BIekasikaRbehag KWTal;EtPñasekasikamansMeNImEtmYyKt; TaMgenHsÁal;)aneday cMNucénsréssac;eQI EdlmansMeNImRbEhl 30 PaKry nig kMNt;eTAtamRbePTeQI . vaman sMeNIm nig )at;bg;eTAvijenAeBlNa EdlPñasekasikacab;epþImrYjsVit . Twk nwg)at;bg;enAeBl Edlva manTMnak;TMngeTAnwgsMeNImenACMuvijva . dUecñHRtUvsÁal;BItulüPaBsMeNIm (EMC) . karsMgYtenHmansar³sMxan;Nas;edIm,I eFVIeGay)anl¥RtwmRtUvkñúgenaHedIm,IFananUvPaBRbRktI EdlekItmaneLIgenAelIeQI nig edIm,IFanatamtulüPaBrbs;sMeNIm eGaymankMritRbhak;RbEhleTA nwgbBaðaEdleQImankarrIkehIm nig rYmsVit . karsMgYtedayxül; ³ sMgYtedayxül;KWCaviFIRbéBNImYy sMrab;eFVIkarsMgYteQI bnÞHkþardak;enAelIépÞrabesμI mancenøaH bnÞHeQInImYy²RbEvg 1 inch (25mm) nig dak;eGayXøatBIKña 8 inch (450mm) . CaFmμtakardak;eQIsMgYtenHRtUvdak;eGayputBIdI nig mandMbUledIm,IkarBarTwkePøóg nig BnøWéf¶ xül;FmμCati)anbk;cUltamcenøaHeQI eFVIeGayeQIs¶ÜtsnSwm² . cMeBaHeQIrwgeKdak;sMgYteQI Edlman kMras; 1 inch (25mm) kñúgry³eBl 1 qñaM nig cMeBaHeQITn;manry³eBlknøHqñaM viFIenH vaminéføb:uEnþva Carpenting Works -15-
  12. 12. Civil Engineering Department NPIC GacbBa©úHsMeNImmkRtwmEt 14 nig 16 PaKry ehIyvaGaRs½yTak;TgeTAnwgsMeNIm kñúgGakasFatu pgEdr . sMrab;eRbIR)as;Epñkxagkñúg RtUvkareQIEdlsMgYtedayLkMedA b¤ GacykeQIsMgYtedaybirya kasFmμCatiEdlvaGaceRbIR)as;)an . karsMgYtedayLkMedA ³ eQIEdlGaceRbIR)as;Epñkxagkñúg RtUvkarsMeNImRbEhl 6 eTA 8 PaKry b¤ k¾GaceFVIeTA)an TabCagenHGaRs½yeTAelIsMeNImkñúgGakasFaturbs;TItaMg . karsMgYteQIedayLkMedARtUv)aneRbIR)as; eFVICaCMnYjsMrab;bBa©úHsMeNImeQI eGayenAeRkamkMritsMgYtedayxül;eTAeTot nig manry³eBléf¶c,as; las; . bnÞHeQI)anpÞúkelITMrehIyrujcUleTAkñúgL . eFVIkarRtYtBinitüedayRbugRby½tñenAeBlNa Edl layxül;kMedA nig bUmcMhayeTAelIKMnreQIedayrMhYtsMeNImsnSwm² . sMeNImRtUveGay)anCak;lak;eTAtamlMdab;énRbePTeQI Edl)anykmkeFVIkarsMgYt . eQIEdl)ansMgYtedayxül; nwgRtUvrkSaTukdak;eGayenAeRkamsMeNImbiryakas nig mineGay RtUvkMedAéf¶ eBlNasMgYteQIedayLkMedAsMerc)anRtUvrkSavaenAkñúgbriyakasFmμCati EdlRtUvykmk eRbIR)as; . PaBminERbRbYl ³ eQIEdlsMgYtehIyvarYj TMrg;rbs;bnÞHeQI)anpøas;bþÚreTACakarrYmsVit . CaTUeTAkarrYmsVittam ry³beNþaysac;eQImancMnYnRbmaNeRcInCagBIrdgénkarrYmsVittamry³TTwgsac;eQI . enAelIbnÞHkþarsMEb:t PaBrYjxøaMgsßitenAelIbnÞHkþar ¬TTwgkþar¦ cMENkenAelIbnÞHeQIRCugvij PaBrYjva sßitenAelIEpñkbnÞar nig mantictYcNas;enAelIEpñkkMras; . clnaénkarrYjsVit vaGaceGaymankarrmYlxøHEdr bnÞHkþarsMEb:tEdlGarcMbNþÚleQI tamry³ beNþaysac; vamanPaBxusKña ExSrgVg;enAEpñkxageRkAbMput manPaBrYjeRcInCag ExSrgVg;enAEpñkxagkñúg ehIyvamansPaBekagtamry³TTwgsac;eQIEdr . muxkat;eQIbYnRCug EdlGacnwg)anmkCarag)a:elLÚRkam rIÉmuxkat;ragmUlnwgGacCaragBg; RkeBI . cMeBaHbnÞHeQIRCug sac;eQItamry³beNþayvadUcKña karxUcxatmantictYc b¤ KμanPaBrmYl . PaBminERbRbYl )anrYmpSMCamYykarkarBarépÞrabesμIrbs;sac;eQIrpgEdr . cMeBaHbnÞHkþarRCug eKcUlcitþykeTAeFVIépÞkMral nig eRKOgsgðarwm . Carpenting Works -16-
  13. 13. Civil Engineering Department NPIC karRtYtBinitüsMeNIm ³ sMeNImeQI)anmkCaPaKryelIkarsMgYtTMgn;kñúgLkMedA . karKNnaenH edayeRbobeFobeTA nwgTMgn;edIméndMueQICatMNag ¬eKeRcInyksac;eQIEpñkkNþalCaCagEpñkxagcug¦ CamYynwgTMgn;Edl )ansMgYtehIyenAkñúgL . TMgn;sMgYtenH)anmkedaydkecjrvagTMgn;edIm nig TMgn;Edl)at; nig eTAtam smIkarEdleRbIsMrab;KNnasMeNImCaPaKry ¬TMgn;TwkEdl)at;éndMueQI ¼ TMgn;sMgYtedayLéndMueQI¦x 100 . ]bkrN_rgVas;sMeNIm vamanm¢úleGLicRtUtBIr EdlgayRsYlkñúgkarRtYtBinitürksMeNIm. ]bkrN_rgVas;EdlmanersIusþg;eQIesIm nig eGaylT§plPaKryénsMeNImeQIya:grh½s . karbgçÚgm¢úleGLicRtUtbBa©ÚleTAkñúgeQI tamcMnucepSg² énbNþaykþaredIm,IrkkMritmFümPaK kþarTaMgGs;EdlsMgYtvaminmanGRtakMritdUcKñaeLIy . 3- kareRCIserIseQI cMeBaHRbePTeQITn;eKeRcIneRbIR)as;eTAelIkargarCageQI . CaTUeTAeQITaMgenaH vamanTMhMén Gar EdlRtUveFVIkarGareGayRtUvtamTMhMxñatsþg;dar . mYy b¤ eRcInsMrab;épÞmux b¤ épÞrabxagelI . rebob énkarQUsykecjya:gtic 1/8 inch (3mm) BIépÞnImYy² . TMhMTTwg nig kMras;BitRtUvtUcCagTMhMGar rYc EdlGñkRKb;RKgCaGñkkMNt;rYmTaMgRbEvgbeNþaypgEdr . EdlCanic©Cakal)anvaytMéleTAtam RbePTrbs;va . eTaHCaPaKryeRcIn énRbePTeQIrwg CaTUeTA)anlk;CaRbePTeQIRCugeTAtamTTwg nig beNþay rbs;eQIGar . enAkñúgenARbeTsmaneQI mahogany, teak, oak, and ramin ¬eQμaHeQI¦ GacTij)an eTAtamTMhMxñaténeQIGar . TMhMxñaténeQIGarenHKitCaÉkta foot RbEhl 3/16 inch (5mm) . Canic© kalRbEvgbeNþayeQIRtUvbEnßmEpñkelIsEdlsMrab;eFVIkarkat;tMrwm . 3-1 cMNat;fñak; cMeBaHRbePTeQITn; mansésreQI nig EpñkelcRtEdteLIg CaTUeTAvaeRcInmansar³RbeyaCn_ nig KuNPaBl¥CaeRcInelIkargarCageQI EdleRbIsMrab;lMGrEpñkxageRkA nig minmankMlaMgsgát; . RbePTeQITn;EdlGacekag)annUvkMlaMgsgát;)anRtUvykeRbIR)as;elIeRKagq¥wg Edlmansar³ sMxan;xøaMg . EpñkeQIEdlmansac;føaCaerOy² eRcIneRbIbEnßmeTAelIkEnøgeQImanEPñk nig Rtg;kEnøg EdlxVHcenøaH b:uEnþRbePTeQIenHCaFmμtamin)anykmkeRbIR)as;CapøÚvkareLIy . Carpenting Works -17-
  14. 14. Civil Engineering Department NPIC cMENkÉRbePTeQIrwg )ankMNt;eTAelIbrievNéneQIxVHcenøaH nig eTAelIeRKOgEdlmantMél . cMNat;fñak;l¥RbesIrmanTImYy nig TIBIr (FAS) . karerobcMeQItamlMdab; GaRs½yGñkÉkeTs b:uEnþGñkeRCIserIseQIedayxøÜnÉg RbsinebIGñkGac eFVI)an . eBlGñkeTATijeQI ykmkQYs GñkGacQUselIeQItMNagmYydMutYc enaHGñkGaceXIjsésr sac;eQI nig BN’EdlbiT)aMgeTAedayFUlIdI b¤ kMeTcGacm_rNar . 3-2 PaBminRbRktIrbs;eQI luHRtaEteQI)aneFVIkarsMgYtedayykcitþTukdak;karsgát;)anbgðajfa )aneFVIeGayvaxUc b¤ kic©kareFVIelIvamankarBi)ak karsMgYtEdlminRKb;RKan;GacnaMeGaymankarrYjsVitnUvEpñkénTMhMxñat muxcMNareQIeLIge)ar nig mansañmeRbH . munnwgTijeQIRtUvRtYtBinitüépÞeQI ERkgmansñameRbH EPñk nig sac;eQImin)anesμIl¥ emIlEpñk xagcugénmuxkat;eQIh‘ub edIm,IGareRcok tMrg;tamRbEvgbeNþayedIm,IRtYtBinitü ERkgmanrmYl b¤ ekag. rUb 2-3 PaBminRbRktIénsac;eQI karBinitüemIlsñamragsMbukXμúM ¬No1.énrUb 2¦ ekItmaneLIgenAxagkñúgénbnÞHkþar eBlNaEdlxageRkAminesßrPaBmunsac;xagkñúgvanwgs¶Üt EpñkxagkñúgvarYjxøICag EpñkxageRkA EdlFmμtavarEhksréseQIrenAépÞxagkñúg . Carpenting Works -18-
  15. 15. Civil Engineering Department NPIC sñameRbHpÞat; ¬No2. énrUb 2¦ sac;eQIEdleRbHpÞat; KWsñamrEhk EdlekIteLIgelIRTg;RTayrbs;sac;eQI eTAtamkarlUt las;minFmμta b¤ mkBIkMlaMgsVit sac;eQIeRbHpÞat;manragekag )aneRbHcMhenARbeLaH ExSrgVg;lUt las;RbcaMqñaM . sñamEdleKElgeRbI b¤ eRsabEPñk ¬No3. énrUb 2¦ cMeBaHsñamRbePTenH vaCavtßúesssl;BIEmkEdlgab;eTAehIy vaCadgát;eQIEdlmanExSrgVg;lUt las;fμIenACMuvijva . EPñkEdlgab;enH vanwgrebHecjenAeBlEdleQIs¶Üt . sréseQI)aneLamB½T§EPñk ragreqtrqUtEdlCaplBi)akdl;kic©kar . PaBekag nig e)ar ¬No 4. énrUb2¦ buBVehtuenH bNþalmkBIdak;KrbnÞHkþarCaCugmin)anl¥ Edlmankarsgát;elIKña nigmankarBi)ak kñúgkarGarkat; . {Rbtikmμ} eQIenHvaqab;pøas;bþÚrenAeBlEdleFVIkarsMgYt b¤ Garkat;pgEdr . sñameRbHenAEpñkxagcug ¬No5 énrUb 2¦ sñameRbHxagcugenH vaCaFmμtaEdlbNþalmkBIkars¶ÜtelOneBk EdlekIteLIgenAEpñkxag cug. karbiTP¢itmuxénEpñkxagcugedayBas b¤ labfñaM kMueGayRCabTwk edIm,IkarBareRbHbnþreTot . EpñkEdlduHkñúgsac;ragRTEvg ¬No 6 énrUb 2¦ cMeBaHEpñkenH vaGaceGayxUcnUvEpñkxageRkA EdlvaenAlayLMenAelIRTg;RTayrbs;eQI . karRtYtBinitüépÞelI ¬No 7 énrUb 2¦ CaFmμta vaekItmaneLIgtambeNþayExS nig mandMuC½rtUc²puseLIg edaykarsMgYtelOneBkén épÞelI . 4- KuNPaBrbs;eQI kMLúgeBleQI)ankekIteLIgedayFmμCati EdlEpñknImYy²EbøkBIKña . muxkat;rbs;edImeQI nImYy²nwgmankarxusKña vak¾GacmanPaBrwgmaM b¤ BN’dUcKña b:uEnþsac;eQImindUcKña vamanPaBepSg²Kña EdlmanlkçN³PaBrwgmaM BN’ PaBGaceFVI)an nig køin dUcenHeQIEdlykmkeFVIGaRs½yeTAtamkar eRCIserIsrbs;eQI . kargareQIRtUvmankarhVwkhat; dUcenHGñkCMnaj RtUvxitxMeGayGs;smtßPaB edIm,I sÁal;BIEpñkeQInImYy² . kareRbIeQI nig PaBsÞat;CMnajEtmYyKt;EdlCapøÚvGaceGayeyIgsÁal;BIKuN Carpenting Works -19-
  16. 16. Civil Engineering Department NPIC PaB rbs;sac;eQITaMgGs; . lkçN³FmμCatiBiessrbs;eQI)ansegçbenAEpñkxageRkam nig RbePTeQI xus²KñaTaMgGs;enAelIBiPBelak )anbgðajenAelITMB½rbnþbnÞab; . 4-1 lkçN³FmμCatiBiess sNæanxageRkArbs;sac;eQImanBN’ nig RkLaEdlRtUvBinitüBic½ymuneK enAeBlNaEdlRtUv eRCIserIseQIsMrab;KMeragnImYy² . lkçN³elIkargar b¤ PaBrwgmaM vaCalkçN³TIBIr EdlRtUvBinitüBic½y b:uEnþeBlxøH vamincaM)ac;mansar³sMxan;GVIEdr ehIynwgRtUveRCIserIseQIeGaysmrmü tameKalbMNgpg Edr . ebIsinCaGñkminFøab;sÁal;eQInUvEpñkNamYy cMeBaHGñkRtUvBiPaKSaBIKuNPaBvaCamYyGñkpÁt;pÁg; rbs;Gñk edIm,IeFVIeGay)ansMercnUveKalbMNgrbs;Gñk . kareRCIserIseQI KwCarebobmYy EdlRtUvBinitüemIlnUvPaBrwgmaM PaBEdlGaceFVI)an TMgn; tMél nig PaBEdlGacrk)an . karBinitülkçN³eQIkMNt; edayFmμCatiénTMrg;ekasikava . sac;eQI ekasikarbs;eQI)anpÁMúKñaCaRTg;RTay ehIybegáIt)anCasac;eQI EdlbegáIt)anCabnþbnÞab;taMg BIG½kSKl;rhUtdl;cugénedImeQI . FmμCatiénsac;eQI)ankMNt;edaylMdab;fñak;énkarbgðajtamry³ beNþaysac;énekasikaTaMgenH . edImeQIlUtlas;Rtg;RslUn )anbegáItCasac;eQIRtg; sac;eQIkat;Kña KWCaTMrg;enAeBlEdl ekasikagakecjBIG½kSrbs;edImeQI . edImeQIxøH EdlrmYlKWkarlUtlas;rbs;vabegáIt)ansac;eQIrmUr. enAkñúgxN³xøH karlUtlas;CarmUrenH)angakecjBImuMmYyeTArkmMumYyeTot CamYynwgkEnøgnImYy²énExS rgVg;lUtlas; lT§plCasac;eQIcak;eRsH . sac;eQImanpñt; nig sac;eQIGgáaj;²ekIteLIgelIedImeQI EdlmanekasikaRTg;RTaydUcTwkrlk TMrg;CarlkesμIxøIenAEpñkxagcugvamineTogTat; . cMeBaHsac;eQI EdlmineTotTat;enH vaBi)akkñúgkargar nig xat;lab ekasikavapøas;bþÚrTisedAtQb;QrbegáIt)anCa sac;eQIduHÉkÉg . bnÞHkþarEdlmansac;eQIGgáaj;² EdlmankarrYmpSMepSg²KñatammMu épÞelIrbs;sac; eQI nig RTg;RTayrbs;ekasika . cMeBaHsac;eQIRbePTenH eKykvaeTAeFVICasøwkBaslMG . kareRcok sac;eQIKWeFVIeTAtamRbEvgbeNþayrbs;eQI rYmCamYyry³beNþayekasikaEdr . karQUsépÞelIsac; eQI tamTisedArbs;sréseQI EdlRsb b¤ eTreLIg nig eTAtamTisedArbs;skmμPaBQUs . karQUs edaybnSúIsac;eQIeRcIn KWeFVIenAeBlNaEdlsrésreQIeTreLIg rYmCamYyTisedAénskmμPaBQUseq<aH eTAmux eFVIkarQUsenAeBleQIminTan;écñ . karGar b¤ karQUsTTwgsac; KWsMedAcMeBaHkñúgkarkat;eRcIn b¤ tic Edlkat;EkgeTAnwgsac;eQI . Carpenting Works -20-
  17. 17. Civil Engineering Department NPIC RkLasac;eQI ³ Epñkénsac;eQIenH )aneRbIR)as;CaFmμtasMrab;BN’nanUvGakar³xageRkArbs;eQI edayeyageTA tamkarrYmpSM énkarlUtlas;BIFmμCati EdlmanlkçN³BiessrYmKñarbs;rUbPaB . karlUtlas;xusKñakñúgcenøaHrdUvekþA nig rdUvRtCak;mandg;sIueténExSrgVg;lUtlas;RbcaMqñaM kar EbøkBIKñargVg; karEbgEckBN’ karekItmanCMgW b¤ karxUcxat nig viFIeRbIR)as; edIm,Ipøas;bþÚreQIeGayeTA CabnÞHkþarTaMgGs;Edlpþl;eGaytamry³rUbPaB . manedImeQICaeRcIn EdlmanTMrg;CasaCImUltaMgBIKl;rhUtdl;cug eBlNaEdlGareRcokeFVICa bnÞHkþar)anbgðajeGayeXIjCaTMrg;CaGkSrG‘uy (U) rbs;bnÞHnImYy² enAeBleFVIkarQUs)anbeBa©j eGayeXIjRsTab;ExSrgVg;lUtlas;RbcaMqñaM . eQIh‘ubEdl)anGareRcokbMEbk ExSrgVg;RbcaMqñaMRtUvkat; EkgCamYynwgEpøEdkQUs nig rUbPaBEbøkKñaEdlminmantictYc)anbgðajCaesrIénbnÞat;Rsb . eQIxøH EdlmanxusEbøkKñaénsrésrekasika )anbgðajeGayeXIjenAelIkareRcokbMEbk nig plitCarUbPaB mansñamExScuc²KYreGayTak;Tajcitþ . TMrg;rbs;rUbPaB vaminmanEdnkMNt;cMeBaHeQIBIKl;rhUtdl;cugRtg;eLIy . manTMrg;EbkCaBIr rvagEmkeTAnwgedIm )anbegáItCacMBam b¤ Casøab rUbPaBeRcIneGaytMéleTAelIsnøwkBasenAeBlEdlkar lUtlas;xusEbøkBIFmμtabuBVehtubNþalmkBImaneRKaHfñak;xøH . Ggát;eQIk¾mansar³RbeyaCn_pgEdr sMrab;karEkécñrUbPaBtamsNæanPaB EdlmanragdUccanRkLÚmGaceFVI)anelIkargarRkLwg . srésreQI ³ EpñksrésrenH vaTak;TgeTAnwgTMhMrbs;ekasikaeQI sréseQIEdll¥ KWRbeLaHekasikatUc ehIybiTCit . cMeBaHsréseQIeRKIm² vamanTMnak;TMngeTAnwgekasikaFM² . sréseQI)aneRbIR)as;pg EdrsMrab;BN’naBIkarEckekasikakñúgTMnak;TMngeTAnwgExSrgVg;lUtlas;RbcaMqñaM . eBlEdlmankarxusKña tictYc rvageQIenArdUvekþA nig eQIenArdUvRtCak; enAEpñksréseQIEdlrabesμI . enAeBlEdleQIman ExSrgVg;lUtlas;rYm eyIgsMKal;eXIjfa sréseQImin)anrabesμI . srésrbs;eQIva)anEsþgecjmincMeBaHEtkarkat; b¤ QUsb:ueNÑaHeT b:uEnþvak¾manlkçN³xag eRkAenAeRkamkarERbBN’ b¤ cugbBa©b;énkarxat;lab . 5- eQIminrwg ¬eQITn;¦ karehAeQμaHCaeQITn;enH)aneLIgedayRkumrukçsa®sþénéRBeQI)anmkBIRsTab;énsrlkUl edayRkumrukçsa®sþ ¬daMkUneQI nig pSBVpSayRKab;BUC¦ . edImeQImanragCaekaN duHCaCYrRKbdNþb; Carpenting Works -21-
  18. 18. Civil Engineering Department NPIC edayBN’ébtgEdlmansøwkragdUcm¢úl . edImeQIEdl)anbriyayenHvax<s; b:uEnþvaminmanTaMgGs;nUv TMrg;EbbenHEdr . eBlNaEdlpøas;bþÚreTACabnÞHkþar cMeBaHeQITn;enH eK)ankMNt;eTAnwgBN’Rsal nig dg;sIuet enAcenøaHeQIrdUvekþA nig rdUvRtCak;kñúgExSrgVg;lUtlas;RbcaMqñaM . 5-1 eQITn;tamtMbn;kñúgBiPBelak RbPBeRKOgpÁt;pÁg;rbs;BiPBelak xagBaNiC¢kmμeQITn;vamkBIPaKxageCIgénGDÆeKall¥Cag eK . valatsn§wgkat;tMbn;d¾EsnRtCak; éntMbn;Gwrub nig GaemricxageCIgcuHeTAshrdæGaemricxagt,Úg . srlkUlvaTak;TgeTAnwgkarlUtlas;ya:grh½s )aneFVIeGayedImeQIduHRtg;taMgBIKl;dl;cug EdlGac efakkñúgkareFVIksikmμ nig RbmUlBIGñkdaMduHéRBeQI . BBYkTaMgenHefakCagRbePTeQIrwg nig CaTUeTA sMrab;GaKar nig kargarCageQIehIyenAkñúgeragcRkeK)anplitCakþarbnÞHkMeTceQI nig Rkdas . 5-2 bnÞHkþareQITn; RKb;bnÞHkþarTaMgGs;éneQIsMrab;sg;pÞHeK)anyksMbkecjTaMgGs; nig tMrUvEKmRCugEdlmanBaM sMbk ehIyGacTij)anBIkEnøgeragma:sIunGareQI . bnÞHkþareKRtUvtMrUveTAtamTMhMxñat . CaFmμta bnÞHkþarsMrab;eFVICMnYjRtUveFVIEKmRCugeGay)anEkg nig KμanCab;sMbk . sac;eQIRsayvamanBN’Rsal ehIymanersIusþg;tictYcTl;nwgPaBmaM nig RtUvTb;Tl;CamYystVl¥itCagsac;eQIEpñkbNþÚl . 5-3 karbþÚrBN’ BN’eQImaneRcInsn§wk vaminmanRbePTdUcKñaEtmYyb:ueNÑaHeT . edImeQImandUcKñapgEdr . eQIEdlmanBN’cas; eRcIneFVIeGayeTACaBN’Rsal kareFVIeGayBN’RsalxøH KWkarbþÚrBN’enAelIépÞrab karGnuvtþn_xat;labKμanGVIsMxan;kñúgkareGayBN’eQIeTarTn;eTArkBN’cas; . tMNagdMueQIkaer:tUc Edl )anbgðajmanTMhMBitBimun nig bnÞab;BI)aneFVIkarxat;labrYcral; . karRtYtBinitügaymYy )aneGay eXIjc,as;bnÞab;BI)anxat;labBN’enAelIeQImYyedayeFVIkardusxat;labedayRmamédrbs;GñkrYcmk TukeGays¶ÜtnUvépÞelIrbs;eQI . Carpenting Works -22-
  19. 19. Civil Engineering Department NPIC 5-4 RbePTeQITn; rUbPaB eQμaH lkçN³ CaeQITak;TajcitþmYy sac;eQIEpñkbNþÚlmanBN’etñatRsal karplitman Cedar of PaBxusKñarvageQIrdUvekþA nig eQIrdUvRtCak;GacmanBkeRcIn . Rebanon eRbIR)as;³ EpñkxagkñúgeFVIeRKOgsgðarwmdak;kñúgsYnc,ar kargar CageQIEpñk sMNg; . Cedar CaeQITak;Tajcitþya:gRsTn; manBN’Rkhmlayetñat eKniymBN’R)ak; Westhern red RbepH bnÞab;BIdak;eGayRtUvFatuGakasry³eBlyUr . Cedar manBN’elOgsøaMg sréseQIrabesμIrYmCamYysac;eQIRtg;l¥ EdlmanBN’ Yellow RsalmaMenAeBls¶Üt . eRbIR)as; ³ eRKOgsgðarwm sMNg;TUk kargarCageQI snøwkBaslMGr . Fir sac;eQIRtg; eQIBN’Rkhm layetñatEdlmanTMhMEPñkFM . Douglas eRbIR)as; ³ kþarkMupøakek kargarCageQI CaTUeTAeRbIR)as;enAGaemricxag eCIgkñúgkic©karsMNg; . Fir BN’ERkmsøaMg KμanC½r nig PaKeRcInCaeQIKμanBN’ mansac;eQIRtg; nig Silver sréseQIl¥ karkt;sMKal;vaRbhak;RbEhleTAnwg Nowayspruce . eRbIR)as; ³ kargarCageQI sMNg; RbGb;kþarkMupøaek begÁal . Hemlock BN’etñatsøaMg CaeQIBak;kNþalføa mankarlUtlas;epSg²KñaeTAtamTI Western kEnøg sréseQIrabesμI nig sac;eQIRtg;ehIyKμanC½r . eRbIR)as; ³ kargarsMNg; kargarCageQI kþarkMupøaek . Kauri sac;eQIRtg;rYmCamYysrésrabesμIl¥ BN’ERbBIetñatsøaMgeTApáaQUklay Queensland etñat . eRbIR)as; ³ kargarCageQI eRKOgsgðarwm . vamansac;eQIRtg; nig manTMrg;sréseQIdUc²Kña sac;bNþÚleQIBN’Rkhm Larch søaMg manBN’RsalenAEpñksac;Rsal . eRbIR)as; ³ kargarCageQI sMNg; bnÞHkþarRkal . Carpenting Works -23-
  20. 20. Civil Engineering Department NPIC mansac;eQIRtg; nig mansréseQIl¥ Gakar³xageRkAvaRbhak;RbEhleTA Pine nwg Parana pine sac;eQIRsayvamanBN’etñatRsalBaseBj nig enAsac; Hoop nig enAsac;bNþÚleQImanBN’ elOg-etñat . eRbIR)as; ³ kargarCageQI sMNg; RkLwg eRKOgsgðarwm . sréseQIrabesμI sac;eQIRtg;CamYyExSrgVg;lUtlas;minesμIKña bNþÚleQI Pine manBN’etñatRsal rYUmCamYynwgxøwmEdlmanBN’etñatcas; CaerOy²vaman Parana sñamqUtBN’RkhmeqIt . eRbIR)as; ³ kargarCageQi eRKOgsgðarwm RkLwg sac;eQIRsaymanBN’elOgsøaMgBaseBj vaTn;KμanC½r nig srésrabesμI Pine bNþÚleQIF¶n;vamanBN’elOgeq<aHeTARkhmlayetñat nig C½reQI . Ponderosa eRbIR)as; ³ eRKOgsMrab;eFVIKMnUr TVar eRKOgsgðarwm ¬eQITn;¦ kargarCageQI sMNg; ¬bBa©ÚleQI¦ . Pine RbePTeQIminTn; minrwg sréseRKImmFüm sac;eQIrabesμI sac;Rsay Sugar manBN’s nig BN’RkhmlayetñatsøaMgenARtg;sac;bNþÚl . eRbIR)as; ³ kargarCageQI sMNg; eRKOgsgðarwm sMNg;TUk kþarkMupøaek . Pine sac;eQIRtg; nig sréseQIrabesμI elOgsøaMgeq<aHeTARkhmlayetñat Western White rYmnwgkarERbRbYltictYcrbs;BN’enAcenøaHrdUvekþA nig rdUvRtCak; . eRbIR)as; ³ kargarCageQI sMNg; eRKOgsgðarwm sMNg;TUk kþarkMupøakek . sac;eQIRtg;Tn;qμar sréseQIrabesμIl¥ nig ExSrgVg;lUtlas;RbcaMqñaMminesμI Pine Kña vamanBN’elOgsøaMgERbeTAetñatsøaMg . White eRbIR)as; ³ eRKOgsMrab;KUs kargarCageQI eRKOgePøg sgðarwm kargarsMNg; . sréseQIrabesμIl¥ nig sac;eQIRtg;sac;bNþÚlvaBN’Rkhmlayetñat kar Rimu RkLwg)anpøas;bþÚrbnþicmþg²BIBN’etñateq<aHeTAelOgénsac;Rsay . eRbIR)as; ³ eRKOgsgðarwm kargarCageQI kþarkMupøaeK snøwkBaslMGr . Redwood CaeQImanC½r nig BN’RsalCamYyelOg-etñateTARkhmlayetñatenAsac; European bNþÚlnig s-elOgRsalenAsac;RsayvamanragerAepSg²Kña . eRbIR)as; ³ eRKOgsgðarwm kargarCageQI kargarsMNg; . Carpenting Works -24-
  21. 21. Civil Engineering Department NPIC sac;eQIRtg;BN’Rkhmlayetñat vamanPaBpÞúyKñaenAcenøaHeQIrdUvekþA nig Sequoia eQIrdUvRtCak; sréseQIERbRbYlBIrabesμIQaneTArkeRKImKμanC½r ./ eRbIR)as; ³ bnÞHeQI eRbIEpñkxageRkA EpñkxagkñúgénkargarCageQI kþam QUs cMrwg kþakMupøaek . Spruce sac;eQIRtg;føa sréseQIrabesμI PaKeRcInBN’sr eQIenArdUvekþA nig BN’ Norway elOgetñatsøaMgenArdUvRtCak; . eRbIR)as; ³ sMNg; kargarCageQI RbGb; kþarkMupøaek bnÞHkþarxÞb;sMelg . KμanC½r eQIBN’Rkhmsr sac;bBa©ÚlBN’páaQUkRsal CaFmμtasac;eQI Spruce Rtg; nig sréseQIrabesμI BwgEp¥kelIkMriténkarlUtlas; . Sitka eRbIR)as; ³ sMNg;TUk EpñkxagkñúgénkargarCageQI sMNg;eRKOgePøg ekA GIeyal cgVarEcvTUkRbNaMgtUc kþarkuMpøaek . sVit rwgCaRbePTeQITn; sac;bNþÚlmanBN’TwkRkUc Rkhmsac;Rsayman Yew BN’PøWepSgKña eFVIkartubEtgRkLaeQI . eRbIR)as; ³ eRKOgsgðarwm RkLwg kargarCageQI . 6- eQIrwg karehAeQμaHeQIrwg vadUcCaeQITn;Edr KWeyageTAtamRkumrukçsa®sþénéRBeQI eTaHCaya:gNa eday PaKeRcIn)aneRbIR)as;eQIrwgCageQIEdlmkBIRkumeQITun . RbePTeQIrwgEdlmansøwkFM² )an kMNt;cUleTAkñúgRkum Angiosperms ¬kUneQImanpáa¦ . Angiosperms va)anbegáInRKab;BUCenAGUEv bnÞb;mkvavivDÆn_kan;EtRbesIreLIgeTACaEpø b¤ RKab; . edImeQImansøwkFMenHeRcInlUtlas;tamtMbn; ehIynig ruHeraysøwkrbs;va enArdUrRtCak; b:uEnþminEmnTaMgGs;enaHeT manxøHvavivDÆn_eTACaedImeQIEdl mansøwkexov . edImeQIEdlmansøwkFM² valUtlas;enAéRBRtUBic EdleRcInEtedImeQIEdlmansøwkexov . CaTUeTAeQIrwgeRcIneRbICab;)anyUrCageQITn; nig kareRCIserIseTAtamcMNg;BN’ sréseQI nig RkLa BBYkeQITaMgenaHmantMéleRcInpgEdr nig manPaKxøH enAEpñkNamYyCaeQIkMreXIj k¾mantMélya;géfø )anERbkøayeTACasnøwkBaslMGr . 6-1 eQIrwgenAtamtMbn;énBiPBelak mankarEbgEckeQIrwgrab;Ban;RbePTenAelIBiPBelakeyIgenH manrab;ryRbePTRtUv)anRbmUl nig eRbIR)as;kñúgkareFVICMnYj . ktþaGakasFatumansar³sMxan;ya:geRcIn cMeBaHkarlUtlas;eTAtam Carpenting Works -25-
  22. 22. Civil Engineering Department NPIC RbePT . TUeTAedImeQImansøwkFM²ruHerayenAGDÆeKalxageCIg nig vamansøwkexovenAtMbn;RtUBik nig GDÆeKalxagt,Úg . RbePTeQIrwgenHmankarlUtlas;ya:gyWt fVIebIya:genHk¾mankmμviFIdaMsarCafμIedIm,ICYyEfTaM éRBeQIEdr . eQIEdlenAx©IvamanKuNPaBl¥xøH mindUcedImeQIEdlmanGayucMNas;eT . 6-2 RbePTeQIrwg CaeQICab;)anyUr sac;eQIhab; nig Rtg; sac;bNþÚlmanBN’ elOg- etñatcas;eTAnwgBN’edImém:sak; sréssac;eQIl¥ b:uEnþvamindUceRbgeTA Afrormosia nwgedImém:sak;eT . eRbIR)as; ³ snøwkBaslMGr EpñkxagkñúgénkargarCageQI Epñkxagkñúg éneRKOgsgðarwm sMNg; . Alder minsUvrwg sac;eQIRtg; sréseQIrabesμI elOgsøaMgeTABN’Rkhmlay Red etñat . eRbIR)as; ³ eRKOgsgðarwm RkLwg cMlak; kþarkuMpøaek snøwkBaslMGr . eRKIm b:uEnþCaTUeTAsac;eQIRtg; sac;eRsamBN’s nig etñatsøaMgenAsac; Ash bNþÚlvaRbhakRbEhleTAnwg European ash . White eRbIR)as; ³ RBng;vay)al; ]bkrN_kan; sMNg;TUk kargarCageQI eQIeRKagelI eRKOgsgðarwm . sVitsréseRKIm sac;eQIRtg; BN’sreTAetñatsøaMgsac;bNþÚleQIh‘ubBN’ Ash exμA . European eRbIR)as; ³ eRKOgbrikçakILa nig ]bkrN_kan; eQIKMeragelIeRKOg Tn;ehIyRsalsMrab;CMnYyéneQIrwg sac;eQIRtg;CamYyBN’føaetñatx©WxøaMg Balsa eTACapáaQUk . eRbIR)as; ³ RTnab;eFVIsMPar³KMrUCMnYy LaMgva:n; . Bass sac;eQIRtg;l¥ sréseQIrabesμI BN’ERkms karRkLwgdak;eGayRtwmRtUv Wood eTABN’etñatsøaMg . eRbIR)as; ³ RkLwg snøwkBaslMGr kargarCageQI . Carpenting Works -26-
  23. 23. Civil Engineering Department NPIC sac;eQIRtg; nig sréseQIrabesμIl¥BN’etñatx©IeTARkhmlayetñatRsal . Beech RkalCag European Beach . eRbIR)as;³ eFVITUk eQIKMeragelIeRKOgsgðarwm épÞxagkñúgénkargarCageQI RkLwg . sac;eQIRtg; nig sréseQIrabesμIl¥ slayetñat karRkLwgBIBN’elOg Beech layetñateTABN’Rkhmlayetñat . European eRbIR)as; ³ eFVITUk eQIelIKMerageRKOgsgðarwm épÞxagkñúgénkargarCageQI snøwkBaslMG RkLwg kþarkuMpøaek . Birch sa;ceQIRtg;l¥ nig sréseQIrabesμI sac;RCaymanBN’ERkmsswgTaMg Gs; Paper nig sac;bNþÚlBN’etñatsøaMg . eRbIR)as; ³ RkLwg eRKOgRbdab;pÞH)ay kþarkuMpøaek snøwkBaslMGr . Birch sac;eQIRtg; nig sréseQIrabesμI sac;RsayvamanBN’elOgx©I nig sac; Yellow bNþÚlvamanBN’RkhmlayetñatCamYyExSrgVg;lUtlas;BN’cas;epSg²Kña. CaTUeTAsac;eQIRtg; b:uEnþeBlxøHsac;eQIcak;eRsHKñarwgehIyF¶n;vamanBN’ Blackbean etñateRcIn nig sñamqUt²BN’etñat . eRbIR)as; ³ eRKOgsgðarwm kargarCageQI snøwkBaslMGr . CaTUeTAsac;eQIRtg; k¾b:uEnþsac;eQIGaccak;eRsH nig rlksréseQIrabesμI Blackwood mFüm BN’masetñatføaeTABN’etñatcas; . Australian eRbIR)as; ³ eRKOgsgðarwmEpñkxagkñúgénkargarCageQI RkLwg sVaykaMePøIg snøwkBaslMGr . sréseQIrabesμIl¥ vaRkasehIyF¶n;Gacmansac;eQIRtg; nig minRtg;ehIy Boxwood manBN’elOgx©W . eRbIR)as; ³ cMlak ]bkrN_kan; Rklwg bnÞat; rwgehIyF¶n; sac;Rtg; nig srésrabesμIr sac;RsaysøaMg vapÞúyKñaeTAnwgsac; Brazilwood bNþÚlBN’Rkhm TwkRkUceqIt RkLwgeTABN’RkhmetñatragerACabnÞH . eRbIR)as; ³ eQIRClk;BN’ RkLwg k,alvIyULúg sVaykaMePøI épÞxagkñúgén kargarCageQIsnøwkBaslMGr . Carpenting Works -27-
  24. 24. Civil Engineering Department NPIC minefakminéfø sréseQIeRKImrabesμIr vaGacRtg; rW cak;eRsHKñaénsac;eQI Bubinga BN’RkhmetñatCamYysVayEdlmansñamdUcsrés . eRbIR)as; ³ eRKOgsgðarwm snøwkBaslMG eRKOgeRbIR)as;GMBIeQI . Butternut sac;eQIRtg; nig sésreQIeRKIm sac;bNþÚlBN’etñatmFüm . eRbIR)as; ³ eRKOgsgðarwm cMlak; EpñkxagkñúgénkargarCageQI . Cherry rwg sac;eQIRtg; nig sésreQIl¥ sac;bNþÚlRkhmlayetñat eTARkhmdit Black sñamcuc²BN’etñat nig dk;C½rxøH² . eRbIR)as; ³ eRKOgsgðarwm eFVIrbs;KMnUr kargarCageQI eRKOgbrikçaePøg exSó . sésreRKIm nig ExSrgVg;lUtlas;FM Gakar³xageRkA Rbhak;RbEhleTAnwg Chestnut Oak eQIGac)anmkBIedImeQIEdlgaygab;QrRtg; . eRbIR)as; ³ eRKOgsgðarwm kþarmQUs begÁal sñwg >> . rwg F¶n; eQIsVit sac;eQIminRbTak; nig sésreQImFümmanBN’epSg²KñaKYr Cocobolo eGaycUlcitþ sVay eTAelOg exμARklwgeGayeTACaTwkRkUc-Rkhm . eRbIR)as;³ RkLwg dgkaMbit xñgCk; >>>> . rwgsac;eQIRkasehIyF¶n; séseQIrabesμIr nig sac;eQIRtg;rWrlkeQIRsay Ebony BN’elOg sac;bNþÚlBN’exμA rW etñatcas; . eRbIR)as; ³ RkLwg eRKOgbrikçaePøg dgkaMbit . séseRKIm maM sVit eQImandg;sIuetmFüm Fmμtamansac;eQIRtg; b:uEnþGac Elm mancak;eRsH sMrab;Bt;)anl¥RbesIr sac;bNþÚlmanBN’Rkhmlayetñat White søaMg . eRbIR)as; ³ sMNg;TUk eRKOgsgðarwm ]bkrN_ksikmμ ]bkrN_vtßúburaN . Elm Dutch and seésreRKIm ExSrgVg;lUtlas;manEbbepSg²Kña naMeGayecjCaragerATak; English Tajcitþ bNþÚleQImanBN’etñatx©I-etñat . Carpenting Works -28-
  25. 25. Civil Engineering Department NPIC Concalo rwg sésreQImFüm nig mineTotTat; sac;eQIcak;eRsH Rkhmlayetñat Alves CamYysñamqUt²exμARbhak;RbEhleTAnwgGakar³xageRkArbs; Rose wood. eRbIR)as; ³ RkLwg eRKOgsgðarwm snøwkBaslMGr . sésreQIeRKImCaTUeTAsac;eQIRtg; b:uEnþGacmineTotTat; b¤ rlksac;Rsay Hickory BN’s sac;bNþÚlRkhmlayetñat . eRbIR)as; ³ dg]bkrN_ eRKOgbrikçakILa ekAGI eQIk¾enAelIeRKOgsgðarwm. Jelutong Tn; føa l¥ sésreQIRtg;rabesμI ERkmRkhmlayBN’etñatsøaMg . eRbIR)as; ³ karkat;CaKMrU bnÞHkþarKMnUr tMN Epñkxagkñúg cMlak . Kauvula CaRbePTsac;eQIrabesμI BN’elOg b¤ etñatsøaMg . eRbIR)as; ³ tMNEpñkxagkñúg nig eRKOgsgðarwm . sésreQIl¥føarabesμI bNþÚleQIKYreGayTak;Tajcitþ éqñCarUbbnÞHénpáa Kingwood vIyUELtetñat exμA nig elOgmas . eRbIR)as; ³ eRKOgsgðarwm . vaTak;TgeTAnwgeQIEdlmanséseRKIIm² Edlmansac;eQIxagkñúghab;ENn Lauan bNþÚleQICamFümmanBN’exμARkhm . Red eRbIR)as; ³ EpñkxagkñúgénkargarCageQI sMNg;TUk eRKOgsgðarwm snøwk BaslMGr kþarkMupøaek . Mahogany manséseQICamFüm ehIyRtg; nig sac;eQIhab;ENnrabesμIbNþÚleQI Brazilian manBN’Rkhm nig etñatlayRkhm . Lignum rwgNas; eQIF¶n; mansésreQIl¥ nig sac;hab;ENn bNþÚleQImanBN’exμA Vitae layébtg etñatlayexμAFmμtadUceRbg . eRbIR)as; ³ kñúgkarRT r:k jjÜr RkLwg . Carpenting Works -29-
  26. 26. Civil Engineering Department NPIC rwg F¶n; sac;eQIRtg; nig sésreQIl¥ sac;eQIx©IBN’s bNþÚleQIman Maple BN’Rkhm nig etñatRsal eBlxøHsMrab;eFVICarUbEPñkrbs;bkSI rW rUbEdlman Hard pñt; . eRbIR)as; ³ eRKOgsgðarwm RkLwg eRKOgePøg eQIRCujrbs;QμÜjlk;sac; kMral snøwkBaslMGr . mansésreQIl¥ nig sac;eQIRtg;vamaM mindUc Hard Maple eT manBN’dUc Maple ERkmetñatRsalCaerOy² eFVICarUbGgáaj; . soft eRbIR)as; ³ eRKOgsgðarwm eRbIR)as;EpñkxagkñúgénkargarCageQI RkLwg snøwkBaslMG eRKOgePøg kMral kþarkMupøaek . sésreQIRKab;² rUbTak;TajcitþtictYcCag White Oak BN’páaQUklay Oak Rkhm . Red eRbIR)as; ³ eRKOgsgðarwm EpñkxagkñúgénkargarCageQI kMralsnøwkBas lMG. mansésreQIBIRKab;mFümeTAFM² sac;eQIRtg; . vaRbhak;RbEhleTAnwg Oak European Oak b:uEnþvapøas;bþÚreRcInBN’EdlminRCabTwk . white eRbIR)as; ³ sMNg; kMral eRKOgsgðarwm EpñkxagkñúgénkargarCageQI kþarkMupøaek snøwkBaslMGr . Oak mansésreQIRKab;² nig sac;eQIRtg; s¶ÜtCag European nig Whit Oak Japanese BN’elOglayetñatRsal . eRbIR)as; ³ eRKOgsgðarwm kþarBas kMral sMNg;TUk snøwkBaslMGr . mansésreQIRKab;² nig sac;eQIRtg; manExSrgVg;lUtlas;epSg²Kña nig Oak manExSeQIc,as;eBlNaEdlGareRcokBuHbMEbk manBN’etñatsøaMg . European eRbIR)as; ³ eRKOgsgðarwm kargarCageQI épÞxagkñúgsMrab;kic©kareQI kMral cMlak; sMNg;TUk .. lkçN³Biess CaeQIEdlmanTMgn;RsalKYrsmEdr CamYysésreQIrabesμI Obeche l¥ . sac;eQIhab;ENn BN’dUcERkmBN’slayelOg . eRbIR)as; ³ EpñkxagkñúgénkargarCageQI bnÞat;rbs;GñkKMnUr eRKOgsgðarwm kþarkMupøaek sMPar³KMnUrkñúgkarKUs . CaeQIrwg F¶n; mansac;eQIhab;ENn Rtg; nig manséseQIRKab;lμm BN’ Padauk Rkhm nig Rkhmbnþic etñat nig RkhmRbLak;qñÚt² . African eRbIR)as; ³ EpñkxagkñúgénkargarCageQI eRKOgsgðarwm RkLwg dgkan; kMral sÁal;CafñaMRClkBN’eQI . Carpenting Works -30-
  27. 27. Civil Engineering Department NPIC sac;eQIRtg; nig séseQImFüml¥ bNþÚleQIBN’RkhmlayetñatRsal Plane ExSeQIcas;exμA eFVICarUbsñamcuc² dUcC½reQI vaRbhak;RbEhlb:uEnþexμAcas; European Cag American Sycarmore . eRbIR)as; ³ eRKOgsgðarwménkargareQI RkLwg snøwkBaslMGr . sNæansésreQImFüml¥dUc²Kña CaFmμtasac;eQIRtg;Tak;Tajcitþ BN’ Purpleheart sVaybnþic . eRbIR)as; ³ sMNg; sMNg;TUk snøwkBaslMGr . manséseQIrabesμIlμml¥ CaFmμtasac;eQIRtg; BN’ERkmetñatsøaMg . Ramin eRbIR)as; ³ eRKOgsgðarwm EpñkxagkñúgénkargarCageQI RkLwg Rbdab;ekμg elg cMlak; kMral snøwkBaslMG . rwg nig F¶n; séseQImFüm sac;eQIRtg; eFVIrUbmanKuNPaBx<s;manBN’etñat Rosewood etñatlayexμA . brazilian eRbIR)as; ³ snøwkBaslMGr eRKOgsgðarwm kargarCageQI RkLwg dgkaMbit eRKOgePøg cMlak; . Rosewood F¶n; RKab;lμm nig séseQIdUc²Kña sac;eQIhab;ENneFVICaekAGWCYr manBN’ Indian maseTAnwgetñatRsal exμAqUt²Rsal b¤ cas; . eRbIR)as; ³ eRKOgsgðarwm eRKOgcab;P¢ab;kñúghag eRKOgePøg RkLwg kMral . F¶n; eQIføa séseQIrabesμIs¥ nig sac;eQIhab;ENn sMrab;eFVIrUbCabnÞH Satinwood manBN’etñatmas rYmCamYysñamtUc² . eRbIR)as; ³ eRKOgsgðarwm EpñkxagkñúgénkargarCageQI RkLW snøwkBas lMGr. sésreQIRKab;rabesμI CaFmμtasac;eQIRtg;rYmCamYyExSeQITUlaymanBN’ Slky oak RkhmlayetñatvaRbhak;RbEhleTAnwg Red Oak Rtg;b:uEnþmin)anl¥dUc Oak eT . eRbIR)as; ³ eRKOgsgðarwm snøwkBaslMGr EpñkxagkñúgénkargarCageQI . séseQIrabesμIl¥ CaFmμtasac;eQIRtg; b:uEnþvamin)aneFVIeGayRcLMCamYy European Sycanmore eT eKGacehA Sycamore maple b:uEnþRsalCag European plane etñatsøaMgCamYynwgExSeQIragcas;epSg²Kña eBlEdlGar Sycamore eRcokbMEbkehIyeFVICaRbePTeQIføa . eRbIR)as; ³ kargareQI eRKOgsgðarwm snøwkBaslMGr eQIRCujrbs;QμÜjlk; sac; . Carpenting Works -31-
  28. 28. Civil Engineering Department NPIC sésreQIrabesμIl¥ sac;eQIRtg; eBlNaeRCokbMEbk GacykeFVIxñgvIyULúg Sycame BN’s eTABN’elOglays . European eRbIR)as; ³ RkLwg eRKOgsgðarwm brikçac®gáan)ay kMraleQIsMrab;eFVIxñg vIyULúg . sésreQIeRKIm minrabesμI nig manrMGileRbg sac;eQIRtg;rWrlk Teak enA Teak RbeTsPUmanvamanBN’ etñatTwkmasEtmYy d¾éTeTotmanBN’cas; . eRbIR)as; ³ EpñkxagkñúgénkargarCageQI sMNg;TUk eRKOgsgðarwm Epñkxag kñúgénsYnc,ar kþarkMupøaek RkLwg snøwkBaslMGr . hab; eQIrwg rYmCamYyséseQIl¥mFüm Fmμatvamansac;eQImineTotTat; Tulipwood manBN’páaQUklayelOgKYreGayniymcUlcitþ . eRbIR)as; ³ RkLwg eRKOgbrikçarc®gáan)ay RbGb; snøwkBaslMGr . sésreQImFüm Fmμtamansac;eQIcak;eRsH sMrab;eFVICarUbbnÞHenAeBlNa Utile Edl)aneRCokbMEbk . BN’páaQUklayetñatRklwgeTABN’Rkhmetñat . eRbIR)as; ³ eRKOgsgðarwm sVaykaMePøIg EpñkxagkñúgénkargarCageQI kMral kþakMupøaek snøwkBaslMGr . CaeQIsVitrYmCamYysésreQIeRKIm Fmμtasac;eQIRtg; b:uEnþvaGacmanrlk Walnut, black manBN’etñatcas; eTAsVaylayexμA . eRbIR)as; ³ eRKOgsgðarwm sVaykaMePøIg EpñkxagkñúgénkargarCageQI eRKOg brikçaePøg RkLwg cMlak; kþarkMupøaek snøwkBaslMGr . mansésreRKIm rYmCamYy sac;eQIRtg;eTArlkmanBN’RbepH etñatrYm Walnut CamYysñamqUt²BN’cas;² . European eRbIR)as; ³ eRKOgsgðarwm EpñkxagkñúgénkargarCageQI sVaykaMePøIg RkLwg cMlak; snøwkBaslMG . manenAkñúgTVIbGIr:ub b:uEnþvaminman Walnut BitR)akdeT Walnut CaFmμtasac;eQIcak;eRsH nig rlk BN’vapøas;bþÚrBIPøWeTAetñatcas; . Queensland eRbIR)as; ³ eRKOgsgðarwm EpñkxagkñúgénkargarCageQI eFñIrkñúghag kMral snøwkBaslMGr . minefakminéfø eQITn; nig TMgn;Rsal rYmCamYysac;eQIRtg; nig sésreQI Yellow-poplar l¥ sac;RsayBN’søaMg sac;bNþÚlBN’exoveTAetñat CamYyBN’sñamtUc² . eRbIR)as; ³ kargareQI sgðarwm cMlak; sMNg;EbbRsalEpñkxagkñúg TUk Rbdab;ekμgelg kþarkMupøaek . Carpenting Works -32-
  29. 29. Civil Engineering Department NPIC 7- snøwkBaslMGr snøwkBaslMGrCasnøwkya:gesþIg b¤ { søwk } rbs;eQIEdl)anmkBIkarRtiHrbs;eQIh‘ubsMrab;kar plitTUeTA rW tubEtglMGreTAtameKalbMNg; . vaCasnøwkrabesμI EdleRbIR)as;sMrab;eFVIenAeRKOgsgðarwm xøH . manRbCaCnxøHyl;eXIjfa kalNasnøwklMGrvaGn;CageTAnwgeQIrwg eTaHbIy:agNak¾manKMnit ExVgKñaBIrbIEdrGMBIsnøwkBaslMGrenH . kareRCIserIssMrab;BN’FmμCati nig rUbrag rW kic©karedayrYmbBa©Úl TaMgk,ac;páa rW tamsNæanrbs;snøwk edIm,IeGayEbøk nig manKuNPaBeTAelIeRKOgsgðarwm nig kic©kar eQI >>> . sBVéf¶enH CaTUeTAeKeRbInUvkavTMenIb ehIyrwgsMrab;bitEpñkxageRkayénbnÞHkþar . karBas RsTab;Can;elIeTAeQIrwg ehIynigGnuvtþbitpÞaMgbnÞab;² . CamYyFnFanFmμCatirbs;eyIgsMrab;eQIEdl l¥ nwg)anElgeXIjbnþicmþg² . bnÞHeQIesþIgeqHeKGaceFVIeTA)anedayeRbIR)as;eQItMélefak dUecñH eyIgGacbnþkarsb,ayrIkrayCamYyFnFanFmμCatirbs;eyIg . 7-1 karplitsnøwkBaslMG eragcRkplitsnøwkBaslMG ¬snøwkesþIg¦ enHRtUvkardwgCak;lak;kñúgkarplitCamYynwgGñkTij eQIh‘ubEdlmanCMnajkñúgkarBinitüKuNPaBeQIh‘ub . edIm,IplitsnøwkesþIgenHeGayRtUvtamsþg;dar CMnYj eRbIR)as;eyabl; nig bTBiesaFn_rbs;Kat;eyIgeFVIkar)a:n;RbmaNelIsßanPaBeQI kñúgeQIh‘ubEdl CamUldæanénkarBinitüenAEpñkxagkñúgmYy . edaykaremIlenAmuxkat;rbs;eQIh‘ub GñkTijRtUvkMNt;KuNPaBrbs;eQI GVIEdlGaceRbIR)as; )anenAsnøwkesþIenH BN’ nig kMriténsac;RsayeTAsac;bNþÚl ktþad¾éTeTotnwgmanT§iBleTAelItMél éneQIh‘ubEdlRtUvkt;sMKal;pgEdr . rYmbBa©ÚleTAelITMhMénkarbþÚrBN’xøH nig PaBxUcxatxøHdUcCaduH sac;kñúgsMbkeQI EPñk Rbehagkñúg . Bt’mand¾eRcInenH nig bgðajeGayeXIjenAeBlEdlkat;tam beNþayeQIh‘ubelIkTI 1 b:uEnþGñkTijmanTisedATijeQIh‘ubmunnwgkat;va . kalNaeQIh‘ubTijehIyRtUvdwkCBa¢ÚnbBa©ÚleragGareQI vamanGñkCMnajkarénkarkat;snøwkesþIg enH nig eFVIkar)a:n;RbmaNnUvkarkat;snøwkesþIgenH EdltMrUvpøÚvkat;)anRtwmRtUv edIm,Ipøas;bþÚreQI eGay manTinñplcMnYnGtibrima nig KuNPaBx<s;énsnøwkesþIgenH . karEbgEckkMrit snøwkBaslMGrRtUv)ankat;edayRtiHCabnÞH² nig KrCapg;tamlMdab; snøwkesþIgenH)anqøgkat; sMgYtrYcehIy eTIb)anEbgEcktamkMritrbs;va PaKeRcInkat;elIma:sIunkat;RkdasedIm,ItMrwmeGayRtUvtam RTg;RTay nig TMhMeTogTat; snøwkesþIgmantMéledayRtwmRtUveTAtamTMhMrbs;eK nig manKuNPaB RtUv Carpenting Works -33-
  30. 30. Civil Engineering Department NPIC mankarRtYtBinitüCa]bkrN_dUcCaxUcxatenAeBlGar kMras; RbePTénBN’ nig RkLa nig karEbgEck kMriteGayRsbeTAtamhñwgEdr . EpñkéneQIh‘ubmYyGaceGayTinñplsnøwkesþIg nig tMélepSg²Kña snøwkesþIgEdlmancMNt;fñak;l¥RbesIrKW { épÞmuxmanKuNPaB} nig mantMélx<s;CagsnøwkesþIgminl¥ { cMNat;fñak;cugeRkay} . snøwkesþIgenH)anRtUvrkSaTuk nig cgCa)ac;bI 16, 24, 28, 32 snøwk dMu)ac;enHRtUv)andakTukerog Kña tamlMdab; nig RbmUldMueQIh‘ubTukkñúgeragrYcral;sMrab;lk; . 7-2 karkat;snøwkBaslMGr eQIh‘ubEdlsMrab;kat;eFVIsnøwkBaslMGrenH)anmkBIkarkat;edImeQIedayyktYedImKWsßitenA cenøaHBIb¤sTl;mkEmkdMbUg . EpñksMbkRtUvykecjBIeQIh‘ubehIyRtYtBinitüEpñkxageRkA dUcCaEdk eKalCaedIm . munnwgERbkøayeQIh‘ubeGayeTACasnøwkesþIgenH eKRtUveFVIeGayvaTn;enAkñúgTwkekþA b¤ cMhuy . vaGackat;elwIkdMbUgedayeRbIrNaExSFM bnÞab;mkeRbIR)as;viFIkat;snøwkesþIg . kñúgkMLúgeBlénsßanPaB enH RtUveFVIkarRtYtBinitüCalMdab;eTAtamRbePTénkarlM)akrbs;eQI nig kMras;edIm,Ikat;snøwkesþIg vaGac eRbIeBléf¶rW s)aþh_ . sac;eQIsøamg eKminsUveRbIkareT eKalbMNgcg;)ansnøwkeQIEdlmanBN’ . manvFIsa®sþCamUldæankñúgkarkat;snøwkesþIg katkat;edayGareRcok karkat;edayrgVil nig kar kat;CabnÞHsMEb:tesþIg . karkat;edayGareRcok rUbPaB 4-5 karkat;edayGareRcok rhUtdl;CitstvtSTI 19 eTIb)anGPivDÆn_ma:sIunkat;snøwkbnÞHesþIg BImunsnøwkbnÞHesþIgTaMgGs; RtUv)ankat;edayeRbIelIkdMbUgKwGaedayéd nig GaredaykMlaMgrbs;mnusS . snøwkesþIgTaMgenHeRcIn RkasxøHcab;TI 1/8 inch (3 mm) . Carpenting Works -34-
  31. 31. Civil Engineering Department NPIC snøwkesþIgEdl)anGarkat;edayma:sIun GarEpømUlFMvamankarx¢Hx¢aynUvsMPar³xøH b:uEnþkarBi)ak kñúgkargarEtmYyKt;KW sac;eQImineTotTat;dUcCamancEgvk . CaFmμatvamankMrasRbEhl 1/32 eTA 1/16 inch (1 eTA 1/16 mm) . GñkGaceRbIR)as;rNarExSenAeragCagrbs;Gñk b¤ ma:sIunGar edIm,IplitbnÞHénsnøwkesþIg eTAtam eKalbMNg CaBiesseTaHbIkarbgðajenHTTYl)anplefakeRcIn rW k¾pþl;CUnGñkCamYysMPar³d¾l¥RKb;RKan; eTAtMrUvkarrbs;elakGñk CagsnøwkesþIgénCMnYjGacrk)an . karkat;edaybgVil rUbPaB 1-6 karkat;edaybgVil kareFVIsnøwkesþIgéneQIRsal rW eQIrwg )ankat;edayviFIykrgVileQIh‘ubTaMgmUl RtUv)ancab;P¢ab; eTAkñúgma:sIunRkLwgFMEdlbkCabnþbnÞab;nUvbnÞHrbs;snøwkesþIgenH . eQIh‘ubviltambeNþayma:sIun ehIysgát;b:HeTAelIr)a nig kaMbit kaMbitcab;P¢ab;enAeRkamr)ar ehIytMrUveTAtamkMras;rbs;snøwkesþIg karcab;P¢ab;r)ar nig kaMbitvamanTMnak;TMngeTAeQIh‘ubCaktþasMxan; edIm,IkarBarépÞeQIkMueGaymankar xUcxat dUcenHRtUvdwgBIkarRtYtBinitüsMrab;karvilCMunImYy²éneQIh‘ub kaMbitQaneTAmuxedaysV½yRbvtþi eTAtamkMras;rbs;snøwkesþIg . snøwkesþIgEdl)anplitenH Gacdwg)anedayEbøkxus²KμanénExSRkLa eQI eBlNaEdlbnþkarkat;snøwkesþIgeq<aHeTArkExSrgVg;lUtlas; . karkat;edayrgVilCaEpñkmYyEdleGaypll¥ edIm,IplitsnøwkesþIgeGayRKb;RKan;sMrab;GñkeFVI bnÞHkþar eKGackat;)anTTwgeRcIn . eTaHCaPaKeRcIneRbIR)as;sMrab; karplitrbs;snøwkBaslMG k¾edayk¾viFIenH)aneRbIsMrab;eFVIkar tubEtglMGrsnøwkesþIgdUcCamanRkey:AmUldUcCaEPñkrbs;bkSIénedImeQImYyEbb (mapls) . Carpenting Works -35-
  32. 32. Civil Engineering Department NPIC karkat;edayRkLwg rUbPaB 1-7 karkat;RkLwg ma:sIunRkLwgGaceRbIR)as;pgEdr edIm,IplitsnøwkesþIgsMrab;tubEtglMGrEdlFMTUlayCamYyeQI Rsal eBlxøHsnøwkesþIgenHvadUcCaRbePTénbnÞHesþIgEdlmanExSeQIénkarlUtlas;rbs;va . TaMgenH)aneFVIelIeQIh‘ubedaycab;P¢ab;elIma:sIunRkLwgEdlmank,alcab;edIm,IplitehIyCa skmμPaBkat;EdlEbøkmYy . eQIh‘ubRtUvykeTAkEnøgpÞúkEdlmanTItaMgenAcenøaHedayTb;enAcMnuckNþalénm:asIunRkLwg b¤ Bak;kNþalénrgVg;eQIh‘ub . snøwkesþIgmYyRtUvkat;ecjBIeQIh‘ubnUvmMumYyTab . eBlRkLwgCitdl;Bak;sac;bNþÚl eKRtUvykeQIh‘ubecjBIeRBaHenAsac;bNþÚlenHvamansñam eRbH b¤ Rbehag vaCakarkat;EpñkcugeRkayEdleRbIR)as;sMrab;biTTl;BIsnøwklMGrxagelI . karkatbnÞHsMEb:tesþIg rUbPaB 1-8 karkat;bnÞHsMEb:tesþIg KWCakarplitenAbnÞHsnøwkesþIgeQIrwgsMrab;tubEtglMGr . snøwkbnÞHrbs;eQIh‘ub )anbgðajBI Gakar³xageRkAénFmμCatirbs;eQI karkat;eQIelIkdMbUgeTAtambeNþayeQI nig )a:n;RbmaNcMeBaHRkLa sac;eQI pøÚvEdlkat;eQIh‘ub)anCabnÞHesþIgenH elcecjCasñamRkLaeQITTWgrbs;bnÞHesþIgsMEb:t kMNt;eTAtamTMhMrbs;dMueQI . Carpenting Works -36-
  33. 33. Civil Engineering Department NPIC duMeQIh‘ubEdleRcokBak;kNþalb¤ ¼ dak;elIkEnøgEdlmaneRKagrMGil EdlGacpøas;bþÚreLIgelI cuHeRkam)an . kMlaMgsgát;e)a nig kaMbitsßitenAépÞedkenABImuxeQI nig bnÞHsnøwkesþIg)aneFVIclnacuH eRkaméneRKag . bnÞab;BIkarkat;nImYy²kaMbitvaeq<aHeTAmuxeTAtamtMrUvkarkMras;énsnøwkesþIg . eQIh‘ubBak;NþalrgVg;sMrab;plitbnÞHesþIgEdlmanrUbRkLaeQIEdlCaTUeTAeRbIeTAkargartuTU . snøwkesþIgTaMgenHmanrUbRkLaeQIKYreGayTak;Tajcitþ . rUbPaBsac;eQIKYreGaycab;GarmμN_ nig Tak;Tajcitþ eBlNaEdlkat;sac;eQIcUleRCAeTAkñúg eQIh‘ub)anbgðajExSRkLaeQIkan;Etc,as;TaMgGs;enH)andak;cab;P¢ab;eTAelIér:eQIEdlGacrMkil)an tamTisedAEdlGaceFVI)an edIm,IplitcMnYneTAtamGtibrmaénsnøwkesþIg nig eTAtamTMhMeQIh‘ub . eQI EdlGaceRCokbMEbk ¼ k¾Gacdak;elIkEnøgér: edIm,IbnÞHesþIgsMEb:t snøwkvatUcCagsnøwkesþIgEdlkat;BI Bak;kNþaleQIh‘ub b:uEnþGacbgðajeGayeXIjnUvExSRkLaKYreGayTak;TajcitþEdr . Carpenting Works -37-
  34. 34. Civil Engineering Department NPIC CMBUk 2 ³ ]bkrN_eRbIedayéd Carpenting Works -38-
  35. 35. Civil Engineering Department NPIC 1- ]bkrN_KMnUsRBag man]bkrN_KMnUsRBagCaeRcIn EdlRtUv)aneRbIR)as;edayCageQI . kñúgcMeNam]bkrN_TaMg enaH)anykmkeRbIedIm,Ivas;cMgay KMnUsCabnÞat; b¤ mMu RtYtBinitüCMerAsMrab;kat;tMrUvépÞbBaÄr nig kMrit kMBs; . 1-1 ]bkrN_rgVas; edIm,ImansmtßPaBkñúgkarvas;eGay)anrh½s nig eTotBitenaH CageQIRtUvhVwkhat;eGay)an sÞat;CMnajGMBIrgVas; 1 Em:Rt edayGnuvtþGanEm:RtbnÞat; b¤ Em:Rtr:ULÚeGay)anrh½s nig c,as;Cak;lak; . RbeTsEdlmankarrIkcMerInxag]sSahkmμCaeRcIn )aneRbIRbB½n§rgVas;CaEm:Rt (metric system of measure) . rgVas;)anRtUvRkitCaCYrenAelIbnÞHEdk EdlmanPaKl¥itCag Yard ¬rgVas;rbs;Gg;eKøs¦ . EpñkEdltUcCagEm:RtKWedsIuEm:Rt (1/10) EpñkEdlRtUveRbICMnYseday feet . sg;TIEm:Rt (1/100) nig mIlIEm:Rt (1/1000) )anRtUveRbICMnYseday inche nig RbPaK . BakünaMmux kilo- KWbgðajkarFMCag 1000 dg Edl)aneRbICMnYseday mile . Metric system KWgayRsYleRbIR)as;Cag Engush System BIeRBaHRKb;rgVas;TaMgGs;KWmanTMrg; TsPaK ehIyKμanRbPaK . bnÞat;bt;CabYnkg; rUbPaB 2-1 bnÞat;bt;bYnkg; CaTUeTAEm:Rtbt;rbs;CageQIeFVIeLIgBIbnÞHeQIP¢ab;edayRtecokTg;Edg nig karBarxagcugeday KMrb . Em:Rtbt;enHeFVIeLIgCabnÞat;rwgEdlcab;P¢ab; nig Tb;edayRtecok . bnÞat;enHmanrgVas; 3ft (lm) bt;)anCabYnkg;esμI²Kña KWCam:UEdlEdleKniymeRbIR)as;CageK . minfaRbePTRbB½n§énrgVas;GVIk¾)anEdl Carpenting Works -39-
  36. 36. Civil Engineering Department NPIC GñkcUlcitþ eyIgKYrEtTijnUvbnÞat;mYyEdlmanrgVas; feet nig inch enAEpñkmçag nig rgVas;CaEm:Rtman enAEpñkmçageTot . bnÞat;Edk rUb 2-2 Em:RtEdk Em:RtEdkCa]bkrN_caM)ac;mYyrbs;GñkeFVIkar b:uEnþGñkRtUvmanya:gtick¾mYyEdrnUvbnÞat; 1ft (300mm) sMrab;eFVIkarKUseGay)anCak;lak; . bnÞat;EdkenHmanGtßRbeyaCn_pgEdr sMrab;vas;elIEKm RCugxøI² . vamanPaBgayRsYl RbsinebIEpñkcMehogénbnÞat;manKMnUsRkitya:gc,as;edayEbgEckCaKMnUs RkittamxñatnImYy²eq<aHeTAmuxrhUtdl;cugbnÞat; . bnÞat;EdlmanRCugEKmRtg; rUbPaB 2-3 bnÞat;EdlmanRCugEKmRtg; KWCabnÞHEdkEdlKμanKMnUsRkit edaymanEKmRCugmçageTr . ]bkrN_enHsMrab;eRbIR)as;sMrab; RtYtBinitüelIépÞrabesμI nig eRbICaCMnYysMrab;KUsbnÞat;Rtg;EdlqUtedaykUnkaMbit . cMeBaHsnøwkkþarEdlmankMras;Rkas; vak¾manTMnak;TMngCamYybnÞat;enHEdr edayeRcIneRbICa BiesssMrab;Tb;qUt b¤ kat; edIm,IeFVIkartMrwmeGaycUlRtUvtamTMhM . bnÞat;enHmanRbEvgBI 20 inch (500mm) eTA 78 inch (2m) . Carpenting Works -40-
  37. 37. Civil Engineering Department NPIC Em:Rtr:ULÚ rUb 2-4 Em:Rtr:ULÚ Em:Rtr:ULÚEdlmanRbEvg 16 ft (5m) KWmantMrUvkarCacaM)ac;kñúgkareRbIR)as;sMrab;RKb;eragCag . eKRtUveRCIserIsEm:Rtr:ULÚEdlmanRbePTrgVas;BIrenAsgxagénEm:Rtr:ULÚ dUecñHvaeFVIeGaymanPaBgay RsYlsMrab;karpøas;RbePTrgVas; . k,alTMBk;EdlenAEpñkxagcugénbnÞaEm:Rt P¢ab;edayEdkmiunehIyrlug edIm,IeGayvaGaccl½t Rtlb;edIm,IeFVIkarvas;Epñkxagkñúg nig xageRkA . TMBk;enHCa]bkrN_sMrab;Tb;bnÞaEm:Rt enAeBlEdlva pÞat;cUlenAkñúgRbGb; . RtUvTijEm:Rtr:ULÚEdlmanKnøWemkanicsMrab;Tb;ExSbnÞaEm:RtkñúgkrNIEdlrmUr Rtlb;eTAkñúgRbGb;yfaehtu . ]bkrN_Ekg rUbPaB 2-5 ]bkrN_Ekg (90º) ]bkrN_EkgmanbnÞHEdkEdlmanRCugRsbKñaehIyP¢ab;eTAnwg dgeQI Edksμit rW )øasÞic . vaRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;RtYtBinitüPaBRtwmRtUvénmMu 90º enARCugEkg b¤ karKUsbnÞat;enAEKmRCugedIm,IeGay Rtg;; . RbsinebIenARCugEpñkxagelIéndgkan; eKbiutvaCamMu 45º enaH vaGaceRbIR)as;pgEdrsMrab;eFVItMNmMu 45º . EkgEdldgvaeFVIBI )aøsÞic b¤ Edk nwgminmanPaBlMeGogBIeRBaHEteRKOgbgÁMúrbs;vaminGackMerIk . cMeBaHdgeQI GacmanRbtikmμRsUbCatisMeNIm ehIy EdkeKalmiunEdlP¢ab;bnÞHEdkrbs;EkgeTAnwgdg eQIGacrlugRbsineFVIeGayEkgenaHFøak; . eTaHbICaya:gNak¾eday CageQIeKniymeRbIEkgEdlmandg eQIRkhmehIyEKmeRsabedayTg;Edg BIeRBaHvaCa]bkrN_EdleFVIeLIgya:gRbNitmYy . EkgEdlmanRbEvgbnÞHEdk 1ft (300mm) RtUv)aneKeRbIR)as;CaTUeTA . Carpenting Works -41-
  38. 38. Civil Engineering Department NPIC EkgmMu 45º rUbPaB 2-6 EkgmMu 45º bnÞHEdkrbs;EkgmMu 45º RtUv)andak;eGaykat;cugdgenAmMu 45º . vaRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;KUselItMN mMu 45º nig sMrab;RtYtBinitüeGay)anRtwmRtUvnUvEpñkEdlkat;ecjrbs;tMN . mMuEkgrMkilEdlmanmuxeTr rUbPaB 2-7 EkgmMurMkilEdlmanmuxeTr EkgmMurMkilEdlmanmuxeT manmuxgardUcCaEkgxagkñúgEdr b:uEnþvaGactMrUvmMuEdleyIgcg;)an ehIyP¢ab;KnøWHedayknøas; rW ex©A . BumÖk,alGENþg rUb 2-8 BumÖk,alGENþg BumÖk,alGENþgeRbICaBiess sMrab;KUseFVItMN BnøÚjragk,alGENþg . bnÞHmçag²manragRCug eTr 1:6 sMrab;eQIRsay nig 1:8 sMrab;eQIrwg . Carpenting Works -42-
  39. 39. Civil Engineering Department NPIC kMbitqUt rUbPaB 2-9 kaMbitqUt enAelItMNnImYy² CadMbUgRtUvKUsedayexμAédsin b:uEnþCanic©CakalRtUveRbIkaMbitqUtsMrab;kat; sréseQI edIm,IFanaEKmRCugeGay)ans¥at . EpøkaMbitmanmuxeTEtmçagKt; . eKeRbIkaMbitenAelIEpñk cMehogmçagénbnÞat;Edlmin)ankar EpøkaMbitqUtkat;enAelIépÞrabeGayGibCab;eTAnwgEkg . EkgbnSM rUbPaB 2-10 EkgbnSM EkgbnSMenHmanbnÞarcl½tEdlmanRbEvg 1 inch (25mm) TTWg nig beNþay 12 inch (30cm) EdlrMkiltamcg¥Úr)antamdgtYrbs;Ekg . vaRtUv)aneKeRbIsMrab;KUs rW vas;mMu 90º nig 45º . dgtYrbs; Ekg)anGibP¢ab;eTAnwgEKmRCugénbnÞHEkg edaymanRkitxñatpgEdr . vamanmuxgarsMrab;tMrUvxñatCMerA b¤ RtYtBinitüCMerAéncg¥Úrlak; b¤ lk . vaRtUv)aneRbICamYyexμAédpgEdr edIm,IKUsbnÞat;RsbeTAnwgEKmRCug énbnÞHkþar . KMnUsbnÞat;kñúgEbbenHeKehAfabnÞat;xñat . ExSbnÞat;xñatenHRtUv)aneKvas;edaykarkan; exμAéd ehIyrujtambeNþayEKmRCugénbnÞHkþar . enAeBlGnuvtþRtUvKUsEtmþgKt; minRtUvKUseRcIndg eLIy . dMbUgRtUvRtYtBinitüEKmRCugénbnÞHkþareGay)anRtg;R)akd . EkgFM rUbPaB 2-11 EkgFM Carpenting Works -43-
  40. 40. Civil Engineering Department NPIC CaerOy² EkgFMenHeKehAfaEkgEdk vamanragCaGkSr L . ]bkrN_enHeFVIeLIgBIbnÞHesþIgén Edk b¤ GaluymIj:Úm . eCIgEvgTaMgBIrRtUv)aneKehAfa bnÞar b¤ tY nigmanTMhMbnÞar 2 inch (50mm) nig beNþay 24 inch (60cm) . eCIgEdlxøIehAfa GNþat nig manTMhMbnÞar 1½ inch (38mm) nig beNþay 16 inch (40cm) enAEkgénRCugEpñkxagcugehAfaEkgeCIg ¬rbs;EkgEdk¦ . enAelIépÞcMehogmanRtaeQμaHGñkplit EdlehAfaépÞmuxcMehog . mancMnYnelxxus²KñaenAelI EpñkcMehogTaMgBIrrbs;Ekg eRcIneRbIsMrab;karKNnaepÞagrbs;eRKaHpÞH EdlmanenAelIépÞmuxcMehogrbs; bnÞar . vak¾eRbI)anl¥RbesIrcMeBaHRbEvgénbIbYnRbePTrbs;epÞag . cMnucBIrcl½t rUbPaB 2-12 cMNucBIrcl½t Ca]bkrN_mYyKUr EdlehAfacMnucBIrsMrab;eRbIKUsCargVg; b¤ EpñkénrgVg; kMeNag vaeRbIdUcCaEdk QanpgEdr . tY]bkrN_TaMgBIrRtUvtMrUvxñatcMgayrbs;kaMrgVg;Edlcg;)an rYceKobrwteTAbnÞHeQIedIm,I KUs . cMnucmYyRtUvdak;eGaycMcMNuckNþal nig cMnucmYyeTotP¢ab;edayexμAédedIm,IeyalKUsecjCa rgVg; b¤ kMeNag . enAelIxñaténcMnucTaMgBIrenH edIm,IeGayRbesIr eKRtUveFVIeLIgBIbnÞHeQIesþIg . xñatrgVas;man rhUtdl;cugkMNt;cMgayCakaMrbs;rgVg;rYmCamYyEdkRsYc b¤ kUnEdkeKalsMrab;eFVICacMnuckNþal . tMrUv EdkRsYceGay)anRtg;eTAnwgbnÞHxñat bnÞab;mkrwtP¢ab; ehIyTajrUtcMnucexμAédrMkilelIbnÞHedIm,ItMrUvxñat rgVg; b¤ kMeNag . EfrkSacugexμAédeGayragCaGkSr V edIm,IrkSaKMnUsrn§ nig sVan)anRtwmRtUveTAtamExSKMnUsenH. rkSaTukdak;]bkrN_rgVas;enH edaykMueGaymanb:HTgÁiceTAelIcMnucTaMgBIr . Carpenting Works -44-
  41. 41. Civil Engineering Department NPIC EkvsÞg; rUbPaB 2-13 EkvsÞg; eKplitEkvsÞg;enHeLIg edIm,IeRbIR)as;kñúgkarcg¥úlbgðajBIépÞedk nig bBaÄr . vamanExSbnÞat; mYyEdlmansar³sMxan;kñúgkarkMNt;cMNaMfavtßúenaHmanépÞedk b¤ QrRtg;RtwmRtUv . enAEpñkén]bkrN_ mancMnucsÞgépÞedk nig sÞg;épÞbBaÄrenAcugsgxagnImYy²én]bkrN_ . ebIsincMnucenARbeLaHkNþal enaHminRtwmRtUv eKminGaceFVIkarvas;sÞg;)aneLIy . EkvsÞg;rbs;CageQI eRbIsMrab;RtYtBinitüenAelIépÞedk nig bBaÄr . PaBRtwmRtUvrbs;EkvsÞg; )ankMNt;eGaykaremIl)anBitR)akdEdr . BBuHxül;EdlmanenAkñúgbMBg;eRsabkBa©k;énEkvsÞg;RtUvEt RtwmRtUvedaysßitenAcMkNþalKMnUsbnÞat;elIbMBg; . bMBg;énEkvsÞg;enHmanTisedABIrEdlgakersMrab;eFVI karRtYtBinitüelIépÞedk nig bBaÄr . cMnYnbMBg;kñgEkvsÞg;kMNt;eTAtamRbEvgEkvsÞg; nig eTAtamGñk ú plit . EkvsÞg;)aneFVIeLIgGMeBIeQI b¤ Edk CaFmμtaeKeFVIBIGaluymIj:Úm . CageQICaeRcIneKcUlcitþ RbePTEdk EdlmanbeNþayBI 24-28 inch (60-70) . cMNaM ³ minRtUveFVIeGayEkvsÞg;Føak;eLIy BIeRBaHvaGaceGayEbkkBa©k; b¤ manPaBlMeGogrbs; EkvsÞg; . edIm,IRtYtBinitüeGay)anRtwmRtUvénvtßúmyedayépÞedk b¤ bBaÄr eKRtUvykEkvsÞg;dak;Tb; Y eGayCab;eTAnwgépÞEdlsÞg;enaH emIledayykcitþTukdak;cMeBaHTItaMgBBuHxül;eTAnwgExSbnÞat;enAelI bMBg; . rMkilEkvsÞg;tambeNþayG½kSbBaÄr eKRtUvykEkvsÞg;dak;Tb;eGayCab;eTAnwgépÞEdlsÞg;enaH emIledayykcitþTukdak;cMeBaHTItaMgBBuHxül;eTAnwgExSbnÞat;enAelIbMBg; . rMkilEkvsÞg;tambeNþay G½kSbBaÄr enAkEnøgdEdlénvtßúenaH ebI]bkrN_rgVas;emIleTAdUcBImunenaH dUcenHépÞsÞg;enHRtwmRtUv . bnÞat;sÞg;enHrYmpSMedaybMBg;kBa©k;mYyeRKOgeRsabEdkCamYynwgTMBk;enAcugsgxagTMBk;enH RtUv)ancab;P¢ab;rYcvaGactMrUveLIgelI b¤ cMnuccuH)anrhUtdl;BBuHxül;sßitenAcMnuckNþal . b:uEnþenaHCa y:agNak¾eday k¾viFIenHminRtwmRtUvBitR)akdEdr kñúgkaremIlPaBesμIrénEkvsÞg;RtUvrkSakarcab;P¢ab;rbs; bMBg;sÞg;eGay)anCab; ebIvarbUtenaHeyIgminGacsÞg;)aneT edaysarTMgn;rbs;vaep¥ógmkmçag² EdlnaM eGayxuscMnuckNþal dUcenHlT§plvak¾xusEdr . Carpenting Works -45-
  42. 42. Civil Engineering Department NPIC kUnRbeyal kUnRbeyalvamanPaBRtwmRtUv EdlCajwkjab;RtUv)aneRbIsMrab;RtYBinitüépÞbBaÄr . eBlEdl BüÜrExSmYyEdlmankUnRbeyalvanwgFøak;cuH)anCaExSQrmYy bnÞab;BIvaQb;eyal . kUnRbeyalvaman TMhMxus²Kña nig kareRbIk¾xus²KñaEdreTAtamkardæan nig eTAtamkMlaMgxül;bk;pat;kUnRbeyal TMgn;F¶n;rbs;vaQb;eyal)anrh½sCagkUnRbeyalEdlmanTMgn;Rsal manRbehagkñúgdUcenHeKbMeBj vaedayEdkrwg edIm,IbegáInTMgn;edaytBRgIknUvTMhMrbs;vaeLIy . rUbPaB 2-14 kUnRbeyal kUnRbeyaleRcIneRbI)anrh½s nig manPaBRtwmRtUvénépÞbBaÄrénTueyaTwk srsr TVar eRKag nig eRKagq¥wgdéTeTotEdlmanépÞbBaÄr . vaGacbBaÄb; nig )ankMBs;mYyEdlbegáIteLIgedaycMnuckUn RbeyalehIykMNt;)anCabnÞat;EtmYyKt; . 1-2 ]bkrN_KUsdwkbnÞat; rUbPaB 2-15 ExSdwkbnÞat; CaExSRtg;Evg sMrab;pÞat;dwkecjCaKMnUsExS . ExSEdlCab;emSAdIsenH RtUvsn§wgeGaytwgrvag cMnucTaMgBIr rYcpÞat;eTAelIépÞrab emSAdIsenH)anrbUtecjBIExS ehIyCab;enaelIépÞrab . eKeRbIéd]bkrN_év: edIm,IrMuExSdIsenHeLIgvij eKehAfaRbGb;dIspgEdr RbGb;enH)anbMeBjeTA edayemSAEdlmanBN’ . BN’EdlniymcUlcitþeRbIman ³ exov elOg Rkhm nig s . ExS)anepSIm Carpenting Works -46-
  43. 43. Civil Engineering Department NPIC y:ageCaKeTAedayemSABN’ EdlenAkñúgcMehogénRbGb;manédrévmYy . ExSbnÞat;enHnwgQb;eRbIeBl NaEdlkMeTcemSAGs;BIkñúgRbGb;]bkrN_ bnÞat;BIpÞat;bIbYnsarmk nwgRtUvkarbEnßmkMeTcemSAfñaMeGay )aneRcIneLIgvij eFVIkarGRgYnRbGb;edIm,IeGaykMeTcemSACab;ExS . eBlEdlRkLúkeGaykMeTcemSA Cab;ExSRtUvbiTKMrbmuxrbs;RbGb; . cab;TajExSeGayRtg;ehIyeGaytwgmun nig cab;epþImpÞat; . tMrg;ExSbnÞat;edayEPñkemIlPaB Rtg;énExSkMueGaydk; . ebImanExSdk;enaH RtUvmanTMrmYyenAcMkNþalExS . cMeBaHExSmanRbEvg cugsgxagénExSRtUv cab;P¢ab;eGayCab; sgát;Rtg;cMnuckNþalénExSbnÞat;eTAelIépÞ ehIycab;pÞat;ExSsgxagTaMgBIréncMnuc kNþal EfrkSaExSkMueGayesIm ebIExSesImenAeBlGnuvtþeTAvamin)anlT§pll¥eT . EdkQan rUbPaB 2-16 EdkQan EdkQaneRbIsMrab;KUrCargVg; b¤ kMeNag RbeLaHEdkQanesμIrnwgcMgaymYy . ]bkrN_enHeRbI R)as;)anya:gmaMkñúgkarKUsvas sMrab;KUselIépÞmYyEdlmineTogTat; edaycuceCIgEdkQaneGayGib Cab;eTAnwgdMupÞaMgenaH vagayRsYl nig PaBeTogBiteRcIn kñúgkarKUsvas . eCIgEdkQaneFVIeLIgBIEdkrwg kEn§kecjeRkA nig Epñkxagcugragekag . CaFmμtaexμAédeRbIpøas;bþÚrKña)anRtg;kEnøgeCIgKMnUseRbIexμAéd EdlmanbNþÚlrwgehIyEvg . BBaydwk Carpenting Works -47-
  44. 44. Civil Engineering Department NPIC rUbPaB 2-17 BBaydwk eKeRbIR)as;BBaydwkkñúgkarKUsbnÞat;RsbeTAnwgEKmRCug Edl)anQUstMrg;ehIy . m¢úlEdl RsYc RtUv)ancab;P¢ab;eTAcugmçagéneQIr)arwg CBa¢aMgTb; b¤ tYBBayrGilenAelIr)a ehIycab;P¢ab;eTAtam cMgayEdltMrUvkarBIm¢úl edaysarvIusemEdk bnÞHesþIgTg;Edg)anesotesμIeTAnwgépÞmuxéntY edIm,IkarBar PaBswk sþg;da ¬niyam¦ RbEvgrbs;r)a 8 inch (200mm) b:uEnþGñkGaceFVIr)a 1ft (300mm) sMrab;KUs dwkelIbnÞarbnÞHkþar . BBaykat; rUbPaB 2-18 BBaykat; BBaykat;manrUbragRsedognwgBBaydwkEdr b:uEnþmanTMhMtUcCag ehIykarGnuvtþn_eFVIdUcBBay dwkEdr . vaCMnYseTACabnÞartUc EdlP¢ab;edayesñót . eKeFVIvaeLIgrebobenH edIm,IKUskat;TTwgsréssac;eQI mindUcm¢úlrbs;BBaydwkEdlRKan;Et EjkEhkelIépÞsac;eQIEtb:ueNÑaH . sþg;darrbs;bnÞarragmUl b:uEnþvaGacCMnYsedaycugkaMbitsMrab;kat; snøwkBas;lMGr . BaBaydMNab; rUbPaB 2-19 BBaydMNab; BBaydMNab;enHmanm¢úlBIrsMrab;dwkbnÞat;éncMehogTaMgBIrrbs;dMNab; b¤ BnøÚj m¢úlmYy)an cab;P¢ab;enAnwgmYykEnøg nig m¢úlmYyeTot)anP¢ab;eTAsñÚkEdk EdlGacrMkil nig éltMrUv)anl¥RbesIr edayvIuseméd EdlmanenAxagcugr)a . Carpenting Works -48-
  45. 45. Civil Engineering Department NPIC ]bkrN_BBaydMNab;CaeRcIn RtUvEtm¢úlmYyP¢ab;hñwgmYykEnøgelIcMehogmçageTotrbs;r)a dUc eTAnwgBBaydwkEdr . BBayEKmRCugekag rUbPaB 2-20 BBayEKmRCugekag CamYynwgépÞrabesμIr kardwkbnÞat;RsbedayBBayFmμta vaxusKñaeTAnwgkardwkbnÞat;ekagénEKm RCug . CBa¢aMgTb;Biessrbs;tYBBay EdlmanEKmRCugekagmYy nwgmanm¢úlBIrGcl½t edIm,IkarBar ]bkrN_eBleyalGUseTAmk kñúgkardwkbnÞat;EKmRCug . ehIyvaGaceRbIpgEdr enAelIeQIEdlmanépÞ eTalRtg; . 2- karxYg nig ]bkrN_kat; CaerOy²CageQIRtUvkarkat;CaRbehagenAelIeQI nig Edk . cMeBaHeQIkarxYg bgðajBIkarkat; RbehageGay)anTUlay Cajwkjab;karsVanRbehag)aneFVIeLIgelIEdk b¤ k¾RbehagtUcenAelIeQI TaMgenaH]bkrN_xYgk¾)anrYmbBa©ÚlpgEdr . dUcenHedIm,Ikat;nUvsMPar³TaMgenaH eyIgRtUvbgVilnUv]bkrN_ kat; . 2-1 sVanrévéd rUbPaB 2-21 sVanrévéd Carpenting Works -49-
  46. 46. Civil Engineering Department NPIC dgsVanenH manédrévsMrab;sVanenAP¢ab;eRKagvamank,alcab;mYysMrab;tMrg;TisedA nig eFVIkar sgát;eTAelIdgkan;ragmUlenAeBleyIgGnuvtþ . kareFVIclnaCagrgVg;)anedaysareRKagbt;mansñab;éd ehIyxñatrbs;sVanédKittamviC¢maRtrbs;eRKagbt;enH . GñkeFVIkargarCageQICaeRcIn)aneRbIR)as;dg sVan 10 inch (250mm) b:uEnþvamanxøHeFVIeRKagbt;tUcdUcCa 5 7/8 inch (147mm) nig FM 1ft (300mm) . sVanédenHmanemkaniceFVIBIkgcRkmans<WCMuvijEdlenABIeRkayfÁamcab; . ]bkrN_minGaceRbI enAelIkEnøgNaEdlmanEkgbt;)aneLIy . clnarwtEpøsVan vapÞúynwgclnasVan karbn§ÚrfÁamcab;tam TisedARTnicnaLika GacéltMrUvs<WemkanicenHeGayvileqVg-sþaM)an b¤ køas;esar . 2-2 EpøsVan cMeBaHEpøsVanEdlmanKl;EpøCakaer: eK)anplitCaBiessnUvfÁamcab;sMrab;Tb;cab;EpøsVanRbePT enH . b:uEnþCaTUeTAeKeFVIfÁamcab;enHeTAtamKl;EpøsVanragmUlpgEdr . EpøsVankNþal rUbPaB 2-22 EpøsVankNþal tYEpøsVaneFVIBIEdkrwg eRbIR)as;sMrab;sVanrn§rak;² . manm¢úlBnøÚjmYyRsYc nig enAelIEKmEpøman épÞmutsMrab;qUtkat;EKmrgVg;énRbehagmunnwgsVancUleTAkñúgsac;eQITaMgRsug . enHeFVIeGayRbehag manPaBrlIgl¥ . cMeBaHs<WEdlmanenAelIm¢úlBnøÚj)anTajtYEpøeGaycUleTAkñúgsac;eQI . EpøsVanenH manTMhMBI ¼ eTA 2 inch (60 eTA 50mm) . EpøsVanxYg ¬EpøxYg¦ rUbPaB 2-23 EpøsVanxYg ¬EpøxYg¦ tYEpøsVanxYgenHrWgRbhak;RbEhleTAnwgtYEpøsVankNþalEdr . b:uEnþEpøbnSúIvaragrmYlGacsVan)an RbehageRCA ehIyGacm_Edk)anTajecjmképÞxagelI . vamanm¢úlBIreTotEdlenACab;EKmRCugEpøkat; pgEdr . épÞrbs;Epøkat;manPaBrmYlrmYlBIrCan; . Carpenting Works -50-
  47. 47. Civil Engineering Department NPIC EpøsVanxYgenHmanviC¢maRtTMhMBI ¼ eTA 1 ½ (6-38mm) TMhMRbeLaHrmYlnImYy²y:ageRcIn 1 inch (25mm) b:ueNÑaH . EpøsVanBRgIk rUbPaB 2-24 EpøsVanBRgIk EpøsVanBRgIkenHsMrab;éltMrUvkñúgkarsVanRbehagEdlTak;TgeTAnwgTMhMviC¢maRtmYycMnYn . Epø kat;manRkitxñatsMrab;eFVIkarelIITIkEnøgEdlmaneRKOgRbGb; b¤ Cam:UEdlxøH eFμjbnSúIragmUl . CaFmμtaEpøsVanvamanTMhMBIrEbbGacsVanRbehagkñúgviC¢maRt ½ eTA 3 inch (22-75mm) . EpøsVanxYgmat;rn§ rUbPaB 2-25 EpøsVanxYgmat;rn§ EpøsVanRbePTenH eRbIdUcEpøsVanédEdr Kl;Epøragkaer:tMrUveTAtamsþg;darfÁamcab; . EpøsVanTYnNWvIus rUbPaB 2-26 EpøsVanTYnNWvIus EpøsVanenHsMrab;kic©karNaEdleRcIn . EpøTYNWvIusGacbegáIt)ankMlaMgbgVilFMsMrab;mYlvIusEdl Evg . 2-3 bec©keTssVan edIm,IecosvagkarEbksac;eQItUc²EdlmanenAelIcMehogxageRkayénpÞaMgdul eBleyIgsVan CitFøayRtUvQb;sVan rYceFIVkarRtLb;BIEpñkeRkaymkvij CaBiessvamansar³RbeyaCn_Nas;sMrab;eFVI Carpenting Works -51-
  48. 48. Civil Engineering Department NPIC karelIeRKagTVar . RtUvykecjEdkeKal b¤ rbs;rwgxøHEdlmanenARtg;rgVg;sVanEdlGacnaMeGay)ak; b¤ Tal ¬ril¦ m¢úlBnøÚjénEpøsVan . 2-4 EdkecaH rUb 2-27 EdkecaH EdkecaHvaRbhakRbEhleTAnwgrn§sVanya:gsamBaØ sac;eQIminGacFak;ecjeRkAdUcCasVaneT b:uEnþRKan;EteRbIkMlaMgxøaMgeTAelIvaedIm,Ipþac;séseQI . eKeRbIR)as;vaedIm,IeFVIrn§mundMbUg munnwgbBa©ÚlvIus b¤ k¾sMrab;Tb;nUvcMnucKMnUskNþalsMrab;sVan . eBldak;vaeTAkEnøgTTwgsac;eQI cugvaEdlmanragdUc TYNWvIus )ankat;sésreQIdUcEdkqñúc edayrujbBa©ÚleTAkñúgeQI ecosvagPaBEdlGacekIteLIgnUvkar rEhksac;eQI . 2>5 EdkxYgéd ¬Edkéx¦ rUb 2-28 EdkxYgéd Edkéxvamanmuxgar Rbhak;RbEhleTAnwgEdkecaHEdr b:uEnþmansmtßPaBkñúgkareFVIrn§eGayeRCA edaykarkat; nig Gacm_eQIFak;ecjdUcCaEpøsVanEdr . 2-6 sVanéd dgénédrévrbs;sVanédvabgVilk,alcab;eTAtamRbB½n§rbs;kg;s<W . rUb 2>29 sVanéd Carpenting Works -52-
  49. 49. Civil Engineering Department NPIC k,alcab;enHenAxagkñúgmanfÁambIsMrab;eKobmYlrwtEpøsVanEdlmanviC¢matrhUtdl; 3/8 inch (9mm) mansVanédxøHrévedayemkanic . EpøsVanrmYl b¤ EpøsVanEdk EpøsVanrmYlCaTUeTAvamanragCabMBg;rYmCamYycg¥ÚrBIrrmYleLIgx<s; edIm,IgayRsYlkñúgkargar sVanrn§ . rUb 2-30 EpøsVanrmYl enAEpñkx<s;bMptuéntYEpøsVan vamanRCugEpøkat;BIrEdlmanTMrg;CacMnucRsYc cMnucRsYcTaMgBIrenH eRcInragmUlvamanmMu 59 dWeRk sMrab;karsVancUleTAkñgEdk nig manmMumYyeTot 45 dWeRk sMrab;sVancUl ú eTAkñúgeQI manCageQICaeRcIn)anerobcMeRbIR)as;EpøsVanEdkEdlmanel,Ónx<s; . CamFümEpøsVanrmYlmanTMhMBI 1/16 eTA ½ inch (1 eTA 13mm) eTaHbICak,alcab;vaminman TMhMFMCag 3/8 inch (9mm) k¾eday cMeBaHEpøsVanEdlmanTMhMFMCagk,alcab;eK)anRkLwgenAKl;Epø sVaneGaymanviC¢maRttUcEdlk,alcab;GaceKobrwt)an . EpøsVaneQI rUb 2-21 EpøsVaneQI EpøsVanmYlenHrYmmancMnucRsYcenAcMkNþal nig manxñayBIrsMrab;bnSúIdMbUgénEpøsVankMueGayman karrebHecjénsac;eQI vasVan)aneTAelImuxkat;sac;eQIedayRtwmRtUvsMrab;eFVItMNsøg; . EpøsVanxYgmat;rn§ rUb 2-32 EpøsVanxYgmat;rn§ Carpenting Works -53-
  50. 50. Civil Engineering Department NPIC EpøsVanxYgmat;rn§enH kat;sac;eQIykecjCaragmUltMrUveTAtamk,alvIsmYleQIRbehagrag eRTtrabesμI . dMbUgRtUvsVanrn§tMrUvtYvIussin bnÞab;mkeRbIsVanxYgmat;rn§dlvart;Rtg;cMnuckNþaleday sV½yRbvtþi . 2-7 Bnøak BnøakrYmCamYyrNar nig EdkQUs Ca]bkrN_EdlRtUvkarcaM)ac;sMrab;kargarCageQI vaPaKeRcIn sMrab;dab;yksac;eQIecjEdlmin)ankaréntMN eTaHbICamankarEkERbfμItictYc k¾)ankareRbIR)as;pg EdreTAelIRTg;RTaykñúgkartMrwmsMGatenelIdMukMNat;kic©kar . BnøakEdlknþal;maMmaneBlxøHeFVIkarCamYy jjÜreQI eBlEdlRtUvyksac;eQIecjeRcIn b:uEnþeRcIneBlEdl]bkrN_enHeRbICamYykMlaMgédsgát; Etb:ueNÑaH . Bnøakrwg BnøatrwgenHCamUldæanTUeTAsMrab;BnøakÉeTot . muxkat;EpøvamanragbYnRCugRTEvgmaMRKb;RKan; sMrab;elIeQIsVitCamYyjjÜreQI . rUb 2-33 Bnøakrwg EpøvaeFVIya:gNaeTogTat;mancMnYnbEnßmBI 1/8 eTA 1/ ½ inch (3-38mm) énTTwg b:uEnþmanTTwg Bnøat 2 inch (50mm) EdlGacrk)anpgEdr . BnøakRCugbBaäit rUb 2-34 BnøakRCugbBaäit EpñkxageRkamcMehogénRCugEpøBnøak varabesμIrdUcBnøakrwgEdr b:uEnþRCugbBaäitvarak;eTAxageRkam GbeTAedayRCugbBaäitEvgBIr . ]bkrN_eFVIeLIgedayTMgn;RsalEdlGaceFVIkarCamYyédEtb:ueNÑaH vaeRbIenAelItMNBnøÜjk,alGENþtpgEdr . BnøatRCugbBaäitmanTMhMxñatdUceTA nwg BnøatrwgEdr . Carpenting Works -54-
  51. 51. Civil Engineering Department NPIC BnøakerH rUb 2-35 BnøakerH BnøakerHenHKWragvaCaBnøakEdlbEnßmRCugbBaäitEvg sMrab;erHecjsac;eQIEdlelIstictYcén tMNbnÞHkar . BnøakerHsþÜc rUb 2-36 BnøakerHsnþÜc ksþÜcBnøakenHvaRKb;RKan;eTArkkargarCageQIedayrkSamuxEpøsMEb:trbs;vadak;enAelIépÞrabesμI edIm,IeFVIkarerHenAcenøaHbnÞHkþarEdlFM . Bnøakmuxeqog rUb 2-37 Bnøakmuxeqog muxkat;rbs;EpøeqogcUlKñasßitenAmuM 60 dWeRk edIm,IqUtkat;CabnÞat;esþIgenAEKmRCugdUcBnøakEdr KWqUteq<aHeTAmux . kareFVIenHKWedIm,IeGayépÞkat; s¥atrabesμIRtg; enAelIsac;eQIEdlBi)ak nig CaBiesscugRsYc vaeRcIneRbIR)as;sMrab;sMGatecjnUvRCugEkgEdlqÁaMqÁg . TMhMbnÞarEpømanBI ½ , 1/3 nig 1 inch (12, 18 nig 25mm) . Carpenting Works -55-
  52. 52. Civil Engineering Department NPIC 2-8 BnøakeFVIRbehagdMNab; kardab;RbehagdMNab;eGayvaRtUvKñanwgBnøakEdlkargar)ankMNt; . CaFmμtaRtUvmantuCagedIm,I eFVIkarrYmKñakñúgkareFVIdMNab; . BnøakeFVIRbehagdMNab; rUb 2-38 BnøakeFVIRbehagdMNab; BnøakenHmanbEnßmnUvkMras;muxEpøsMrab;eFVIkic©karEdllM)ak vamaMehIymankMlaMgRKb;RKan;edIm,I eRbIR)as;kñúgkargardab;yksac;eQIecjCafñak;²énCMeraRbehag épÞcMehogvaragRCugEkgedIm,IeGayRtUv nwgdMNab; BIBnøkeTAcugrbs;varagCabnÞH edIm,IkarBarmuxBnøkeTAkñúgkargardab;RbehagdMNab; . Bnøak RbePTenHplitman 4 TMhMBI ¼ eTA ½ inch (6 eTA 12 mm) . BnøaksMrab;Rbehag rUb 2-39 BnøaksMrab;Rbehagesar kBnøakmUlenACitcugénmuxEpøBnøak vamanlT§PaBRKb;RKan;kñúgkargareQIsMrab;sMGatnUvEpñkEdl esssl;tictYcénépÞ)aténCMerArbs;RbehagdMNab; . kareFVIRbehagdMNab;eGayRtUveTAtamsþg;dar rbs;Bnøak . eRCIserIsBnøaksMrab;eFVIRbehagesar eGaydUcTMhM b¤ Rbhak;RbEhleGayxustictYcBI RbehagsMrab;muxgarenH . BnøakdMNab;FM rUb 2-40 BnøakdMNab; Carpenting Works -56-
  53. 53. Civil Engineering Department NPIC BnøakenH)aneFVIeLIgtaMgBIedImmksMrab;GñkeFVIk)a:l; . BnøakenHmanbnÞarcab;BI ½ inch (38 mm) eLIgeTA sMrab;kargarsg;eTAelIeRKagq¥wgEdlcaM cgáMEdlenAelIdgCYyTb;kMueGaydgkMueGayEbk EdlmankardMxøaMgBIjjÜr . BnøaksMrab;ecaHesarfttu rUb 2-41 BnøakecaHesarfttu BnøakRbePTenHsMrab;ecaHRbehagesar nig kEnøgmandak;RtecoksßitenATIEdlBI)akvaGaceFVI )andUcCaBnøaksamBaØmYyEdr . vamanRCugmuxEpøkat;BIr EdlmanmMuRtwmRtUvmYyeTAnwgdgrgVil ehIynig RCugmuxEpøkat;bnþeTotRsbCamYydgrgVilEdr . eFVIkarTb;eGayCab;BnøakenHenAelIkic©kar cucdgrgVil CamYyjjÜreRkayBI)antMrUvRCugmuxEpøkat;eGayRtUvtamRbehagesar . 2-9 EdkQUs tamRbéBNIEdkQUseQIvagayRsYlkñúgkareFVINas; . sñÚkEdkQUsCaeQIrwgmanragbYnRCug RTEvg EpømYy nig EdkRTnab; Edks‘kTTwgsñÚksMrab;vayesñótsgát;P¢ab;Epø nig RTnab; . CitesÞIrEtTaMgGs;énkic©karedIm,IeGaymanKuNPaB vaRtUvkarnUvEdkQUsTaMgenH . va)anCYy QUsecjnUvGVIEdlminRtUvkarCamYynigkargarGVIeTotdUcCaenAelITMrrnUtbgÁgGar . EdkQUsFmμta rUb 2-24 EdkQUsFmμta Carpenting Works -57-
  54. 54. Civil Engineering Department NPIC EdkQUsenHbeNþayRbEvgBI 6½ eTA 14 ½ inch (165 eTA 365mm) muxEpøvaeFVIBIEdkkae)an x<s;EdlmanRCugsMrab;kat;sac;eQIEpñkxageRkA vaCaEdkkae)antic edIm,IdCYyTb;Tl;eBlNaEdlQUs CamYysac;mineTotTat; b¤ manBkeRcIn . EpñkxñgénEpørabesμIEdleFVIeGaygayRsYlkñúgkarsMelog nig cab;P¢ab;CamYyRTnab;)anl¥ . edIm,ItMrUvEføgkñúgkarbnSúIsac;eQIeKRtUvykjjÜEdk b¤ eQImkdMBIelIépÞEpø EdkQUsEpñkRCugxagelItic² . enAEpñkxageRkayénk,almanbBa©úHk,alsIu edIm,IbeBa©jEpøenAeBl sMelogEpø . edIm,IbBa©úHnUvkarkkitelIkargarEdkQUssMGatRtUvmansñÚkEvg . EdkQUskat;bBaäit rUb 2-43 EdkQUskat;bBaäit CaEdkQUsBiessEdlmanvIusmYytMrUvbnÞat;Tb;edIm,IQUsbBaäitEdlmanRbEvgeLIgdl; ¾ inch (20mm) . sñÚkEdlQUstUcP¢ab;eTAedayEpømYyvIusenAEpñkcMehogénbnÞat;Tb; . EdkQUslk rUb 2-44 EdkQUslk EdkQUseQIenHeRbIR)as;dUcEdkQuslkenATVIbGWrubEdr . EpøvamanbnÞarBI ½ eTA 1 inch (12 – 24 mm) P¢ab;vaeTAkñúgsñÚkEdlmanRbEvg 11 inch (275mm) . EdkQUssñÚkxøI Carpenting Works -58-
  55. 55. Civil Engineering Department NPIC rUb 2-45 EdkQUssñÚkxøI vaCaEdkQUstUcEdlCYyeGaygayRsYlkan;EdlmanédmYy Cajwkjab; BYkeKRtUv)aneRbIR)as; kñúgkarsMGatelIRCugéndMueRKOgEdlxøI nig sMrab;tMrwmmuxkat;eQIedIm,IeFVIeGaytMNl¥RbesIr . EdkQUssñÚkxøIenHvaBi)akCaEdkQUsFmμta EdkQUsFmμtaRCugkat;muxBnøakvaenAelIcMehogépÞ )at rIÉEdkQUssñÚkxøIvasßitenAEpñkxagelI . bEnßmBIenHk¾manEdkQUsFmμtasñÚkEdkEdlcab;P¢ab;Epø edayKMrbEdk nig EdkQUssñÚkxøIEdlminman . eFVIkarGnuvtþn_pÁMú nig tMrUvEpøEdkQUsTaMgBIrRbePTrhUt QUs)anGacm_EdkQUsl¥RbesIr . EpøEdkQUsTaMgBIrRbePTmindUcKñaeT edayEpørbs;vaTaMgenaHxøHman dMux<s; b¤ xøHmanmMuTab . CageQICaeRcIncg;)anEdkQUssñÚkxøImanmMuTabBIeRBaHskmμPaBkarQUssMGat)anrabesμIl¥ nig vakan;cUleTAkñúgéd)anya:gRsYleRcIn . 2-10 kareRbIR)as;EdkQUs eBlEdlQUsRtUvmaneCIgma: ¬CageQI¦ b¤ tueFVkar edIm,IsuvtßiPaBkargar . Canic©CakarQUs I tambeNþaysac;eQIeBlcab;epþImRtUvrujeTAmux edayeFVIkarsgát;elIcugsñÚkxagmux ehIyenAcugsñÚkxag eRkayRtUvsgát;cuHEdr dUcenHkMLúgeBlrujeq<aHeTAmuxRtUvsgát;rujeTAelIcugsñÚkTaMgBIr . eBlNaCit putsac;eQIRtUvbn§Úrkarsgát;nUvcugsñÚkxagmux rIÉenAcugsñÚkxageRkayRtUvbnþkarsgát;QUsrhUtdl;put sac;eQI . enHCaviFIedIm,IkarBarkMueGayEpñkEdlQUssIusac;eQIxøaMgenAEpñkcugeQI nig CYyeGayRtg;RCug elIs¥at. karsMelogBnøak nig EpøEdkQUs muxbBaäitrbs;EpøEdkQUs nig BnøakRtUvsMelogedayma:sIunsMelog . muxbBaäitenHvaGacman karricrilxUgpg . RbsinebI]bkrN_sMelogminGacrk)an Bnøak b¤ EpøEdkQUsRtUvTb;enAelIbgÁgeGay Carpenting Works -59-
  56. 56. Civil Engineering Department NPIC RtwmRtUvtammMubBaäit CaTUeTAc,ab;rbs;TTwgbBaäitvamanBIrdgeTAnwgkMras;rbs;Epø . clnasMelogEpøeLIg elIsMrab;mMubBaäitEdlEvg nig cuHeRkamsMrab;mMubBaäitEdlxøI . dak;Rmamcg¥úrédTb;Bnøak eGayGibCab;eTARCugcMehogxageRkAénbgÁgTb; ehIyeFVIclnamk eRkam b¤ eTAmuxénfμsMelogkMBugvil . RClk;EpøcUleTAkñúgTwk edIm,IbnßyPaBkMedAkarBarkMueGaymuxEpø Tn; . minRtUvbþÚrTItaMgénRmamcg¥úrrbs;GñkeLIy eFVIeGay)anRtwmRtUv . cMeBaH]bkrN_EdlbþÚrTItaMg kEnøgenAelIfμsMelogehIy nigmanmMuR)akd edIm,ITTYl)anmMbBaäitrabs¥atl¥ nig manTMrg;ExSlYsrlat u enAelIRCugmuxEpøEpñkcMehogsMEb:t . TaMgenHGacykecjedayeRbIRmamédrbs;GñkTb; dusya:gRsal tambeNþaycMehogsMEb:teq<aHeTARCugmuxEpø . karsMelogedayfμma:sIunvaminGaceGay]bkrN_mux)aneT dUcenHRtUvsMelogva nig fμédbEnßm edIm,IeGayRCugmuxEpørbs;vamutl¥ kñúgkarsMelogRtUveRbIR)as;fμédeRbg rW fμ Twk . Tb;]bkrN_eGay)an l¥enAelIfμeRbg KWépÞbBaäitRtUvdak;eGayGibenAelIfμsMelog . eFVIclnamkeRkayrWeTAmuxkat;TTwgfμ edayRtdusbeNþIrédBIrbIdg rYceFVIBIrbIdgEdrenAelIépÞsMEb:t ¬xagxñgEpø¦ rbs;EpøBnøak rW EdkQUs bnþ karsgÁÜtrebobenHrhUtdl;muxEpømutEdlTTYlyk)an . edIm,IeGaymuxEpømutl¥bEnßmeTot RtUveFVImþg eTotenAelIfμEdlm:t; rW elIbnÞHEs,k . bnÞab;BIkarsgÁÜtenAelIépÞbBaäitehIy RtUvsgÁÜténépÞsMEb:tbnþic edayeGaydac;sésrEdkEdlenACab;muxEpøenaHeTIb)anEpømutl¥ . kñúgeBlnImYy²Edl)ansMelogEpø Bnøak rW EdkQUsRtUv)anrkSaTukeGay)anRtwmRtUv . karsMelog nig fμma:sIunvacaM)ac;Nas;eBlNaEdlépÞbBaäitvamanRTg;RTayxUgxøaMg muxEpøEqb xøaMg b¤ EpøbBaäitvaxøI nig Tal . RCugmuxrbs;EpøGacsgÁÜtCaeRcIndgmunnwgRtUvkarvasMelogfμma:sIun . 2-12 ké®nþkat;snøwkEdk rUb 2-46 ké®nþkat;snøwkEdk ké®nþRbePTenHeRbIR)as;sMrab;kat;bnÞat;Rtg;elIEdkesþIgdUcCaeRKOgRbk;dMbUl nig EdkEKmRCug dMbUl . vamanbIRbePTsMrab;kat;EdkRtg; nig kat;ekageqVgsþaM . ké®nþmandgkan;BN’epSg²Kña édkan; Carpenting Works -60-

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