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Construction general
Construction general
Construction general
Construction general
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Construction general

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  • 1. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC matika CMBUk I..............................................................................6 eRKagsMNg;emkanik .................................................................6 Structural Mechanic .............................................................6 1> karkMNt;bnÞúk .....................................................................6 1>1 RbePTénbnÞúk .................................................................6 1>2 bnÞúk (Service Loads) ..........................................................8 1>3 emKuNbnÞúk ...................................................................9 2> Stress and Strain ................................................................11 2>1 Static Equilibrium .............................................................11 2>2 Unit Stress and Strain ..........................................................12 2>3 Hooke’s Law .................................................................12 2>4 Constant Unit Stress ...........................................................13 2>5 Poisson’s Ratio................................................................14 CMBUkII ³..........................................................................15 dI nig RKwH ........................................................................15 Soil and foundation ............................................................15 1> esckþIepþIm ......................................................................15 1>1 emkanicdI ...................................................................15 1>2 visVkmμRKWH (Foundation Engineering) ...........................................16 2> karsikSaRsavRCavelIkardæanpÞal; (field exploitation) ..................................16 2>1 karsikSaelIÉksar (document Review) .........................................17 2>2 karsikSaRsavRCavépÞeRkamdI (Subsurface Exploration ) ............................18 2>3 sMNakKMrUdI Soil Sampling ....................................................19 Construction General -1-
  • 2. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 2>4 karBiesaFn_enAnwgkardæan Field testing ..........................................21 3> RKwH Foundation ................................................................23 3>1 RKwHrak; Shallow Foundation ..................................................24 3>2 RKwHeRCA ....................................................................27 4> karCIkdIsMrab;eFVIRKwH Foundation excavation ..........................................28 4>1 karCIkdIsMrab;eCIgtag Footing Excavation .......................................28 4>2 karxYgsMrab; Excavation of Piers ...............................................28 4>3 karCIkdIcMhr open excavation .................................................30 4>4 karCIkdIedaymanCnÞl; braced excavtion .........................................30 5> viFIbegáInsßanPaBRTRTg;dI Improvement methods ......................................30 5/1 karBRgabdI Grading ..........................................................30 5>2 eKalkarN_énkarbgðab; Compaction Foundation ..................................33 CMBUkIII³ ..........................................................................35 eRKagsMNg;ebtugmanq¥wgr)aeEdkBRgwgnig sMPar³ebtug..............................35 Reinforcing bar concrete sturcture and concrete meterial .................35 1> sMParsuIm:g;t_ Cementitious material ................................................35 1>1 RbePTénsMPar³suIm:g;t_ Type of cementitious meterials ............................35 1>2 suIm:g;t_Br½tøg; (Portland Cement) ...............................................36 1>3 suIm:g;t_GaluymIj:Úm Aluminous Cement ........................................37 1>4 suIm:g;t_FmμCati Natural Cements ...............................................38 1>5 kMe)ar Limes ................................................................38 1>6 suIm:g;t_erobdæ Masonry ament ................................................41 1>7 Fly ashes ..................................................................41 2>fμbMEbk Aggregate ...............................................................42 Construction General -2-
  • 3. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 2>1 fμbMEbkTMgn;Fmμta Normal –weigth aggregates....................................42 2>2 fμbMEbkEdlmanTMgn;F¶n;nig Rsal Heavy weigth and light weigth aggregate ..........43 3> TwkfñaMKImIsMrab;ebtug Admixture for concrete ........................................44 3/1 TwkfñaMKImIBIKImI nig BIEr: Chimical and mineral admixture ............................44 4> kMe)ar)ayGr nig ebtug Mortar and concrete .........................................47 4>1 kMe)ar)ayGr Motar ..........................................................47 4>2 ebtugsuIm:g;t_B½rtøg; Portland cement concrete.....................................48 4>3 ebtugb:UlIEmr Polymer concrete................................................48 5> karcak;ebtug Concrete Placement..................................................49 5>1 karGnuvtþn_d¾l¥ Good Pratice .................................................49 5>2 viFIénkarcak; Methods of Placing ...............................................50 5>3 PaBelIsTwk Excess water ....................................................50 5>4 kareFVIeGayhab; Consolidation ................................................51 5>5 karcak;ebtugeRKOgbgÁúMbBaÄr Concreting vertical element ...........................52 5>6 karcak;ebtugeRKOgbgÁúMedk concreting horizontal element...........................53 5>7 karcak;ebtugkñúgrdUvRtCak; Concreting in cold weather .............................54 5>8 karcak;ebtugGakasFatuekþA Concreting in hot weather...........................55 5>9 karEfrrkSasMeNImebtug Curing concrete .......................................55 5>10 muxtMNrsMrab;ebtug Joint in concrete .........................................56 5>11 karRtYtBinitüBIkarcak;ebtug Inspection of Concrete placement ...................58 6> eRKOgbgÁúMénsMNg;ebtug Members of concrete construction .............................58 6>1 kMral Slab .................................................................58 6>2 Fñwm Beam ..................................................................60 6>3 CBa¢aMg Wall ................................................................60 Construction General -3-
  • 4. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 6>4 RKwH Foundation .............................................................61 CMBUk IV ..........................................................................64 sMNg;eRKagbgÁúMGMBIEdk.............................................................64 STRUCTURAL STEEL CONSTRUCTION ...............................64 1> karKitbøg;éneRKOgbgÁúM Design of Members ...........................................64 1>1 eKalkarN_sMrab; ASD nig LRFD BASED FOR ASD AND LRFD .....65 1>2 CMnYyénkarKItbøg; nigeyag Design Aids and References........................66 1>3 eRKOgbgÁúMrgnUvkMlaMgTay Tension member ...................................66 1>4 ssr Column ..............................................................67 1>5 Fñwm Beam ................................................................69 1>6 Plaster girders ..............................................................70 2> karksagsMNg;Edk Steel erection .................................................71 2>1 ]bkrN_énkarsagsg; Erection Equipment....................................73 2>2 RbeLaHkñúgkarsagsg;Fñwm Clearance for erecting beams ...........................74 2>3 lMdab;énkarsagsg; Erection sequence .........................................77 2>4 dMeNIrkarpSar Field –Welding .................................................77 CMBUk V ...........................................................................80 eRKOgbgÁMGMBIeQI nigsMPar³.........................................................80 WOOD STRUCTURE AND MATERIAL .................................80 1> sMPar³ Material .................................................................81 1>1 lkçN³mUldæanrbs;eQI Basic Characteristic of Wood .............................81 1>2 lkçN³emkanicéneQI Mechanical Properties of Wood ..........................83 1>3 lkçN³T§iBlRsUbcMhayTwkkñúgxül; Effect of hygroscopic properties ...............84 1>4> lMdab;fñak;éneQI Grade of Wood ..............................................87 Construction General -4-
  • 5. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 1>5 sarFatubMpøaj nig sarFaturkSakarBar Destroyer and preservative....................90 1>6 kavnig sarFatusMrab;eQI Glues and adhesives for wood ...........................92 1>7 karplitkþakug)øaek nigkþabnÞHepSgeTot Plywood and fabricated wood board..........93 2> karpliteQI timber nigkarksag timber fabrication and erection .......................95 2>1 karpliteRKagbgÁúMeQI Fabrication of structural timber .............................95 2>2 karsagsg;eQI timber erection ................................................97 CMBUkVI³ ........................................................................101 eRKagCBa¢aMgerob¬dæ/ bøúk/ fμ¦ nigsMPar³ ........................................101 Masonry Structure and Material............................................101 1> esckþIepþIm Introduction ........................................................101 1>1 CBa¢aMgerobdæ Masonry Wall ................................................101 1>2 niymn½yénCBa¢aMgerobdæ Masonry Definition .................................101 2> KuNPaBénsMPar³sMrab;CBa¢aMgrabdæ Quality of Material for Masonry ..................105 2>1 tMrUvkarTUeTAsMrab;karKitCalkçN³bTdæan General Requirement of Design Standard ..106 2>2 sMPar³sMrab;sMNg;rabdæ Materials for Masonry Construction ....................107 3> sMNg;rabdæ Construction of masonry............................................107 3>1 sMNg;CBa¢aMgrabdækñúgGakasFatuRtCak; Cold weather construction of masonry walls 110 3>2 cgP¢ab;rvag Wythes sMrab;CBa¢aMgdæ Bond between wythes in Masonry wall .......110 3>3 rabdæeday grout grout masonry .....................................112 3>4 lkç½xN½ÐTMrsMrab;CBa¢aMg Support Conditions for Wall ............................115 3>5 Corbeling ................................................................115 3>6 RbelaHRbehag/ Chases nig rescesses sMrab;CBa¢aMgerobdæ .......................116 3>7 Flashing enAkñúgCBa¢aMgrabdæ ................................................117 4> TMrxagsMrab;CBa¢aMgrabdænig FaturYmpSMepSg² ........................................118 Construction General -5-
  • 6. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC Lateral support for masonry wall and other elements .................................118 4>1 TMrxagsMrab;CBa¢aMgrabdæ lateral support for masonry wall ........................118 4>2 bMBg;EpSg nigeCIgRkandMedApÞH Chimneys and fireplaces .........................122 4>3 karpþl;nUvTMhMEdlpøas;bþÚr Provision for dimensional changes .....................123 4>4 CYsCulmuxtMNlicTwk Repair of leaky joint ....................................126 4>5 tMrUvkarkMras;CBa¢aMgdæ Masonry Thickness Requirement ..........................127 CMBUk I eRKagsMNg;emkanik Structural Mechanic 3 1> karkMNt;bnÞúk bnÞúk (Load) KWCakMlaMgeRkAEdlmanGMeBIelIeRKOgbgÁúMNamYy. Stress KWCakMlaMgkñúgEdl Tb;Tl;nwgbnÞúk (Loads) . Ep¥kelIlkçN³énbnÞúkEdlRtUveKykmkGnuvtþ vaGaceFVIeGayeRKOgbgÁúMnig smasPaBrbs;vaxUcRTg;RTay. ]TahrN_ ³ kMlaMgTajGaceFVIeGayvtßúmYyyWt kMlMagsgát;GacRc)ac;vtßúbBa©ÚlKña kMlaMgrmYlGac Rt)aj;vtßúmYynig kMlaMgkat;pþac; (Shearing Forces) GacrujEpñkNamYyéneRKOgbgÁúMecjBIKña. 1>1 RbePTénbnÞúk bnÞúkeRkAéneRKOgbgÁúMRtUveKEbgEckeTAtamRbePTepSg²Kña.enAkñúgenaHkarEbgEckmYy RtUveKBinitü eTAelIPaBnwgfál; (Static) nig kMlaMgkat;pþac; (Shearing Forces) GacrujEpñkNamYyén eRKOgbgÁMúecjBIKña. - bnÞúkefr (Static Loads)KWCakMlaMgEdlRtUveKeRbIy:agyWt² ehIybnÞab;mkvaesÞIrEtefr. ]TahrN_ Tm¶n;/ bnÞúkefr rbs;RbB½n§GaKar b¤dMbUl. Construction General -6-
  • 7. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC - bnÞúkERbRbYl (Dynamic Loads) ³ ERbRbYleTAtameBlevla. varYmbBa©ÚlTaMg Repeat and Impact Loads . - Repeated Loads KWCakMlaMgEdlRtUveKykmkGnuvtþeRcIndgehIyvaGacbNþaleGayTMhM énkMlaMg xagkñúgERbRbYl. ]TahrN_ Off-balance motor - Impact Loads: kMlaMgEdlsgát;eTAelIeRKOgbgÁúMnig smasPaBrbs;vakñúgGMLúg eBlxøImYy. ]TahrN_ karTmøak;vtßúF¶n;mYyeTAelIkMralx½NÐ (Floor) . kMlaMgxageRkARtUveKEbg EckCakMlaMgBRgayesμIr (Distributed Loads) nig kMlaMgcMcMnuc (Concentration Loads) . - Uniformly Distributed Loads: KWCakMlaMgEdlenAkñúgkarGnuvtþCak;EsþgvaRtUv)aneKcat; Tukfa CakMlaMgEdlenAkñúgkarGnuvtþCak;Esþg. ]TahrN_ TMgn; efrénfñwm Edkrag I (Dead Weight of a rolled- Steel I beam is a good example) - Concentrated Loads KWCakMlaMgEdlsgát;eTAelIépÞRTtUcesÞIEtminRtUveKrab;bBa©Úl ebI eRbobeFob eTAnwgépÞTMrTaMgGs;. ]TahrN_ fñwm (Beam) EdlRTedayrt (Girder) RtUv)aneKcat;TukCabnÞúkcMcMnuc (Concentrated Loads) eTAelI Girder . viFIkMNt;énlkçN³bnÞúkd¾smBaØmYyepSgeTotenaHKW karkMNt;kMlaMgxageRkAEdlRtUv)an eKdak; eQμaH Axial ecentric nig Torsional ³ - An axial load ³ KWCakMlaMgrYmmYyEdlsgát;cMG½kS ehIyEkgeTAnwgépÞmuxkat;TTwg. - An ecentric load ³ KWCakMlaMgsgát;EdlEkgeTAnwgépÞénmuxkat; TTwg ehIyvamincMG½kS dUcenH ehIyvaGackac;eCIgTMr. - Torsional load ³ KWCakMlaMgrmYlEdlzitenAmincMG½kSrbs;muxkat;TTwg ehIyvaminman TisedAeTr b¤ kñúgbøg;rbs;muxkat;enaHdUcenHvakac;eCIgTMr. ]TahrN_ - Dead Loads ³ rYmmansMPar³sMNg; sMPar³ eRbIR)as; rWk¾TMgn;epSg²eTotrbs;sMPar³enAkñúgGaKar rYmTaMgTMgn;rbs;GaKarpÞal;EdlzitenAefrCaGcié®nþy_. Construction General -7-
  • 8. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC - Live Loads ³ rYmbBa©ÚlGñksñak;;enA sMPar³sMNg; sMPar³eRbIR)as; rWTMgn;epSgeTotenAkñúg GaKar ehIyvaTMng nigRtUveKpøas;bþÚrTIkEnøgenAkñúgGMLúgGayukalkMNt;rbs;GaKar. - Impact Loads ³KWCacMENkén Live loads EdlRtUv)aneKeRbIedIm,IrYmbEnßmnUv Stress nig Deflection EdlCalT§plénkareFVIclnarbs; Live loads . - Wind KWCabnÞúkF¶n;Gtibrmarbs;xül;Edlbk;mkelIGaKarkñúgGMLúgeBlNamYyrW vaCakMlaMgmYy EdlbegáIteGayman Stress kñúgGMLúgeBlNamYy rWCakMlaMgmYyEdlbegáIteGayman Stress Rbhak;RbEhl nwgkMlaMgxül;bk;enaH. - Snow Loads KWCakMlaMgGtibrmaEdlmanGMeBIelIGaKaredaykarRbmUlpþúMKñarbs;RBilEdlekIteLIg kñúgGMLúgeBlNamYy. - Seismic Loads KWCakMlaMgTaMgLayNaEdlbegáIteGayman Stresses Gtibrma b¤k¾eFVIeGayGaKar mYyxUcRTg;RTayenAkñúgeBlrBa¢ÜydI. 1>2 bnÞúk (Service Loads) enAkñúgkarKNnaeRKOgbgÁúMrbs;GaKar GñkKNnaKYrEteRbIbnÞúkNak¾edayeGayFMCagbnÞúkxageRkam³ 1> bnÞúkEdlRtUv)anKNnaenAkñúg nigtYrbs;GaKar. 2> kar):an;sμanbnÞúkGtibrma minRtwmEtBwgEp¥kelITItaMglkçx½NÐbc©úb,nñ nig KMnitedIménkareRbIR)as; GaKarb:ueNÑaHeT bu:EnþvaRtUvEtrab;bBa©ÚlnUvehtukarN_EdlGacekIteLIgenAeBlGnaKtpgEdr. bnÞúkEdleK min)andwgGMBITMhM rbs;vac,as;las;ehIyvaRtUveKcat;TukfaCa Statistical Vairables EdlKYrEtRtUveKeRCIserIs eTAtamtMélRbEhlCak;lak;mYyEdlnwgminGacelIs)anenAkñúgGMLúgeBlénGayukalrbs;GaKar b¤ k¾Bwg Ep¥kelIehtukarN_ekIteLIgkñúgry³eBl 50qñaMmþg RtUv)aneKykmkKNna. eTaHCay:agNak¾eday Interval GacRtUveKyk 25qñaMsMrab;GaKarEdlKμanmnusSrs;enA b¤esÞIrEtKμankarb:HBal;dl;GayuCIvit b¤RtUveK yk100qñaM sMrab;GaKarGcié®nþy_EdlpÞúkbnÞúkF¶n;ehIyGacKMramkMEhgdl;GayuCIvitmnusS nigRTBüsm,tþikñúg karNImankardYlrlM. kñúgkrNIEdlKμan Local or State Building Code GñkKNnaGaceRbIbnÞúkEdleKkMNt;c,as;las;enA kñúgKMrUGaKarfñak;Cati (National Building Code) b¤tamBt’manxageRkam³ bnÞúkEdlRtUv)anykmkeRbIkñúgeRKOgbgÁúM rYmmandUcteTA bnÞúkeTal A lone b¤bnÞúkrYmKña (Combination Load) . ]TahrN_ bnÞúkefr (Dead), Live, Impact, Earth Pressure, Hydrostatic Pressure, RBil Construction General -8-
  • 9. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC (Snow) Twkkk (Ice) ePøóg (Rain) xül; (wind) rW rBa¢ÜydI Constraining Forces EdlmandUcCakMlaMg én Restriction of Thermal karrYmmaD (Shrinkage) b¤ Moisture-Change Movements b¤kMlaMgEdlbNþalmkBI Creep, Plastic Flow, Differential settlement, Or Sidways(drift) 1>3 emKuNbnÞúk eRKOgbgÁúMGaKarRtUvEtKNnaeGaymanlT§PaBRKb;RKan;edIm,I RTRTg;GaKaredayKμankarxUcxat RTg;RTayhYsBIkarkMNt; b¤karxUcxaténkarrYmbBa©ÚlKña rbs;bnÞúkEdlniwgbegáIteGaymanT§iBlminl¥. kar b:HBal;kñúgkrNIEbbenHrYmman Twkdk;elIdMbUl dIEq¥t smuRTdI nig karpøas;bþÚrTMhM. kñúgkarkMNt;lT§PaB RTRTg;rbs;eRKOgbgÁúMmYy emKuNsuvtßiPaBsMPar³sMNg; nigkarKNnaminc,as;las;nuvlT§PaBRTRTg;RtUvEt ykmkKitBicarNaEdr. esovePAGaKarKMrU (Building Codes) GnuBaØatieGayeyIgeRbInUvrebobKNnaBIr Allowable- Stress Design b¤ Load and Resistance factor Design enAkñúgkarsagsg;GaKar. kñúgviFIKNnaedayKuNbnÞúk (Service Loads) nig emKuNsuvtßiPaB. emKuNsuvtßiPaBepSg² RtUv)aneKykeRbICamYynwgbnÞúkedayeyagelIPaBmin BitR)akdkñúgkarKNnabnÞúk. kñúgkarKNna Stress GnuBaØati (Allowable-Stress Design) lT§PaBEdlGacRTRTg;rbs;vaCaFmμta RtUvkMNt;edaybnÞúkEdlnaMeGaymankareRbH b¤kMhUcRTg;RTayrbs;vaCaFmμtaRtUvkMNt;edaybnÞúkefr Live Wind, Seismic, Snow nigbnÞúkepSg²eTot EdlGacekItmaneLIgkñgeBlEtmYyRtUveKbnÞúkrYmEdlRtUveK yk ú mkeRbIkñúgkarKNna Stress GnuBaØati (Allowable- Stress Design) KW 1. D + L + (Lr or S or R) 2. D + L + (W or E/1.4) 3. D + L + W + S/2 4. D + L + S+ W/2 5. D + L + S + E/1.4 6. 0.9 – E/1.4 D ³CabnÞúkefr (Dead Load) L ³ Liveloads ekItmkBIeKalbMNgénkareRbIR)as;rbs;GaKarrYmbBa©ÚlTaMgkarEbgEckCabnþbnÞab; nig karsñak;enA. Lr ³ Roof Liveloads S ³ Snow Loads R ³ Rain Loads Construction General -9-
  • 10. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC ³ W Wind Load E ³ Seismic Load Building Codes CaFmμtaGnuBaØatieGayeRbIemKuNtUc eBlEdlkar):an;sμanénkarekIteLIg énbnÞúkFM sMebImrYmKñaenHmankMrittUc tYy:agdUcCa³ karrYmbBa©ÚlKñarvag Dead Load Gtibrma Liveload nigGtibrmarbs; kMlaMgxül;bk; rWrBa¢ÜydI. ]TahrN_ CaTUeTAemKuNEdlmantMél 0>75 RtUveKeRbIsMrab;KNnaplbUkbnÞúkrYm kñúgrUbmnþBI ¬2¦ dl;¬6¦ . emKuNRbePTenHGnuBaØatieGayÉkta én Stress GnuBaØati (Allowable Unit Stress) sMrab;eRbIkñúglkçx½NÐbnÞúkenH FMCagkarKNnabnÞúkrYmtamrUbmnþ ¬1¦. Stress GnuBaØatiRtUveKKNnaRTg;RTay hYsBIkarkMNt;EckCamYyemKuNsuvtßiPaBEdlmantMélFMCag 1. enAkñúgkarKNna emKuNbnÞúk nig PaBFn;RbePTbnÞúkepSgKñanimYy² RtUvKuNnwgemKuNbnÞúkrbs;va ehIytMélRtUv)aneKkMNt;eTAtamkat):an;sμanénPaBEdlGacekIteLIgénRbePTbnÞúknimYy²enaH. emKuN bnÞúkRtUveKKitbBa©ÚledIm,IeGayRbB½n§nig eRKOgbgÁúTaMgmUlGacRTRTg; nwgbnÞúkTaMgGs;)an. eRKOgbgÁúM M RtUv)aneKKNnaeGaylT§PaBRTRTg;bnÞúkrbs;vaFMCaglT§PaBRTRTg;bnÞúksrub. TMhMénlT§PaBRTRTg;enH KW RtUvKNnaedayKuN The Ultimate- Load Capacity nigemKuNPaBCab; (Resistance factor) EdltMélrbs;va pþl;eGaynUvkareCOCak;énkar):an;sμanrbs;lT§PaBRTRTg;mYy. lkçN³vinicä½yRtUv)aneKeRbICaTUeTAdUcxageRkam³ 1. 1.4D 2. 1.2D+1.6L+0.5( Lr or S or R) 3. 1.2D+1.6(Lr or S or R)+(0.5L or 0.8W) 4. 1.2D+1.3W+0.5(Lr or S or R) 5. 1.2D+1.0E+(0.5L or 0.2S) 6. 0.9D6 (1.3W or 1.0E) sMrab;yandæankEnøgRbCuMCn nigkEnøgEdl liveloads elIsBI 100 lb/ft emKuNbnÞúkCaFmμta RtUveKyk tMélÉktasMrab; L enAkñúgrUbmnþ 3/4 nig 5. sMrab;dMbUlEdlRBilGackkenAelIemKuNbnÞúkKYrEtmantMél 0>7sMrab; Snowload kñúgrUbmnþ ¬5¦. sMrab;karKNna Stress GnuBaØati (Allowable Stress Design) nig kMlaMg (Strength) eRKOgbgÁMúnig smasPaBrbs;vaKYrEtRtUveKKNnaedIm,ITb;Tl;KYrEtmantMél 0>7 sMrab; Snow Load kñúgrUbmnþ¬5¦. sMrab;karKNna Stress GnuBaØati (Allowable Stress Design) nig kMlaMg (Strength) eRKOgbgÁMúnig smasPaBrbs;vaKYrEtRtUveKKNnaedIm,ITb;Tl;nig kMlaMgBiessEdlekItLIgBIkarrMBa¢ÜydI. a. 1.2 D+0.5L+Em b. 0.9D-Em Construction General - 10 -
  • 11. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC sMrab;kMralx½NÐenATIRbCuMsaFarN³sMrab; Liveload EdlelIsBI 100psf nigsMrab;bnÞúkéncMNtrfynþ emKuNbnÞúkRtUvmantMél 1>0 sMrab; L Em KWCakMlaMgGtibrma tamTisedk nigQr. 2> Stress and Strain KWCaTMhMmYyEdleRbIkñúgkarvas;lT§PaBRTRTg;ral;skþanuBl Structural Capacity or Ultimate Strength énbnÞúkedayKμaneFVIeGayeRbH rWxUcRTRTg;F¶n;F¶rdl;GaKar. edIm,Icg¥úlbgðajnUvcMnYnkMNt;énbnÞúkGtibrma EdleRKOgbgÁúMGacRTaMRT)an tMrUvé`nkarKNna (Design Specifications) sMrab;eRKOgbgÁMúnana RtUv)aneKbegáIt kñúgenaHmanÉktþa Stresses GnuBaØati (Allowable Unit Stress) rW Design Strengths EdlmanTMhM rbs;vaminGac elIsBIbnÞúkGtibrmaeLIy. RTwsþIéneKOgbgÁúM (Structural Theory) pþl;nUvviFIsa®sþsMrab;KNna Unit Stress nig sMrab;):an;sμanPaBxUcRTg;RTay. viFIsa®sþTaMgenHnwgRtUveKelIkykmkbgðajkñúgEpñkteTAenH. 2>1 Static Equilibrium ebIeRKOgbgÁúMnig smasPaBrbs;vaGacRTRTg;nwgbnÞúk bnÞab;BImankarxUcRTRTg;bnþicbnþÜcekItmaneLIg ehIyKμankarxUcbnþeTot BYkvaRtUvekcat;famantulüPaB (Equilibrium) . eRkamRBwtþikarN_EbbenH kMlaMgkñúg rW Stresses Tb;Tl;y:agBitR)akdeTAnwgbnÞúk. karsnñidænd¾mansar³sMxan;mYycMnYn RtUv)aneKTajecjBIlkçN³én Static equilibrium edayKμankar ERbRbYl plbUkénkMlaMgxageRkATaMgGs;esμIsUnü ehIyedayKμankarvil plbUkénm:Um:g; (Moment) EdlekIt elIgedaykMlaMgxageRkAenARtg;cMnucNamYyesμIsUnü. sMrab;mUlehtudUcKña ebIeyIgykEpñkNamYyéneRKOgbgÁúMehIyeRbIbnÞúkelIva plbUkénkMlaMgeRkA nig kñúgenAelIEpñkmYyenaH KWR)akdCasUnü. plbUkén Moment rbs;kMlaMgTaMgGs;k¾esμIsUnüEdr. CaTUeTAvamanPaBgayRsYlkñúgkarEvkEjkkMlaMg EdlmanGMeBIelIeRKOgbgÁúMeTACasmasPaBkMlaMg tUc² EdlRsbeTAtamG½kSEkKñamYy dUcenHehIyvaeFVIeGaymanPaBgayRsYlkñúgkarKNna. ]TahrN_ sMrab;kMlaMgEdlmanGMeBIelIbøg;mYykrNI EdleKCYbRbTHRsYlbMputenaHKW bMElgkMlaMg TaMgGs;eGayRsbtamG½kSGab;sIus nig G½kSGredaen (Vertical) . sMrab;eRKOgbgÁúMEdlmantulüPaB (Structure in Equilibrium) ebI H tMNageGaykMlaMgtamTwsedk V kMlaMgtamTisQr nig M Ca Moment énkMlaMgEdl sßitenAcMNucNamYyénbøg;/ ΣH = 0 ΣV = 0 nig ΣM = 0 . Construction General - 11 -
  • 12. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC smIkarTaMgbIxagelIenHRtUv)aneKeRbIedIm,IKNnaGBaØti3 enAkñúg nonconcurrent coplanar force system. 2>2 Unit Stress and Strain edIm,IeFVIeGaydwgBitR)akdfaetI eRKOgbgÁúMmanlT§plGacRTRTg;bnÞúk)an GñkKNnaCaTUeTARtUvEt KNna Maximum Unit Stress EdlekIteLIgedaykarkMNt;bnÞúkkñúgeRKOgbgÁúMsMrab;RbePTkMlaMgkññúg kMlaMg Taj kMlaMgsgát; rWkMlaMgkkit ehIyeRbobeFobfaetInwg Allowable Unit Stress . enAeBlEdlkarbnÞúkdecñH Unit stress KWefrenAelIEpñkNamYyéneRKOgbgÁúMEdleKykmkeRbIelI Stress RtUvKNnaedayEckkMlaMgnwg épÞmuxkat. b:uEnþCaTUeTA Unit stress ERbRbYlBImYyeTAmYy. kñúgkrNIenH Unit stress EdlzitenAcMnucNamYyénmuxkat; KWCatMélkMNt;énpleFobrvagkMlaMgkñúgelIépÞtUcNamYy nig RklaépÞEdlvaRtUveKyktUceTA². CYnkalkñúgkarKNnaeRKOgbgÁúM Unit stress GacminEmnCacMnuccMbgEdleK ykmkKiteT. GñkKNnaGaccab;GarmμN_eTAelITMhMkMNt;mYyénkarxUcRTg;RTay rW Strain . kMhUcRTg;RTayeTAtam TisedANamYy KWCakarpøas;bþÚrTaMgRsugénTMhMrbs;eRKOgbgÁúMtamTisenaH. Unit strain eTAtamTisedANamYy KW karxUcRTg;RTaykñúgÉktþaRbEvgtamTisenaH. enAeBlEdlbnÞúkdak;dUcenH Unit strain KWefr kñugEpñkmYyéneRKOgbgÁúMvaGacRtUveKKNnaedayEck RbEvgénkMhUcRTg;RTayCamYyRbEvgedImrbs;va. b:uEnþCaTUeTA Unitstress ERbRbYlén Unitstress tMNagnUv tMélkMNt;énpleFobmYy. 2>3 Hooke’s Law sMrab;sMPar³sMNg;CaeRcIn Unit strain KWsmamaRteTAnwg Unit stress, Until a certain stress, The proportional limit is exceeded. Hooke’s Law RtUveKsÁal;tamTMnak;TMngEdlGacsesrdUcxageRkam³ rW Edl f = Unit Stress = Unit Strain E= Modulus of elasticity Construction General - 12 -
  • 13. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC dUecñHenAeBlEdl Unit stress nig Modulus of elasticity RtUveKsÁal; Unit strain RtUv)aneKsÁal;tMél Unit stress GacnwgRtUveKKNna)an. enAeBlEdleRKOgbgÁúMmYyRtUvrgnUvbnÞúk ehIy Unit stress minelIsBI Proportional Limit eRKOgbgÁúMnig RtLb;eTAPaBedImvijenAeBlEdlbnÞúkRtUv)aneKdkecj. The elastic limit KWCa Unit stress FMbMputEdlGac ekItmaneLIgedayKμankMhUcRTg;RTayCaGcié®nþy_bnSl;TukbnÞab;BIdkbnÞúkecj. sMPar³sMNg;xøHman 1 rW2 Yield Pont . TMhMTaMgenaHKWCa Unit stress enAkñúgkEnøgEdlmankarelceLIgnUvkMenInén Strain edayKμankar ekIneLIg b¤fycuHbnþicbnþÜcén Stress . dUcenHsMPar³sMNg;bgðajnUvPaByWtrbs;va. sMrab;sMPar³sMNg; EdlKμankarkMNt; Yield Point c,as;las; The offset yield strength RtUveKeRbICargVas;énPaByWtdMbUg ( The beginning of plastic deformation) . 2>4 Constant Unit Stress krNIEdlsamBaØén Stess nig Strain KWCakrNIEdlkñúgenaH Unitstress nig Strain efr. ]TahrN_³ Stress EdlekIteLIgedaykMlaMgTaj rWsgát; rW Shearing Force rW bnÞúkEdleRbImþgmáal. lkçN³énkardak; bnÞúkTaMgenHRtUveKbgðajenAkñúgrUb Figure 11 . sMrab;kMlaMgTaj nig sgát;cMG½kS eyIgyképÞmuxkat;EdlEkg eTAnwgG½kSkNþal nig EkgeTAnwgkMlaMgsgát;. sMrab; Shearing Load épÞmuxkat;EdlzitenAkñúgbøg;kat;RtUveK ykmkKNna. ehIysMrab; bearing load vaRtUveRCIserIsykbøg;b:HéneRKOgbgÁúMTaMgBIr. Construction General - 13 -
  • 14. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC rUb1-1 lkNrbs;bnÞk 2>5 Poisson’s Ratio enAkñúg elastic limit enAeBlEdleRKOgbgÁúMmYyrgnUvkMlaMgsgát;cMG½kSvaminRtwmEteFVIeGayxUc RTg;RTaytamépÞbeNþayEtb:ueNÑaHeT EtvaEfmTaMgeFVIeGayxUcRTg;RTaytamépÞTTwgpgEdr. enAeRkam kMlaMgTaj (Tension) épÞénmuxkat;rbs;eRKOgKWfycuH ehIyenAeRkamkMlaMgsgát; (Compression) vaekIneLIg pleFobén Unit Lateral strain nwg Unit longitudinal strain RtUEtehAfa Poisson’s ratio . sMrab;sMPar³sMNg;CaeRcInpleFobenHRtUveKyktMélesμI 0>25. sMrab;eRKOgbgÁúMEdktMélrbs;va RtUveKsnμt yk 0>3 . Construction General - 14 -
  • 15. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC ]TahrN_ snμtfaEdkBüÜrmYyEdlmanépÞ 2in2 BüÜrTMgn; 40 Kip (40.000-1b) load . The Unit stress KW 40>000¼2 rW 20>000PSI Unit tensil strain KW 20>000¼30>000>000 rW 0>00067 in/ in . edayyk Poisson’s Ration esμI 0>3 Unit lateral strain KW -0>3 x 0>00067 rW a shortening of 0>00020 in/ in . CMBUkII ³ dI nig RKwH Soil and foundation 3 1> esckþIepþIm 1>1 emkanicdI emkanicdI KWRtUveKkMnt;edaykarGnuvtþn_ énc,ab; nigeKalkarN_rbs;emkanic nigTwkenAkñúgkaredaH RsaybBaðaCamYydIEdleKcat;TukCasmÖar³visVkmμ. dImanlkçN³eRcInRbePTepSg²Kña edayEp¥keTAelIkar sikSa. ]TahrN_kñúgekSRtviTüa (agronomy) ¬karGnuvtþn_viC¢adaMdMNaM¦dIKW RtUveKkMNt;faCakMNkénrUbFatuEr: EdlmankMeNItmkBIsMNwkfμ nigrUbFatuxniCEdlRbmUlpþúMKña eRkayBIkarrlYyénrukçCati nigstV. sMrab;Gñk ekSRtviTüa (agronomist) dIKWCasarFatuEdlpþl;GMbilxniCedIm,IciBa©wmkarrIklUtlas;énrukçCati. b:uEnþsMrab; visVkrEpñkdI (geotechnical engineer) dImann½yTUlMTUlayehIyGacrab;bBa©ÚlminRtwmEt agronomic material b:uEnþvarab;bBa©ÚlpgEdrnUv sMNwkfμ epHPñMePøIg dIl,ab; lannin sand glacial material nig sMNl;epSgénkarswk rbs;fμ. tamFmμCativamankarlM)akkñúgkarrkbnÞat;EbgEckmYyrvagfμ nigdI. ]TahrN_sMrab;PUKBðviTU (geologist) sarFatumYyRtUv)aneKdak;cMNat;fñak;eTAtamkMNkMeNIténfμBIeRBaHvasßitenAeRkamsßanPaBPUKBð d¾Cak;lak;mYy b:uEnþsMrab;visVkrdIvaKYrEtRtUveKcat;cUlcMNat;fñak;dI. Construction General - 15 -
  • 16. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 1>2 visVkmμRKwH (Foundation Engineering) RKwHRtUveKkMNt;faCaEpñkmYyén eRKOgbgÁúMEdlRTRTg;Tm¶n;rbs;eRKOgbgÁúMehIy bBa¢ÚnbnÞúkeTARsTab; dIrW fμenAxageRkam. kñúgvisVkmμRKwH (Foundation Engineering) .emkanicdI emkanicfμ PUmivTüa nigvisμkmμeRKOg bgÁúM tUveKeRbIkñúgkarKNna nigsagsg;RKwHGaKar rWeRKOg bgÁúM. mUldæanRKwHrbs; Foundation Engineering KWkareRCIserIsRbePTénRKwH EdlmandUcCaRbBn½§énRKwHrak; (Shallow Foundation) rWRKwHeRCA (Deep Foundation). mUldæanRKwHmYyeTotén Foundation Engineering KWTak;TgeTAnwgkarKNna Parameter dUcCaliT§PaB RTRTg;rbs;RKwHEdlmandUcCa karkMnt;RbePT nigcenøaHEdksréskñúgeCIgtag. 2> karsikSaRsavRCavelIkardæanpÞal; (field exploitation) eKalbMNgénkarsikSaRsavRCavelIkardæanpÞal; KWedIm,Icg;dwgnUvcMnucxageRkam³ 1> karyl;dwgGMBIsßanPaBPUmisa®sþTUeTAénkardæan edaysarvaCHT§iBleTAelIkarKNna nigsag sg;RKwH. ]TahrN_ sßanPaBrbs;épÞdIPaBs¥itrbs;dI RbPBTwkRtBaMgrbg; rukçCati rock outcrops nigkarGac ecjcUl)anénrfynþdwk smÖar³sMNg;. 2> TItaMgénkEnøgbgáb;]bkrN_eRbIR)as;dUcCa ExSkabGKiÁsnInigTUrs½BÞRbBn§½Twk nigRbBn½§lU. 3> lkçN³TUeTArbs;PUBsa®sþénRkLaépÞ CamYynwgkarkt;sMKal;nUvkarkekIténRsTab;dI nig sRmut dIBIkarviPaKelIRbePTdI rWkrNIepSgeTot. 4> Rbvtþinig kareRbIR)as;kardæanrYmman Bt’manénkarxUcxat b¤)ak;Ebkrbs;sMNg;cas;² EdlbNþal mkelIRKwH. 5> lkçN³BiessepSg²dUcCa PaBGacekIteLIgénkarrBa¢ÜydI rWkarpøas;bþÚrénktþaFmμCatimandUcCa TwkCMnn; karrIkb¤rYmtamrdUvkMnt;nigdIsmñwk. 6> RbPBnigKuNPaBrbs;sMPar³ sMNg;enAkñúgRsukmandUcCaRKYssMrab;eFVIebtugfμsMrab;eFVIGaKar b¤pøÚv nigTwksMrab;karsagsg;. 7> sMrab;sMNg;Tak;Tgnig smuRT b¤TenøBt’manelIkMriteCarnac nigkMBs;Twkel,ÓnéncrnþeCarnac nig crnþTenønigTinñn½y EdlTak;TgeTAnwg Hydrographic nig meteorological. Construction General - 16 -
  • 17. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 8> karkt;RtaTuky:aglMGiténsßanPaBBIr b¤fμI niglkçN³TwkeRkamdIEdlenAkñúgtMbn;EdlGacman T§iBleTAelIlT§PaBRTRTg;rbs;RKwH nigRbtibtþikarN_énkarsagsg;rW karCIkeRCAénRsTab;dIEdlGacCH T§iBleTAelIkardæankñúgkrNINamYy. 9> lT§iplénkareFVIBiesaFn_elIsMNakdIb¤ fμEdlRtUvnwgkarnwgkarKNna b¤sagsg;. 2>1 karsikSaelIÉksar (document Review) Bt’manEdlRtUvkarcaM)ac;xøH² mandUcCaRbvtþiénkareRbIR)as;kardæanRtUveK)anmkBIkarsikSaelI Éksar.]TahrN_manr)aykarN_cas;² GMBI lanning Edlcg¥úlbgðajfa kardæanGacCakMNk dIRbBn½§bgðÚrTwk s¥úyEdleKe)aHbg;ecalnig GageRcaH GagsþúkTwkkb;kñúgdIelI b¤eRkamEdlGacb:HBal;dl; KMeragGPivDÆn_ fμI². vaGacmanpgEdrnUvBt’manEdlTak;TgeTAnwg kareRbIR)as;elInwgeRkamdIénbMBg;Twk Edl RtUvEtCIkdak; b¤bit KMrbenAkñúgbrievnénkardæan. kñúgkarsikSaelIÉksarenH vamansar³sMxan;Nas;edIm,IBinitüsMPar³KMrU (reference materials) dUcCaEpnTI PUKBðsa®sþ nigEpnTIPUmisa®sþ. EpnTIPUKBðsa®sþvamansar³sMxan;Nas;BIeRBaHvaEtgEtcg¥úl bgðajnUv eRKaHfñak;énPUKBðsa®sþ ¬]TahrN_karxUcdI)ak;¦ nigRbePTénRsTab;dI b¤fμenAelIkardæan. TaMgEpnTIPUmisa®sþcas;nig fIμ Gacpþl;nUvBt’mand¾mantMélGMBIkardæansagsg;. EpnTIPUmisa®sþCa FmμtaRtUveKeRbImaRtdæan ehIybgðajTItaMgénGaKar pøÚv pøÚvCati pøÚvEdk nig kargarepSgeTotEdlTak;TgeTA nwgsMNg;suIvil nigTidæPaBFmμCatiEdlmandUcCa eRCaH Tenø bwg qksmuRTnig eqñrsmuRT. EpnTIPUmisa®sþGacg¥úlbgðajpgEdr nUvkEnøgénGagcg¥ÚrTwks¥úy nigGagsþúkTwk ehIyedayeRbIBN’ nig Rsemalvacg¥úlbgðajnUvkarGPivDÆn_cas; nigfμI. b:uEnþeKalbMNgsMxan;énEpnTIPUmisaRsþKWedIm,I cg¥úlbgðajnUvnIvUdI. Bt’manenHGacRtUveKeRbIsMrab;KNna TidæPaBcMbgénsßanPaBPUmisa®sþ rbs;kardæan nigsMrab;karsikSaBIRsTab;eRkamdI EdlmandUcCaRsTab;dIEdlGaceFVIeGayvakarvaybBa©úHRKwH RbRBitþieTA )an. RbPBd¾sMxan;mYyeToténBt’man KWrUbPaBftBIelIGakas (aerial photographs) EdlRtUveKftBIelI ynþehaHEdlehaHenAkMBs; nigExSbnÞat;EdleKkMNt;mYy. emIlrUbftBIelIGakasBIrCamYynwg CMnYyén Stereoscope vapþl;nUvrUbPaB 3D énsßanPaBépÞdI. rUbPaBenHGacbgðajnUvBt’man sMxan;énPUKBðsa®sþrbs; kardæandUcCavtþmanéndI)ak; RcaMg)ak; RbePTénTMrg;dI ¬]TahrN_pñÚkxSac;¦ (alluvial fans) dIl,ab;kMNk én Twkkk (moraines) nig (eskers) PaBsikricrilRbePTTUeTAnig lkçN³rbs;rukçCati nigKMrUénbNþajbeNþaHTwk Construction General - 17 -
  • 18. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC . edayeRbobeFobrUbPaBBIelIGakascas; nig fμIPUKBðviTUGacsegátpgEdrnUvkarpøas;bþÚr (drainage patterns) edayFmμCati b¤mnusSEdl)anekIteLIgenAelIkardæan. 2>2 karsikSaRsavRCavépÞeRkamdI (Subsurface Exploration ) edIm,IkMNt;nUvkarkt;RtalMGiténdI nigRsTab;fμ niglkçN³énTwkeRkamdInUvkardæan karsikSaRsavRCav épÞeRkamdI KWCanic©CakalRtUveKelIkykmksikSa. manRbePTepSg² KñaénkarsikSaRsavRCavépÞeRkamdI dUcCa karxYg (borings) reNþABiesaFn_ (test pits) nigkarCIkcg¥ÚrCaedIm. karxYgeFVIeLIgedayeRbIbMBg;ragsuILaMg xYgcUlkñúgdI kñúgeKalbMNgsikSaBIlkçN³rbs;RsTab;dIxag eRkamkarBiesaFn_enAelIkardæanpÞal; nigykdIfμI rWk¾TwkeRkamdIsMrab;eFVIBiesaFn_. reNþAxYgGacRtUveKCIkeday éd¬]TahrN_³ CIkedaycbCIk¦ eTaHbIkñúgkarCIkFmμtaeKRtUveRbI mechanical equipment edIm,ICIkreNþA k¾eday. eRKOgcRkeRcInRbePTRtUveKeRbIedIm,IxYgreNþA. Auger Boring: Mechanical Auger KWCarebobCIkreNþAy:agelOn. reNþARtUveKCIkedayEdkxYgeday eRbIsMBaFbukEdkxYgCYykñúgkarTemøaHdI rWfμ. CaTUeTAmanEdkxYgBIrRbePT KW Flight auger nig bucket augers. CaFmμtaGgát;p©itrbs; flight KW 5cm- 12cm (2in eTA 4ft) ehIyrbs; bucket augers KW 0.3m eTA 2.4m (1ft eTA 8ft) . EdkxYgRtUveKdkecjBIreNþA kñúgry³eBleTogTat;NamYy TnÞwmnigeBlenaHEdr dIEdlsßitenAelI Flight auger rWenAkñúg bucket auger RtUveK ykecj. Casing CaTUeTAKW eKmineRbIsMrab; auger boring eT ehIyreNþAxYgGacRsutkñúgeBldIRtesaH rWdITn; rWxYgRsTab;dIenAeRkamTwk. auger KWCa]bkrN_sMrab;xYgEdlCaTUeTARtUveKeRbIsMrab;xYgdI rWfμ. Hollow-stem flight auger; A hollow-stem flight auger manRbehagragmUlcMkNþalEdkxYgEdl GnuBaØatieGayeyIgyksMNak;dIxageRkam)an. Hollow-stem flight auger KwdUcCaRbGb;sMrab;sMNak;dI RtesaH b¤dITn; b¤enAeBlxYgdIeRkamRsTab;TwkeRkamdI. Wash-type Borings eRbIdMeNIrkarrbs;GgÁFaturav EdlGacnaMykkMeTckMTIdIeGayecjBIreNþA)an. kMeTcdIekItmkBIkarkab; mYl nigbukrbs;EdkxYg (drill bit) EdlkMTicdI b¤fμeTACabMENktUc². Casing RtUveK eRbIedIm,IkuMeGaymankar)ak;RsutreNþAxYg. edaysar drilling fluid ¬GgÁFaturav¦ EdleRbIkñúgeBlxYgvaGaceFVIeGaylM)ak;kñúgkarkMNat;dI nig lM)akkñúgTTYl)an sMNak;EdlminxUcRTg;RTay. Construction General - 18 -
  • 19. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC Rotary Coring KWCa]bkrN_xYgmYyRbePTEdleKeRbIfamBlrgVilénEdkxYgeGaydUcCaclnarbs; GgÁFaturavedIm,IRbmUlykkMeTcdIecjBIrn§. Percussion Drilling KWCa]bkrN_xYgmYyRbePTEdleKeRbIsMrab;xYgmYyRbePTEdleKeRbIsMrab;xYgTmøúH fμrwgedIm,IEsVgyl;BIRsTab;dIxageRkam b¤edIm,IkarxYgGNþÚg. EdkxYgeFVIkardUcCadgjjÜreLIg ehIycuHedIm,I bMEbknigkMeTcfμ. elIsBIkarxYgenHmanviFIepSgeTot sMrab;karEsVgyl;BIRsTab;dIrYmbBa©ÚlTaMg Test pits nig trenches . Test Pits CaerOy² KWmanragCakaer:kñúgbøg;KMehIjCamYynwgTMhMRbePT 1.2 x 1.2 m (4ft KuNnwg 4ft) . Trenches manragEvg nigceg¥ótCaFmμtakayeday backhoe b¤ bulldozer. tarag 6>4 bgðajBIkareRbIR)as; smtßPaBnig TMhMkMNt;rbs; test pits nig trenches. Test Pit nig trenches pþl;nUvkarRtYtBinitüedayEPñkTeT nUvlkçxNÐénRsTab;dIxageRkam. eKk¾Gac eRbIedIm,ITTYlnUvsMNakKMrU undisturbed éndIpgEdr. dMeNIrenHmanCIkkaydIBIxag b¤)atén Test pit b¤ trench sMNakKMrUdI k¾GacTTYl)anBI Test pit b¤ trenches edaykarduMsgát;bBa©ÚledayédnUvbMBg; shelby, drive suILaMg b¤bMBg;sMNakKMrUepSgeTotcUleTAkñúgdI. Backhoe trenchesKWCaviFId¾snSMsMécénkarGnuvtþn_nUvkarRsavRCavBIRsTab;dIxageRkam. backhoe Gac CIky:agelOnnUv trench EdlGacbnÞab;mkRtUv)aneRbIedIm,IRtYtBinitü nigBiesaFn_dIenAnwgkEnøg. sMrab;kar sikSaRsavRCavRsTab;dIxageRkamCaeRcIn backheo trench RtUv)aneRbIedIm,IvaytMéllkçxNÐ near- surface nig PUmisa®sþ ¬]TahrN_rhUtCMerA 15ft¦ edayreNþAxYgEdl)aneRbIsMrab;GegátlkçxNÐRsTab;dIxageRkameRCA CagenH. 2>3 sMNakKMrUdI Soil Sampling RbePTepSgKñaCaeRcInén KMrUdIGacRtUv)aneRbIedIm,IeFVICasMNakKMrUdI b¤fμEdl)anBIkarxYg. 1> Altered Soil: kñúgGMLúgeBlRbtibtþikarxYg dIGacRtUv)aneFVIeGayxusBIsPaBedImedaysar karlay b¤edaysarkareFVI[kxVk;. ]TahrN_ RbsinebIkarxYgmin)anlagsMGatecjedIm,IeFVIsMNakKMrU enaH sMNakKMrUdI EdlykecjBI)atGNþÚgxYgBitR)akdGacmansarFatukMeTckMTI (cutting) EdlRCuHBIRCugmçagén GNþÚgxYg. kMTickMTIénGNþÚgxYgenH EdlRCuHFøak;eTA)atGNþÚgxYg nigminman vtþmansMrab;lkçxNÐenAnwg kEnøg énsMNakKMrUEdlmanCMerAeRCA. kñúgkrNIepSgeTot sMNakKMrUdIGackøayCakxVk;eday sarGgÁFaturav énkarxYg EdleRbIsMrab; Wash-type boring. sMNakKMrUvdIRbePTenH EdlRtUv)anlay b¤eFVI[kxVk;edaysar Construction General - 19 -
  • 20. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC dMeNIrkarénkarxYgKYrminRtUv)aneRbIsMrab; karBiesaFn_eTeRBaHvanwgnaMmknUvkarsnñidæan xuscMeBaHlkçxNÐ énRsTab;eRkamdI. dIEdlpøas;bþÚrsMeNImkñúgedaysarGgÁFaturavénkarxYg b¤kMedAénm:asuInePøIgkñúgGMLúgéndMeNIrkar én karxYgk¾KYrRtUv)ancat;cUlkñúglMdab; altered soil. dIEdlRtUv)ansgát;bEnñneday over pushing b¤ over driving KWCasMNakKMrUdIEdl k¾Gacat;Ca altered soil EdredaysarEtdMeNIrkarén over-pushing b¤ over –driving Gac sgát;Twk[ecjBIdI. 2> Disturbed samples: disturbed soil KWCadIEdlRtUvcak;Bum<eLIgvijkñúgGMLúgdMeNIrkareFVI sMNakKMrUdI. ]TahrN_ dIEdlTTYl)anBIsMNakKMrUEdlduMbBa©Úl (driven sampler) dUcCasMNakKMrUEdlbgðÚr edaysøabRBaBIkarBiesaFn_sgát;TMluHCabTdæan (standard penetration test spilt spoon sampler) b¤duMdITaMgmUl² Edlykmkkan;épÞdIenAkñúgRtebotEdkxYg ¬]TahrN_duMsMNakKMrU¦ Gaccat;TukCa disturbed soil. Disturbed soil GacRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;BiesaFn_)aneRcInRbePT. 3> Undisturbed sample: eKTTYlsÁal;faKμansMNakKMrUdINaEdlGacykecjBIdIedaysßan- PaBminxUcRTg;RTaytex©aHenaHeT. eTaHbICay:agNa Bakübec©keTsenHGaceRbIsMrab;sMNakKMrUdIEdlyk edayviFId¾BitR)akd. sMNakKMrUdI Undisturbed sample CaerOy² KWCasMNakKMrUEdlTTYl)anedaykarruj sgát;yWt² bMBg;EdlmanCBa¢aMgy:agesþIg ehIymancugkat;muxRsYc nigelonecjeRkAcUleTAkñúgdI. ):ar:aEm:Rt 2 CaerOy² RtUv)aneRbIedIm,IvaytMélBI disturbance potential énsMNakKMrUepSgKña KWCapleFobRbeLaHxag kñúg nigpleFobépÞRkla. CaTUeTAbMBg;sMNakKMrUsMrab;sMNak undisturbed soil KYrRtUvmanpleFobRbeLaHxagkñúgRbEhl1° nig pleFobRklaépÞRbEhl 10° b¤ticCagenH. karykpleFobRbelaHxagkñúgRbEhl 1° edIm,Ipþl;[ PaBlanecjeRkAxagkMBUlénsMNakKMrUdI nigkat;bnßyPaBkkitrvag dI nig bMBg;sMNakKMrUkñúgGMLúgeBlén dMeNIrkareFVIsMNakKMrU. RsTab;eRbgy:agesþIgGacRtUv)anlabenAelICaymuxkaMbitedIm,Ikat;bnßypgEdr nUvPaB kkiténépÞdI nigbMBg;EdkkñúgGMLúgdMeNIrkareFVIsMNakKMrUBum<. eKalbMNgénkarmanpleFob énépÞ Rklad¾Tab nig cugkaMbitRsYcKWedIm,IrMkilcUleTAkñúgdICamYynwgkarraMgsÞH nigPaBbMlas;TItictYcEdlGacekIt mantictYc cMeBaHdI. bMBg; shelby KWRtUv)anplitedIm,I[RsbeTAtamrsovePAlMGitbec©keTs (specification) nwgRtUv)an eRbIsMrab;sMNakKMrUdI undisturbed soil samplers . Construction General - 20 -
  • 21. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC ktþaepSgeTot CaeRcInk¾GacbNþaleGaydIRtUv)anraMgsÞ³dUcCa ³ • duMRKYsrwg b¤ cMENksMbkxügenAkñúgdI EdlGacbegáInrn§es<atenAtamxagénbMBg;sMNakKMrUkñúgGMLúg dMeNIrkareFVIsMNakKMrU. • karxUcxatrcnasm<½n§dIEdlbNþalmkBIkarduMjjÜr b¤rujsgát;bMBg;sMNakBum<eTAkñúgRsTab;dI. • cMhayPayén]sμ½nkñúgGMLúgkardkykmkvijnUvbMBg;sMNakKMrU. • kareFVIeGaykeRkIk b¤karb:HTgÁicénbMBg;sMNakKMrU kñúgGMLúgeBldwkCBa¢ÚneTAkan;bnÞb;BiesaFn_. • kardkyksMNakdIedayrdwbrdubBIbMBg;sMNakKMrU. • karkat;tMrwmy:ageFVsRbEhseTAtamTMhMCak;lak;sMrab;karBiesaFan_enAkñúgbnÞb;BiesaFn_. ral;skmμPaBEdl)anerobrab;xagelIGackat;bnßyRbsiT§iPaB Stress karkat;bnßysMrab;PaBs¥itén GnþrRKab; nigkartMerobeLIgvijénRKab;dI. sMNakKMrUdI “undisturbed” nwgGacRtUv)antMerobeLIgvijnUvRKab;dI y:agtictYc nigGacKμankarxUcxatelIkElgEtbNþalmkBI stress relief Edlmankarpøas;bþÚrBIlkçxNÐ stress enAnwgkEnøgeTAlkçxNÐ stress isotropic “sMNakKMrUtex©aH” . sMNakKMrUdI disturbed Gacmanrcnasm<½n§dI EdlxUcRTg;RTayCamYynwg kartMerobRKab;dIesÞIrEtTaMgGs;. enAeBlvas;rkPaBFn;énkMlaMgkat;pþac; (shear strength ) b¤lkçN³xUcxatRTg;RTayéndI lT§plénkarBiesaFn_cMeBaHsMNakKMrUdI undisturbed Edl)anerob rab;xagelI)anbgðajBIlkçN³énsßanPaBenAnwgkEnøg RbesIrCaglT§plBiesaFn_cMeBaHsMNakKMrUdI disturbed ehIyKMrUEdl)anykecjBIrn§GNþÚgxYgKYrrkSaTukenAkñúgbMBg;sMNakKMrU b¤kgsMNakKMrU. bMBg;sMNakKMrUKYr eRsaby:agCitcugrn§Rbehag b¤kgsMNakKMrUKYreRsaby:agsBV enAkñúgRbGb;edIm,IkarBar kar)at;bg;sMeNIm kñúgGMLúgénkardwkCBa¢ÚneTAkan;bnÞb;BiesaFn_. sMNakKMrUvdIKYrRtUv)ankt;cMNaMCamYyÉksar b¤elxKMerag kalbriecäTénkaryksMNakKMrU eQμaHénvisVkr b¤ GñkPUKBðsa®sþEdl)anGnuvtþcMeBaHkaryksMNakKMrU nigcMnYnénkarxYg nigCMerA. 2>4 karBiesaFn_enAnwgkardæan Field testing eKmankarBiesaFn_CaeRcInRbePT EdlGacGnuvtþn_enAeBlxYg. karBiesaFn_enAnwgkardæanbI RbePT FmμtaCageK nwgRtUv)anykmkBiPakSakñúgEpñkenH. karBiesaFn_edaysarkarsgát;TMluHCabTdæan Standard Penetration test (SPT) KWCakarsgát;]bkrN_sMNakKMrUEdlmanCBa¢aMgRkaseTAkñúgRsTab;xSac;. ]bkrN_sMNak SPT SPT RtUvEtmanGgát;p©itxagkñúg (D1) = 3.81cm(1.5in) nigGgát;p©itxageRkA (D ) = 5.08 cm(2in). ]bkrN_sMNak 0 Construction General - 21 -
  • 22. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC KMrU SPT RtUv)ansgát;cUleTAkñúgdIxSac;edaykarTMlak;duMjjYrTMgn; 63.5kg(1401b) BIkMBs; 0.76m(30in) . ]bkrN_sMNakKMrU SPT RtUv)ansgát;cUlsrubCMerA 45cm (18in) CamYynwgkarTMlak;duMjjÜrCaeRcIndgeday )ankt;Rtaral;CMerAKMlat 15cm (6in) . karvas;]bkrN_ SPT tMél N ¬cMnYnTMlak;ral;kMBs; ft¦ KWCaPaBFn; énkarsgát;TMluHéndIxSac; EdlesμInwgplbUkéncMnYnénkarTMlak;EdltMrUvsgát;]bkrN_sMNakKMrU SPT elICMerA cenøaHBI 15 eTA 45 cm ¬6eTA 18in¦. mUlehtuEdlcMnYnénkarTMlak;duMjjÜrkñúgtMél N KWCaerOy² dMeNIr karénkarxYgeRcIneFVIeGaydIxUcRTg;RTayenAnwg)aténrn§GNþÚgxYg nigRtUv)anGanenACMerA 15 eTA 45cm (6 eTA 18in) RtUv)aneCOCak;fa vatMNagl¥CageKénPaBFn;éndIxSac; enAnwgkEnøg. Tinñn½yBIxageRkamkarCab;Tak;Tg KñaéneBlbc©úb,nñrvagénkarvas;Evg. karvas;Evg SPT tMél N GacRtUv)anCHT§iBledayktþaénkarBiesaFn_ CaeRcInnig lkçxNÐdI. ]TahrN_ TMhMRKab;RKYsbegáInPaBFn;énkarsgát; ¬dUcenHbegáIntMél N¦ edayERb køayPaBs¥itenAkñúg]bkrN_sMNakKMrU SPT. ktþaepSgeTotEdlCHT§iBl dl;karBiesaFn_ SPT tMél N KWTwk enAkñúgdI. vamansar³sMxan;kñúgkarrkSakMritkMBs;TwkenAkñúgrn§GNþÚgxYg [esμI b¤sßitBIelIkMritkMBs;TwkkñúgdI dUc enAnwgkEnøg. eKRtUvkarBarTwkkñúgdIkuMeGayeLIgcUleTAkñúg)aténrn§GNþÚrxYgEdleFVIeGayxSac;RtsuHehIy lT§plénkarrab;tMél N Tab. eRkABIlkçxNÐRKab;RKYs nigTwkkñúgdIEdl)anBiBN’naxagelI enAmanktþa BiesaFn_epSgKñaeTotCaeRcIn EdlGacCHT§iBldl;PaBCak;lak;énkarGan SPT. ]TahrN_ karBiesaFn_ SPT tMél N GacRtUv)anCHT§iBledaysarRbsiT§iPaBénduMjjÜr GRtaénkarTMlak;duMjjÜr Ggát;p©iténrn§ GNþÚgxYg nigRbEvgéndgEdk. Van Shear Test (VST) SPT nig CPT RtUv)aneRbIsMrab;karCab;Tak;TgKñaénPaBFn;énkarsgát;]bkrN_¬tMél N¦ b¤rujsgát; duMekaNCamYynwglkçN³énvisVkmμ ¬dUcCalkçxNÐdg;suIet¦éndI. pÞúymkvij karBiesaFn_ vane test KWmanPaB EbøkKñaBIkarBiesaFn_enAnwgkEnøgenAkardæanBIeRBaHvaRtUv)anvas;edaypÞal;nUvlkçN³BitR)akdéndI PaBFn;én kMlaMgkat;pþac;éndIdæedayKμanbgðÚrTwk. karBiesaFn_ Vane test KWCakars‘kbBa©Úl vane muxsMEb:t 4eTAkñúgrn§GNþÚgxYg rYcbnÞab;mkrujsgát; vane cUleTAkñúgRsTab;dIdæEdlsßitenA)aténrn§GNþÚgxYg. enAeBl vane RtUv)anrujcUleTAkñúgdIdærYcehIy karmYlGtibrmatMrUvsMrab;bgVil Vane nigkarkat;pþac;dIdæRtUv)anrab;. Construction General - 22 -
  • 23. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC VaneGacRtUv)anpþl;PaBFn;énkarpþac;edayKμankarpþac;edayKμankarbgðÚrTwkx<s;xøaMg RbsinebI Vane RtUv)anbgVily:agelOnxøaMgenaH. karBiesaFn_ vane test pþl;nUvlT§plEdlminGaceCOCak;)an sMrab;RsTab; dIdæ EdlmanRsTab;dIxSac; b¤RsTab; lenses/ varved clay RbsinebIdIdæmanRKab;RKYs b¤bMENksMbkxügb:unduM RKYs. 3> RKwH Foundation EpñkenHniyayBIkareRCIserIsRbePTRKwH. kareRCIserIslkçN³BiessénRbePTRKwHCaerOy² QrelI mUldæanktþaCaeRcIndUcCa³ CMerARKb;RKan;. vaRtUvEtmanCMerARKb;RKan;edIm,IkarBareRKaHfñak;edaykarkkTwkkk. sMrab; RKwHdUcCassrs<an CMerAénRKwHRtUvEtRKb;RKan;edIm,IkarBarnwgkarCIkBIeRkamedaykarduHlag. karbraC½yénlT§PaBRTRTg;. RKwHRtUvEtmansuvtßiPaBRbQmnwg karbraC½yénlT§PaBRT RTg;. karRsut. RKwHminRtUvRsutdac;xatEdlGacbNþal[eRKaHfñak;dl;eRKagbgÁúMTaMgmUl. KuNPaB. RKwHRtUvEtmanKuNPaBRKb;RKan;EdlvaminRbQmnwgPaBkan;Ety:ab;yWneLIg dUcCakarvayRbhareday sulfate énebtugeCIgtag. PaBFn;énkMlaMgRKb;RKan;. RKwHRtUv)anKitCamYynwgPaBFn;énkMlaMgRKb;RKan;Edlvamin Gac)ak; b¤EbkecjBIKñaeRkambnÞúkéneRKagsMNg;xagelIEdlmanGMeBIelIva. vak¾RtUvEtsagsg;edayRtwmRtUv edayGnuelameTAtamkarKiténesovePAlMGitbec©keTs. karpøas;bþÚrdIminl¥.RKwHRtUvEtGacFn;eTAnwgkarpøas;bþÚrdIEdlminl¥yUrGEgVg. ]TahrN_ sMrab;dIEdlrIkmaD ¬dI silt b¤dIdæ¦ EdlGacrIkb¤ rYmmaDnwgeFVIeGayRKwHmanclnaehIy eFVIeGayeRKagsMNg; maneRKaHfñak;. kMlaMgrMBa¢ÜydI. RKwHRtUvEtGacRTeRKagsMNg;kñúgGMLúgeBlrBa¢ÜydIedayKμan clnaRsutcuH xøaMg b¤eTAxag. Construction General - 23 -
  • 24. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 3>1 RKwHrak; Shallow Foundation RKwHrak;CaerOy² RtUv)aneRCIserIsenAeBlbnÞúkeRKagsMNg; nwgminbeNþayeGayRsTab;dIBIxag eRkammansMrutxøaMg. CaTUeTA RKwHrak;KWmanPaBsnSMsMécCagkarsagsg;CamYyRKwHeRCA. RbePTRKwHrak;Fmμta RtUv)anBiBN’naxageRkam³ rUbTI 2-1 eCIgtag eCIgtag/ RKwHrYm/ RKwHEvg spread footing/ combined footing and strip footing RbePTRKwHrak;TaMgenH KWCaRbePTRKwHsMNg;FmμtaEdleRbIR)as;eRcInCageK. Construction General - 24 -
  • 25. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC rUbTI2-2 RKwHcak;eBj RKwHcak;eBj Mat Foundation edayQrelImUldæanénkarKitesdækic© RKwHcak;eBjRtUv)ansagsg;sMrab;ehtupldUcxageRkam³ - eCIgtagEdlmanTMhMFM. RKwHcak;eBjCaerOy² RtUv)ansagsg;enAeBlplbUkénRklaépÞeCIgtag TaMgGs;FMCagRbEhlBak;kNþalénRklaépÞRKwHsrub. - RsTab; lenses EdlGacbgðab; b¤xUg. RKwHcak;eBjGacRtUv)aneRbIenAeBlNaEdldMeNIrkarrukrk RsTab;eRkamdI bgðajfanwgmansMrutvismPaBEdlbNþalmkBIRsTab;EdlGacbgðab;)an b¤RkLúkxUgtUc²enA BIxageRkamRKwH. RKwHcak;eBjGacRtUv)ancak;CaElVgeBjBIelIrn§xUgtUc² b¤RsTab; lenses Tn;exSay nigbegáIt lkçxNÐsMrutÉksNæanCag. - sMrutrak;. RKwHcak;eBjGacRtUv)anENnaMenAeBlEdlkarRKbsgát;BIelImansMrutrak;ehIyRKwHcak; eBjRtUv)ankat;bnßysMrut differential. - bnÞúkrayminesμI. sMrab;eRKagsMNg;xøH vaGacmanPaBxusKñaFMsMrab;bnÞúksMNg;EdlmanskmμPaB enAelIépÞepSgKñaénRKwH. karRbRBwtþeTAtamkarRBmeRBogénRKwHeCIgtagGacRtUv)anRbQmeTAnwgsMrut differential EdlFMhYs b:uEnþRKwHcak;bMeBjnwgRtUvBRgaybnÞúkrayminesμI nigkat;bnßysMrut differential . Construction General - 25 -
  • 26. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC - karedaleLIgeday hydrostatic. enAeBlRKwHnwgRtUvRbQmnwgkarehIbeLIgeday hydrostatic Edl bNþalmkBIépÞénTwkkñúgTwk RKwHcak;eBjGacRtUv)aneRbIedIm,IFn;nwgkMlaMgedaleLIg. Post-tensioned slab-on-grade vaKWCaRbePTRKwHEdlsnSMsMécenAeBlKμankarkkTwkkkkñúgTwk b¤CMerAénkarRCabTwkkkTab. bMerI bMras;FmμtaCageKénkMral Post-tensioned slab-on-grade KWFn;eTAnwgkMlaMgrIkéndI b¤enAeBlRbQmeTAnwg sMrut differential FMCagtMélGnueRKaHsMrab;karRbRBwtþeTAtamkarRBmeRBogénkMral on-grade ¬EdlmanEdk y:agesþIg¦. ]TahrN_kMral post-tensioned slab-on-grade CaerOy²RtUv)anENnaMRbsinebIkarRbQménsMrut differential KWrMBwgfaFMCag 2cm(0.75in) . kMral post-tensioned slab-on-grade KWCaebtugEdlmanbgáb; sésrEdkBYrEdleRsabeday)øasÞiky:agRkas;. eRsam)øasÞikkarBarsésrBYurBIkarb:HBal;CamYynwgebtug nig GnuBaØati[sésrBYGacrGilkñúgebtugEdlkkrwgkñúgeBldMeNIrkarénkarTaj. CaFmμtasésrBYrmancugmçag gab;¬bnÞHTMBk;¦ kñúgbrimaRt¬Cay¦Fñwm nigcugmçageTotEdlTTYl stress enAbrimaRtFñwmQmedIm,IGac[ sésrBYrTTYl stress BIxagcugmçag. RKwHrak;déTeTot shallow foundation afternatives RbsinebIsMrutEdlrMBwgsMrab;RKwHrak;EdlesñImantMélFMeBk enaHbMNgepSgeTotsMrab;TMrRKwH b¤kareFVI [dImanesßrPaBRtUvEtGacvaytMél. lkçN³d¾éTeTotFmμtaxøHEdlGacRtUveRbIRtUv)anerobrab;dUcxageRkam³ -BRgaydI. RbtibtþikarBRgabdI GacRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;ykecjnUvRsTab;dIEdlGachab; nig CMnYs vijedaykarbMeBjrcnasm<½n§. CaFmμtabMNgénkarBRgabdI KWmanlkçN³snSMsMécEtmYyKt;RbsinebI RsTab;dIEdlhab;sßitenAEk,rRsTab;dIEpñkelI nigRsTab;TwkkñúgdIsßitenABIeRkamRsTab;dIEdlGachab; b¤ RsTab; TwkkñúgdIGacRtUv)andak;eGayenAeRkamedIm,IkarsnSMsMéc. -kardak;bnÞúkelIs. RbsinebIkardæanmanRsTab;dIsi¥t EdlGachab;enABIeRkamkardæanGacRtUv)an dak; bnÞúkelIsedayRsTab;cak;bMeBjdak;BIelIépÞdI. karbgðÚrbBaÄr¬dUcCakarbgðÚrdUcRbeqHEdkekH b¤karbgðÚreday xSac;¦ GacRtUv)andak;enAkñúgRsTab;dIEdlGachab;edIm,Ikat;bnßyExSénkarbgðÚr nigbegáIn el,ÓnéndMeNIrkarbgðab;. enAeBlEdlRsTab;dIs¥itGacbgðab;)anRtUv)anTTYlnUvkarbgðab;RKb;RKan;ehIy RsTab;EdlbMeBjelIsbnÞúk RtUv)anykecj nigsMNg;RtUv)ansagsg;. Construction General - 26 -
  • 27. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC -karbegáIndg;suIet. viFIepSgKñaCaeRcInGacRtUv)aneRbIedIm,IbegáIndg;suIetdIRtsuH b¤Tn;. ]TahrN_ karbgðab; vibro-flotation nig dynamic CaerOy² manRbsiT§iPaBkñúgkarbegáIndg;suIetRsTab;dIxSac;RtsuH. eKalbMNgepSgeTotKWkarbgðab; grouting EdlCakarsgát;BnøicduMm:as grout EdlmankMras;Rkas;Nas;enAkñúg dI EdlTaMgCMnYs nigbgðab;dIRtsuH. -RKwHGENþk. RKwHGENþtKWCaRbePTRKwHeRCABiess EdlTMgn;éneRKagsMNg;RtUv)anføwgedayykecj nUvdI nigsagsg;nUvkMralCan;eRkamdI. 3>2 RKwHeRCA rUbTI 2-3 RbePT pile RbePTénRKwHeRCAFmμtaPaKeRcInKW RKwH pile. Pile GacCaeQI ¬edImeQI¦/ EdkEdlmanmuxkat; H, ebtugcak;rYc/ ebtugcak;enAnwgkEnøg/ ebtugEdlcak;edaysMBaF/ karbMeBjebtugkñúgbMBg; pile RbePTpSMKña. Pile KW)anBIkarsgát;cUlkñúgdIb¤RtUv)antMeLIgenAkñúgrn§EdlxYgmun. Pile Edl)anBIkarsgát;cUlkñúgdI CaTUeTARtUv)ancat;Tukfa CakarykecjTab b¤x<s;GaRs½yeTAnwgbrimaNdIEdl RtUvEt)anrujecjtampøÚvEdl Construction General - 27 -
  • 28. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC Pile sgát;cUl. ]TahrN_karykecjTabén Pile KWEdkmuxkat;GkSr H nig bMBg; pile EdkEdlmancugcMhr Edlmin)anbegáItFñúkenAxagcugEpñkxagdI. ]TahrN_sMrab; pile ykecjx<s; KW Pile EdlmanlkçN³tan;dUcCa Pile duMeQImUl b¤Pile ebtugcak;eRscmuxkat;kaernig bMBg;Pile EdkEdlman cugbiTCit. Pile Edlcak;enAnwgkEnøgRtUv)anbegáItedayeFVIrn§enAkñúgdI nigbnÞab;mkbMeBjrn§edayebtug. sMrab; Bum<d¾samBaØCageK Pile Edlcak;enAnwgkEnøgmanrn§Edl)ancak;EdlRtUvcak;bMeBjedayebtug. RbsinebIdI GaccUlkñúgrn§enaH Pile RbePT shell GacRtUv)antMeLIg. viFIenHKWCakarsgát; shell Edk b¤RbGb;eTAkñúgdI. RbGb;GacRtUvduMeday mandrel EdlbnÞab;mkRtUvykecjehIy RbGb;RtUv)anbMeBjedayebtug. sMrab;krNI epSgeTotRbGb;GacRtUvduMbBa©ÚleTAkñúgdI nigbnÞab;ykbnþicmþg² RtUv)anykecjBIrn§nig bMeBjedayebtug. 4> karCIkdIsMrab;eFVIRKwH Foundation excavation eKmanRbePTénkarCIkdIepSgKñaCaeRcInEdlGnuvtþkñúgGMLúgkarsagsg;énKMerag. ]TahrN_dIGacRtUv CIkBIreNþA b¤kEnøgnigbnÞab;mkcak;bMeBjvij. ]TahrN_epSgeTotKWkarCIkCalkçN³KnøwHkat;pþac; b¤ buttress EdlnwgRtUveRbIedIm,IeFVIeGayCMerl b¤dIEdlRtUvrGiltamxagmanesßrPaB. ]TahrN_epSgeTotsMrab;karCIk KWdUcxageRkam³ 4>1 karCIkdIsMrab;eCIgtag Footing Excavation esvaRbePTenHCab;Tak;Tgnwg karvas;nUvTMhMénEpñkPUKBðsa®sþ¬dUcCaCMerA nigTMhMéneCIgtag¦ edIm,I eFVIeGayc,as;fa vaGnuelameTAtamtMrUvkarénbøg;sMNg;. esvaenHCaerOy² RtUv)anGnuvtþn_kñúgeBldUcKña nig karRtYtBinitüedIm,IbBa¢ak;BIlkçxNÐRTRTg;. 4>2 karxYgsMrab; Pier Excavation of Piers dUcKñanwgkarCIkdIsMrab;eCIgtag visVkrPUKBðsa®sþRtUv)antMrUvsMrab;bBa¢ak;eGayc,as;BICMerA niglkçxNÐ RTRTg;én Pier. rUbTI2>4 bgðajBICMh‘anFmμtakñúgkarsagsg;énkarxYg pier. Construction General - 28 -
  • 29. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC Construction General - 29 -
  • 30. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC rUb 2-4 CMha‘nFmμtakñúgkarsagsg;énkarxYgpier 4>3 karCIkdIcMhr open excavation karCIkdIcMhr KWCakarCIkdIEdlmanCMerlxagmanesßrPaB b¤minRtUv)anTb;Tl;. 4>4 karCIkdIedaymanCnÞl; braced excavtion karCIkdIedaymanCnÞl;KWCakarCIkEdlEpñkxagRtUv)anTb;edayeRKagbgÁúMTb;dI. rUbTI 2-5 bgðajBI RbePTFmμtaénRbBn½§Tb;nwgkarCIkdIedaymanCnÞl; 5> viFIbegáInsßanPaBRTRTg;dI Improvement methods 5/1 karBRgabdI Grading enAeBlkardæansMNg;CaeRcIncab;epþImedaydITeT CMh‘anTI1sMrab;kardæansagsg;eFVIkarFmμtaCab; Tak;Tgnig karBRgabdIénkardæan. karBRgabdIKW CadMeNIrkarEdlmankarCIkkarcak;bMeBj b¤bnSúMénkargar enH. dMeNIrkarénkarBRgabFmμtaGacrYmbBa©ÚlnUvkarerobrab;xøH b¤TaMgGs;³ Construction General - 30 -
  • 31. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC rUb2-5 RbePTFmμtaénRbBn½§Tb;dI nigkarCIkdIedaymanCnÞl; Eeasement CMha‘ndMbUgéndMeNIrkarBRgabKW kMNt;TItaMgéneRKOgeRbIR)as;enAkardæan nig easement . CaerOy² eRKOgeRbIR)as;enAkardæan nig easement RtUvkarBarcaM)ac;EdlvaminGaceRKaHfñak;kñúgGMLúgeBlRbtibtþikar BRgabdI. sMGat/ e)as/ nig QUsrMelIg/ Clearing, brushing and grubbing sMGat e)as nigQUsrMelIg KWCaskmμPaBykecjnUvedImrukçCati¬dUcCa/ esμA/ éRB kem<at/ edImeQI nigRbePTdMNaMRsedogenH¦ tamn½yemkanic. vamansar³sMxan;EdlkaksMNl;TaMgenHRtUv)anykecjBIkar dæan nigmindak;enAkñúgkarbMeBjCam:assMrab;eRKagsMNg;EdlbgánUveRKaHfñak;. Construction General - 31 -
  • 32. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC kare)assMGat dMeNIrkarBRgabdIenHKW edaHRsayCamYynwgkarykecjnUvsarFatuEdlminsaksmnwgRTRTg;enAkar dæan dUcCadIl,b;EdlRtsuH b¤manrn§es<at/ collunvium, rukçCatiBuk/ vtßúesμakeRKaK nigkarbMeBjEdlminGac bgðab;)an. karkat;CakaM² ¬tMbn;CMerlPñM¦ Benching (Hillside areas) karkat;CakaM² KWCakarCIkCakaM² EdlmankMritkMBs;bnþbnÞab;eTAkñúgsarFatuEpndIEdlenABIelIfñak;kaM RtUv)anbMeBjedaysarFatubMeBj. canyon subdrain KWCabMBg; b¤RbB½n§bgðÚrTwkEdldak;fμ RKYs b¤sarFatuRsedogKña dak;kñúgcg¥Úr Subdrain canyon b¤ RbLaybgðÚrTwkcas;. bnÞab;BIkardak; subdrainrYcehIy karbMeBjrcnasm<½n§RtUv)andak;BIelIkMBUl subdrain. karP¢Ür nigkarbMhab;vij (scarifying and recompaction) sMrab;tMbn;rabesμIEdlKμankarCIkkat;CakaM² karP¢Ür nigkarbgðab;eLIgvijénépÞdIRtUv)anGnuvtþeday ]bkrN_bgðab;kñúgeKalbMNgedIm,ITTYlnUvPaBs¥itl¥rvagsar FatuenAnigkEnøgnwg sarFatucak;bMeBjfμI. dMeNIrkarBRgabdIrdwbrdubedaykat; nigbMeBj Cut and fill rough grading operation RbtibtþikarBRgabdIrdwbrdubTak;Tgnwgkarkat;sarFatudIBIkEnøgx<s;nig bgðab;sarFatucak;bMeBjkñúg tMbn;Tab kñúgeKalbMNgBRgabdIeGay)anrabesμI. skmμPaBepSgeTotGacRtUv)anGnuvtþkñúgGMLúgRbtibtþikar BRgabdIrdwbrdubdUcCa³ - relIgb¤ )aj;bMEbkduMfμ. bMEbkduMfμFM²GacRtUvykecjBIkardæan b¤dak;enAeRkArgVg;kargar. - PaBpøas;bþÚrKñaénkarkat;nig bMeBj. skmμPaBenHKWsßitenARTnab;sMNg;EdlmçagRtUvkat;cuHeRkam rhUtdl;b:HRsTab;FmμCati b¤fμ enAeBlEdlEpñkmçageTotRtUv)ancak;bMeBj. viFImYysMrab;edaHRsayCamYy nwgkarpøas;bþÚrKñaénkarkat;nig karbMeBjKWCIkEpñkEdlkat;[hYskMritEdlRtUvkat;rYceTIbcak;bMeBjeday sarFatucak;bMeBj. - kareFVIeGayCMerlmanesßrPaB. ]TahrN_sMrab;kareFVIeGayCMerlmanesßrPaBedayeRbIsarFatudI rYmbBa©ÚlTaMgkareFVIeGaymanesßrPaBcak;bMeBj/ buttress fill/ drainage buttress nig KnøwHénkarkat;pþac; (shear key) . ]bkrN_xagelIKYrRtUv)aneRbICamYynwg RbBn§½ backdrain. Construction General - 32 -
  • 33. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC - karbMeBjCMerl. enAeBlbegáItkarbMeBjCMerl vamankarkarBi)akkñúgkarbgðab;CayxageRkAén m:asbMeBj. BIeRBaHvaKμansMBaFTb;xag dIGaceRClFøak;cuHEdlmin)anbegáIndg;suIet. edIm,IedaHRsay sßanPaBEbbenH CMerlGacRtUv)ansagsg;hYsTMhM ehIybnÞab;mkkat;ykvijmkdl;Kl;Edl )anbgðab;. viFId¾l¥bMputTI2d¾éTeTot KWeRbIdMeNIrkarsagsg;EdlmansarRbeyaCn_dUcCa bec©keTs back-rolling b¤edayeRbI bulldozer edIm,I track walk tamCMerl. - rMlwkeLIgvijBIdMeNIrkarBRgabdI. ral;kargarBRgabdITaMgGs;manPaBEbøkKña nigGacmankarpøas; bþÚrRbtibtþikarBRgabdIedayQrelImUldæanlkçxNÐkardæan. karBRgabdIm:t; Fine Grading enAeBlEdlkarBRgabdIrdwbrdub)ancb;sBVRKb;ehIy karBRgabdIm:t;RtUv)anGnuvtþedIm,ITTYl)annUv kMritkMBs;cugeRkay EdlGnuelameTAtambøg;BRgabdI EdlmanPaBsuRkit. karkarBarCMerl nigRtYtBinitükarhUreRcaH slop protectin and erasion control eTaHbICaFmμtavaminEmnCakarTTYlxusRtUvrbs;Gñkem:AkarBRgabdIk¾eday eRkayBIkarBRgabdIm:t;)an bBa©b; karkarBarCMerl nig]bkrN_RtYtRtakarhUreRcaHCaRbcaMRtUv)antMeLIg. karCIksñamePøaH Trench excavation sñamePøaHéneRKOgeRbIR)as;RtUv)anCIkedIm,ICakartMrg;énesckþIesñIpøÚv nigRsTab;sMNg;sMrab;tMeLIg eRKOgeRbIR)as;enAkardæan. karCIknig karbgðab;énsñamePøaHCaerOy² CaEpñkéndMeNIrkarBRgabdI. enAeBlExSéneRKOgeRbIR)as;RtUv)antMelIg karP¢Ürnig karbgðab;RTnab;RKwHpøÚvRtUv)anGnuvtþnig sarFatu RKwHRtUv)andak;ehIybgðab;. karCIkdIsMrab;eCIgtagnig RKwH Footing and Foundation excavatin eTaHbICaFmμtavaminEmnCaEpñkéndMeNIrkarBRgabdI EpñkRKwHnig eCIgtagRtUv)anCIkCabnþ. 5>2 eKalkarN_énkarbgðab; Compaction Foundation Epñkd¾sMxan;énkarBRgabdIénkardæanCaerOy² rYmbBa©ÚlTaMgkarbgðab;sarFatubMeBj. karbgðab;KWCa karbegáIndg;suIeténGgÁFatubMeBjtamviFIemkanicdMeNIrkarrUbénkareFVIeGaydImansßanPaBhab;enHGacbegáIn PaBFn;énkMlaMgkat;pþac; kat;bnßykarEdlGachab; kat;bnßyPaBRCabTwkéndI. karmanktþaeKal4 Edl b:HBal;dl;karbgðab;³ RbePTdI Soil Type Construction General - 33 -
  • 34. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC dIminmanlkçN³)øasÞikdUcCaxSac; nigRKYs GacRtUvbgðab;edayRbsiT§iPaBedayeRbIdMeNIrkar bgðab; RbePTrMj½r. dIEdlmanlkçN³)øasÞik¬]TahrN_manPaBs¥it¦ dUcCa sift nigdIdæKWmankarBi)akkñúgkarbgðab; nigtMrUveGaymandMeNIrkarbgðab;RbePTluj b¤buinRbsBV. RbsinebIdImanRKab;FMhYsxñat dUcCaduMRKYsfμFM nig fμ cabble GacnwgeRCotcUlCamYynwgdMeNIrkar bgðab; nigkat;bnßyRbsiT§iPaBénkarbgðab;RKab;dIm:t;Cag. sarFatuEdlmanlMdab;RKab; Meterial Gradation dIEdlmanTMhMRKab;tamlMdab;l¥CaTUeTAGac nwgbgðab;bBa©ÚlkñúgsßanPaBENnCag dIEdlmanlMdab; RKab;minl¥EdlmanTMhMRKab;esÞIrEtesμIKña. Twkxagkñúg Water content Water contentKWCa):ara:Em:RtsMxan;kñúgkarbgðab;dI. TwkGacCaeRKOgrMGilRKab;dIEdlCYyeGayvarGil cUlkñúgkartMerobeGayENn. eTaHCay:agNa TwkeRcIneBk eFVIeGaydIkøayCaEq¥tTwk nigCaerOy² Bi)akkñúg karbgðab;. eKmankMritkMBUlén Water content EdldIGacbgðab;cUlkñúgsßanPaBENnCageK Edlpþl; edayfamBlénkarbgðab;. RbePT Optiimum moisure content (Modified Proctor) sMrab;RbePTdIepSgKñaKW erobrab;xageRkam³ -dIdæEdlmanlkçN³)øasÞikx<s; (CH): Optimum moisture content 18% -dIdæEdlmanlkçN³)øasÞikTab (CL): Optimum moisture content 12% eTA 18% -xSac;manTMhMCalMdab;l¥ (SW): Optimum moisture content 10% -RKYsEdlmanTMhMCalMdab;l¥ (GW): Optimum moisture content 7% RbePTdIxøHGacnwgmanTMnak;TMngedaykMr CamYynwgkarbgðab;eday Water content.]TahrN_ Open-graded gravel nig clean coarse sand KWmansPaBRCabTwkEdlTwkGacbgðÚrecjy:agRsYlBIdI b¤CMrujecjeRkAeday dMeNIrkarénkarbgðab;. dIRbePTenHCaerOy²GacRtUvTukeGaysßitenAkñúgsßanPaBs¶ÜtrYcehIyrMj½reGaycUl tMerobRKab;xSac;eGayENnaM. Construction General - 34 -
  • 35. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC CMBUkIII³ eRKagsMNg;ebtugmanq¥wgr)aeEdkBRgwgnig sMPar³ebtug Reinforcing bar concrete sturcture and concrete meterial 3 1> sMPar³suIm:g;t_ Cementitious material sMPar³suIm:t_rYmmanplitplCaeRcInEdlRtUv)anrlayCamYynwgTwk b¤sarFaturavd¾éTxøHeTot b¤ TaMgBIr edIm,IbegáIt)anCakMe)areRbg (cementing paste) EdlGacbegáItb¤ eFVIBum<enAeBlvaenACalkçN³)øasiÞk b:uEnþva nwgkøayeTACaTMrg;rwgmaM. enAeBlxSac;RtUv)anbEnßmeTAkñúgkMe)areRbg vabegáIt)anCakMe)ar)ayGr. karcUl pSMénRKYs nigxSac; eTAkñúgkMe)areRbgvakøayeTACaebtug. 1>1 RbePTénsMPar³suIm:g;t_ Type of cementitious meterials eKmansuIm:g;t_CaeRcInRbePT ehIyviFIénkarcat;cMNat;fñak;k¾eRcInEdr. viFIénkarcat;fñak;cMNat;fñak; mYyEdlsamBaØCageKbMput KWkarcat;cMNat;fñak;edaysarFatupSMKImI EdlCaGñkTTYlxusRtUvsMrab;kareFVIkar nigeLIgrwgénsuIm:g;t_. enAelIeKalkrN_enH suIm:g;t_suIlIkat (silicate) nig GaluymINat (aluminate) Edl kñúgenaHPñak;gareFVIkar (setting agent) KWkal;süÚmsuIlIkat (calsium silicate) nigkal;süÚmGaluymINat (calcium aluminate) KWCaRkumEdlsMxan;CageKsMrab;suIm:g;t_TMenIb (modern cement) .rYmbBa©ÚlkñúgRkumenHKW lanning/ aluminous nigsuIm:g;t_FmμCati (natural cement) . fμkMe)ar (lime) EdlkñúgenHPaBeLIgrwg KWbNþalmkBIkarbmøas;énGuIRduksuItkmμeTACa carbonate Edl RtUv)aneRbICadMbUgy:agTUlayCasMPar³suIm:g;t_EtmYyKt; b:uEnþkareFVIkarnig PaBeLIgrwgyWtrbs;vaminRtUvKña nwgtMrUvkarénsuIm:g;t_TMenIb. dUcenHtYnaTICacMbgrbs;vasBVéf¶ KWlkçN³ Plastic én Harsh cement nigbEnßm resilience eTAelI)ayGr b¤stucco. KuNRbeyaCn_énkareRbIR)as;fμkMe)arKWPaBeFVIkaryWtrbs;va)anCMrujnUvkar Büa)al nigkarCYsCulsñameRbHdUcséssk;. Construction General - 35 -
  • 36. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC cMNat;fñak;énsuIm:g;t_epSgeTotKW )anBIkarpSMénmñagsila calcined nigplitplTak;Tgnwgva. suIm:g;t_ mñagsilaRtUv)aneRbIy:agTUlaysMrab;kMe)arbUkxagkñúg nigsMrab;plit board nig block b:uEnþPaBGacrlay)an énmñagsila)ankarBarxøÜnva BIkareRbIR)as;sMrab;sNg;EdlRbQmnwgGakasFatud¾éT b:uEnþl¥bMputsMrab; M GakasFatuekþA. suIm:g;t_G‘uksuItkørIt KWCacMNat;fñak;énsuIm:g;t_BiessEdlmanlkçN³xusFmμta. tMélrbs;va)an hamXat; kareRbIR)as;TUeTAebIeFobCamYynwgsuIm:g;t_EdlefakCag b:uEnþþsMrab;kareRbIR)as;CalkçN³Biess dUcCaplitplkMralkarBarePøIg (sparkproof floor) eKminGacRbdUc)aneT. suIm:g;t_sMrab;rabdæ b¤suIm:g;t_)ayGrRtUv)aneRbIy:agTUlMTUlayedaysarEt PaBgayRsYlrbs;va. CaTUeTAenAeBlvaRtUv)anlayedaysuIm:g;t_mYyRbePTkñúgcMeNamsuIm:g;t_Edl)anerobrab;xagelICamYynwgTwk fñaMKImIxøH vasmnwgTTYlnUvkarcab;GarmμN_BiessedaysarPaBsnSMsMécrbs;va. sMPar³suIm:g;t_epSgeTotdUcCa polymer/ fly ash nig silica fume GacRtUveRbIsuIm:g;t_CMnYssMrab;ebtug. Plomer KWCa Plastic EdlmanRcvak;mU:elKulEvg. ebtugEdllayedaysuIm:gt;RbePTenHman KuNPaB x<as;CagebtugedaysIum:g;t_Fmμta. Silica fume EdlRtUv)ansÁal;Ca microsilica EdrenaHKWplitplsMNl;BIkardutedayLFñÚrGKÁisnI (electric- arc funaces) . silica manRbtikmμCamYynwgfμkMe)arbegáIt)anCasMPar³suIm:g;t_enAkñúgebtug. bMENk énfume manGgát;p©itEt 1° énbMENkGgát;p©itsuIm:g;t_. 1>2 suIm:g;t_Br½ELn (Portland Cement) smasFatusMxan;mYy ¬fμkMe)ar (Cao), Edk(Fe o ), silica (Sio ) nig alumina (Al O ) ¦ nigsmasFatu 2 3 2 2 3 bnÞab;bnSM2eTot ¬mñagsila (CaSO -2H 0) nig magnesia (MgO) ¦ KWCavtßúFatuedIm. RbePTsarFatu 4 2 calcareous (CaO) )anmkBIfμkMe)ar (limestone), calcite, mail b¤fμPaCn_ (shale) nigxSac; (sand) . sarFatu argillaceous( SiO nig Al2O3) )anmkBIkarTajykBIdIdæ ¬Clay¦/ fμPaCn_¬Shale¦ nigxüac; (Sand) . 2 sarFatuEdleRbIsMrab;plitRbePTsuIm:g;t_Cak;lak;my KWGaRs½yeTAnwgTItaMgeragcRkplit nigPaBEdl Y Gacrk)annUvvtßúFatuedI. suIm:g;t_B½rELnGacplitBIplitpl ]sSahkmμCaeRcInRbePT. kñúgkarplitsuIm:g;t_dMbUgvtßúFatuedIm RtUv)anykecjBIEr:rYcehIykineGayeTACaem:SAmunnwglayRcbUkCamYynwgsmasFatuEdlerobcMCamuneRsc. karlayRcbUkKW eFVIeLIgedayLdutkMedAEdlvilenAEpñkxagcugx<s;CageK edaykMedABI2600 eTA 3000 F º Construction General - 36 -
  • 37. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC EdldutedayeRbg ]sμ½n b¤famBlFüÚgfμ. edaysarkarplitsuIm:g;t_KWCa dMeNIrkarplitEdlRtUvkarfamBl d¾sMebIm ]bkrN_kMedA nigbMerIbMras;d¾éTeToteRkABI RbPBn§n³ dUcCaC½rekAs‘Ucas;² RtUv)aneRbIedIm,Ikat;bnßyéfø n§n³. ¬kardutekAs‘Ukg;pþl;kMedAedIm,Iplit Clinker nigdutExSRkv:at; Edkpþl;[FatupSMénEdk¦. kareFVI[ sItuNðPaBeLIgx<s;KW edIm,IFatuKImIénvtßúFatuedIm rlaycUlKña begáIt)anCaduMtUc²rwgEdleKehAfa clinker. bnÞab;BITukeGayRtCak; duMtUc² clinker RtUv)andak;eGayqøgkat; ball mill nigkinbMEbkeTACaPaKl¥itepH Edl PaKl¥itTaMgenHnwgRtUvErgqøgkat;kERBa¢gelx 200 (75µm) CaBiess. kñúgGMLúgeBlenHkarkinbMEbk sarFatumñagsilaRtUv)anbEnßmkñúgbrimaNd¾tictYcedIm,IRtYtRtanUv sItuNðPaBnig Fanadl;kareFVIkarénsuIm:g;t_ eTogTat;. sMPar³EdlRtUvqøgkat; ball mill KWCasIum:g;t_ lanning. CaFmμtavaRtUv)an lk;CakBa©b;suIm:gt_ EdlmanTMgn; 941b. ebtugEdlFmμtaCageKeRbIsMrab;suIm:g;t_ lanning KWCasMPar³saMjauMEdlmanrYm suIm:g;t_ lanning RKYs xSac; Twk nigTwkfñaMKImI nig Er:epSgeTotEdlGacrk)an. kareRbIR)as;suIm:g;t_ lanning EtÉgKWkMrNas;EdleRbI sMrab;dUcCa)ayGrsuIm:g;t_sMrab;bMeBj Wellhole b¤bMeBj fine grout . dUcenH vamansarsMxan;Nas;kñúgkar RtYtBinitüTMnak;TMngrvaglkçN³epSg² énsIum:g;t_ lanning nigT§iBld¾manskþanuBlrbs;vaeTAelIebtugcug bBa©b;. CaTUeTAebtugsIum:gt;B½rELnRtUv)aneRCIserIssMrab;kargarsMNg;eRKagBIeRBaH edaysarPaBFn;én kMlaMg nigPaBeRbIR)as;)anyUrGEgVgrbs;va. PaBFn;énkMlaMgKWGacvas;)any:aggay nigGaceRbIsMrab;Ca smasPaBcg¥úlbgðajeday pÞal;CalkçN³TUeTAénPaBeRbIR)as;)anyUréneRKagTaMgRsug. PaBeRbIR)as;)an yUrGEgVgCak;lak;minGacvas; )anedaygayeT b:uEnþvaGacbBa¢ak;y:agc,as;edaykarRtYtRta énlkçN³KImI énsuIm:g;t_niglkçN³fμbMEbk. 1>3 suIm:g;t_GaluymIj:Úm Aluminous Cement l,ayénvtßúFatu aluminous nig calcareous ¬CaTUeTA bauxite nigkMe)ar ¦ RtUv)anerobcMedaykarrMlay cUlKñanig karkinbMEbkénplitplpÁÜb edIm,IeGay)anCaemSAm:t;. suIm:g;t_enHRtUv)ankMNt;lkçN³edaylkçN³ énkarqab;rwgqab; nwgPaBFn;énkMlaMgeLIgx<s;enAeBl EdlvaGayux©IenAeLIy. enAeBlEdlbrimaNkMedAeRcInRtUvedaHElgy:agelOnedaysuIm:g;t_ aluminous kñúgGMLúgeBl GuIRdatkmμ GñkKYrRbytñ½kuMeRbIsuIm:g;t_dak;bBa©ÚlkñúgeBlEdlkMedAminGacrsay. CaTUeTA eKminR)afñadak; Construction General - 37 -
  • 38. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC ebtugsuIm:gt¾ aluminous eTAkñúg lift Edlx<s;Ca 12Guin ebIeTaHbICasItuNðPaBekIneLIgvaGacbNþaleGay ebtugcuHexSayPaBFn;CaxøaMg. suIm:g;t_ aluminous manPaBFn;eTAnwgskmμPaBénTwks‘ulpatxøaMgCagsuIm:g;t_ lanning. vaemIlBIxag eRkAeTAdUcCamanPaBFn;nwgkarvayRbharedayTwkEdl mansarFatuQøanBan carbon dioxide b¤GasuItEr: exSayxøaMgCasuIm:g;t_suIlIkat. eKalkarN_énkareRbIR)as;vaenAkñúgebtug KWenAeBlEdlPaBFn;énkMlaMg x<s;qab;CaGtßRbeyaCn_ b¤edayPaBFn;éns‘ulpatrbs;va nigenAeBlEdl tMélbEnßménsuIm:g;t_ minEmnCa ktþa sMxan;. bMerIbMras;epSgeToténsuIm:g; aluminous KWrYmpSMCamYynwg firebrick edIm,IbegáItCaebtugFn;nwgkMedA (refractory concrete) . enAeBlEdlsItuNðPaBekIneLIg karykFatuTwkecjBIplitplGuIRdatkmμGacekIt eLIg. TIbMput smasFatuenHbegáItCa ceramic bond CamYynwgfμbMEbk. 1>4 suIm:g;t_FmμCati Natural Cements sIum:g;t_FmμCatiRtUv)anbegáIt edaykarduteGayeTACapHedayFmμCatinUvl,ayEdl)anekItBIsarFatu calcareous nig argillaceous enAsItuNðPaBeRkamGVIEdl sintering ykmkeRbIkar. enAeBlEdlsuIm:g;t_FmμCati RtUv)andkecjBIvtßúFatuEdlekIteLIgedayFmμCatinig KμankarxMRbwgNamYyRtUv)aneFVIeGayEktMrUvsmasPaB TaMgsmasPaB niglkçN³ERbRbYllμmy:agTUlMTUlay. suIm:gt_FmμCatixøH GaclkçN³esÞIrEtdUcKñanwg suIm:g;t_ lanning suIm:g;t_FmμCatiepSgeTotmanPaBexSayxøaMgCag. suIm:g;t_FmμCatiRtUv)aneRbICaTUeTAenAkñúg kMe)ar)ayGr (masonry mortar) nigeRbICaTwkfñaMKImIenAkñúgebtugsuIm:g;t_ lanning. 1>5 kMe)ar Limes kMe)arenHRtUv)anbegáItCaTUeTAedaykal;süÚmG‘uksuIt (CaO) EdlkekIteLIgCaFmμCatienAkñúgfμkM)ar (limestone) / fμm:ab (marble), chalk, coral nigsMbkxüg (Shell) .sMrab;eKalbMNgsMNg;GaKar vaRtUveRbICa hiefly enAkñúgkMe)ar)ayGr. Hydaulic lime kMe)arenHbegáItBIkarduteGayeTACaepHénfμkMe)arEdlmansarFatu silica nig aluminia enAsItuNðPaB d¾xøI énkarrMlaybBa©ÚlKñaEdleTIbnwgcab;maneLIg EdlbegáItCa kMe)aresrIRKb;RKan; edIm,IGnuBaØatidl; GuIRdatkmμ nigkñúgeBlCamYyKñabeBa©jnUvkal;süÚmsuIlIkatRKb;RKan;EdlmineFVIGuIRdatkmμedIm,I[Ca em:SAs¶Üt lkçN³ hydraulic rbs;va. Construction General - 38 -
  • 39. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC edaysarEtkarpSMy:agTabénsuIlIkat nigkMe)ary:agx<s; kMe)ar hydraulic manTMnak;TMngy:agexSay. eKrkeXIjkareRbIR)as;CaeKalkarN_enAkñúgkMe)ar)ayGr. kMe)arGuIRdUlItmansuIlIkateRcInCag10° nwg kkenAeRkamTwk. Quicklime enAeBlEdlfñkMe)arRtUvdutkMedAenAsItuNðPaBhYsBI 17008F sarFatu]sμ½nkabUnDIGuksuItnwgRtUv )andkecj nigplitplrwgEdlenAsl;KW Quicklime. CaBiessvaman]sμ½nkal;süÚmGuksuIt nigm:aej:süÚm GuksuItbUknwgsarFatuminsuT§dUcCasuIlIkatGuksuItEdkGuksuIt nig GaluymIjÚ:mGuksuIt. CaFmμta sarFatu minsuT§RtUv)ankMNt;eGayticCag5°. RbsinebIeRcInCag 10°plitplenHGackøayCakMe)ar hydraulic. QuicklimeRtUv)aneKsÁal;fa vaman2cMNat;fñak; KWkal;süÚmx<s; (high-calcium) nig dolomitic. Quicklime Edlmankal;süÚmx<s;CaFmμtamanm:aejsüÚmG‘uksuItticCag5°. dolomitic quicklime CaFmμta manm:aejsüÚmBI35° eTA 40°. Quick tictYcEdlmaneKrkeXIjfa ma nm:aej:süÚmG‘uksuItBI 5°eTA35° EdleKehAfa magnesian lime. lkçN³d¾RbesIrén quicklime KWsmtßPaBénkarlayCamYyTwk. enAeBl quick lime RtUv)anlay 2 eTA 3 dgénbrimaNTwkeFobCamYynwgTMgn;rbs;va RbtikmμKImIcab;epþImekItman. kal;süÚmGuksuItpSMCamYyTwkbegáIt)anCakal;süÚmGuIRduksuIt ehIykMedARKb;RKan;RtUv)anbegáItCalMdab; edIm,IeFVI eGaym:asTaMgGs;RtUvBuH. CalT§plplitplénkarbMEbkFatu kal;süÚmGuIRduksIuty:agesþIg RtUv)anGENþtkñúg elIépÞTwk ¬nigm:aej:süÚmGuksuIt b¤GuIRduksuIt RbsinebI dolomitic RtUv)aneRbIR)as;va¦. enAeBlRtCak; GgÁFatum:as;Bak;kNþalrav (semifluide) rwgeTACadIElgRbkdedaysgÁt;PaB RtUv)ancUkeLIg edayEb:l b¤ekIb dak;Fug. dIElg Quicklime layTwkenH enAeBlRtCak;ehIyeKcUlcitþykeTAErg EdlCasMPar³EdlRtUveRbIR)as;sMrab;sMNg;. Quicklime KYrEtgEtRtUv)andak;layTwkeGaysBV. TinñpléndIElgvaERbRbYl GaRs½yelIRbePTén Quicklime kMritdWeRkénkardutkMedA niglkçN³énkar layTwk nigCaFmμtaTTYl)an 70 eTA 100 ft KIbéndIElgelI quickliem 1 ton. eKalkarN_énkareRbIR)as; dIElgKWenAkñúgkMe)ar)ayGr enAkEnøgEdlvamantMéléRkElg edaysarEtkMrit)øasÞikrbs;vax<s; b¤PaBgay RsYleFVIkarrbs;vacUlrYmenAkñúg)ayGr. vak¾RtUv)aneRbIkñúgeBldUcCaTwkfñaMKImIenAkñúgebtugEdr edIm,IbegáIt PaBgayRsYleFVIkar. vak¾RtUv)aneRbIenAkEnøgxøHdUcCa RsTab;kMe)arbUkbegðIyEdr EdlKuNsm,tþid¾l¥rbs;va )anmkBIkMrit)øasÞikd¾x<s;rbs;va. Mson’s hydrated lime Construction General - 39 -
  • 40. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC hydrated lime RtUv)anerobcMBI quicklime edaykarbEnßmnUvbrimaNkMNt; énTwkeTAlIva. bnÞab;BI GuIRdatkmμbBaÄb;edIm,IvivtþkMedA plitplCalT§plKWCa emSAm:t;s¶Üt. bnÞab;mkvaRtUv)ancMnat;fñak;edayvIFI aiz-classification edIm,IykecjnUvTMhMRKab;l¥itEdleKminR)afñacg;)anehIy manTMhMFMCagxñat ehIyRckkñúg fg;EdlmanTMgn; 50lb. vaEtgEtCaplitplEdlplitedayeragcRk EdlcMENkÉdIElg quicklime PaKeRcInEtg EtCaplitplEdl)anBIkarlayenAnwgkEnøgkargar. Mason’s hydrated lime KWCa hydrated lime EdlsmRsbeRbICamYykMe)ar)ayGr kMe)arbUkRsTab; base-coat nigebtug. vacaM)ac;GnuvtþtamsmasPaBén Quicklime. hydrated lime Edlmankal;süÚmx<s;RtUv )anpSMeLIgCadMbUgedaykal;süÚmGuIRduksIut. hydrated lime dolomitic FmμtaRtUv)anpSMeLIgedaykal;süÚm GuIRdúksuItbUknwg m:aej:süÚmGuIRduksuIt. lkçN³)øasÞikénkMe)ar)ayGrEdleFVIBI mason’s hydrated lime Fmμta ¬RbePT N¦ KWmanlkçN³mFüm. vamanlkççN³l¥RbesIrCagkarlayedaysuIm:g;t_PaKeRcIn b:uEnþvaminman lkçN³x<s;esμInwgkMe)ar)ayGr EdllayedaybrimaNesμIKña éndIElglayTwkeT. dMeNIrkarFmμtaén GuIRdatkmμ énQuicklime enAsMBaFbriyakaspþl;nUvGuIRdatkmμénkal;süÚmGuksuItnwgbMElgeTACam:aejsüÚm GuIRdUsuIt. lT§plenHRtUv)aneGayeQμaHy:agdUcenHfa special hydrated ¬RbePT S ¦EdlminEmnmanEtsarFatu sMxan; magnesia cUlrYmGuIRdatkmμsBVeT b:uEnþvamankMrit)øasÞikx<s;Pøam² enAeBlvaesImedayTwk. kMe)ar)ay GrEdllayBIRbePT S gayRsYleFVIkarCag)ayGrlayCamYyRbePT N. tamBit hydrated lime RbePT S gayRsYleFVIkaresÞIrEtdUc)ayGrlayCamYydIElg Quicklime Edr ehIydUcenHGñkeRbIR)as; Hydrated lime RbePTenHmanPaBgayRsYledaysarplitplenHRckkñúgkBa©b; nig mankMriténkargayRsYleFVIkarx<s;edayKμaneRKaHfñak; EdlGacekItmandUc Quick lime layTwkeT. Finishing hydrated lime Finishing Hydrated lime saksmübMputsMrab;eRbIR)as;enAkñúgkMe)arbUkRsTab;begðIy. vaRtUv)an kMNt;lkçN³edaykMritBN’sx<s; nigkMrit)aøsÞikx<s;. RKb; Finishing Hydrated lime RtUv)anplit CaBiessenAkñúg Rsuk Toledo énekaH Ohio BIfμkMe)ar Dolomitic. kMe)ar Hydrate FmμtapSMeLIgeday kal;süÚmGuIRduksuIt nig m:aej:süÚmGuksuIt. enAeBlvaesImdMbUg vamanlkçN³)øasÞikmanxøaMgdUc mason’s hydrated lime RbePT NeT. eTaHbICay:agNa vamanPaBxusKñaenAeBleRkay EdleRkayBIkarRtaMTwk Construction General - 40 -
  • 41. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC eBjmYyyb; Finishing hydrated lime begáInnUvkMrit)øasÞikrbs;vax<s;Nas;Edl mason’s hydarted Lime bgðajnUvTMnak;TMngénPaBlUt las;énlkçN³)øasÞiky:agtictYcenAeBlRtaMTwk. 1>6 suIm:g;t_erobdæ Masonry ament suIm:g;t_erobdæ (masonry cement) b¤CYnkaleKcUlcitþehAehAsuIm:g;t_kMe)ar)ayGr (motar cement) EdlRtUv)anlayCamYynwgxSac; nigeRbIsMrab;begáItCaCBa¢aMgdædUcCa dæ kar:U nigfμ. vaGacCaRbePTmYyén suIm:g;t_GuIRdUlIkEdl)anbriyayrYcehIy b¤karlayrbs;vaenAkñúgsmamaRtNamYy. suIm:g;t_erobdætamEbbBaNiC¢kmμxøHRtUv)anlaybBa©ÚlKñaedaysuIm:g;t_ lanning nigkMTicepHpg;fμ kMe)ar (limestone) CaerOy² mansmamaRtfμkMe)areRcIn 50° b¤60°. enAeBlEdlKμankarkMNt;BIsarFatu KImInig tMrUvkarlkçN³rUb lkçN³bBa¢ak;y:agc,as;BIsuIm:g;t_erobdæ KWmanlkçN³esrICamFüm. plitkrxøH )anERbRbYlnUvsmasFatuy:agTUlMTUlayGaRs½yeTAnwgkarRbkYtRbECg lkçxNÐGakasFatu b¤vtßúFatuesIm EdlGacrk)an. lT§plénkMe)ar)ayGrGacmanlkçN³ERbRbYly:agxøaMg. 1>7 Fly ashes Pozzolans FmμCatiRtUv)anykecjBI diatomaceous earth/ opaline ehets nig fμPaCn_ (shales) nig sarFatuepSgeTot. Fly ashes RtUv)anplitecjBIcMehHFüÚgfμCaTUeTA enAkñúgsßanIym:asuInGKÁisnI (electrical generating station) . kMeTcepHEdlCaFmμta RtUv)anykecjtamry³bMBg;EpSgEdlykecjtamviFICaeRcIndUcCa electrostatic precipitators. Fly ash GacRtUvmanTMhMeTAtamkardwkCBa¢Úntamk):al;rbs;GñkpÁt;pÁg;ebtug. Fly ahses TaMgGs;manlkçN³ Pozzolan EdlGacmanlT§PaBcUlrYmRbtikmμCamYynwg kal;süÚmGuIRduksuItenAsItuNðPaBFmμtaedImbegáItCasmasPaBCamYynwglkçN³suIm:g;t_. enAeBlEdlsuIm:g;t_RtUv)anlayCamYynwgTwk RbtikmμKImI ¬GuIRdatkmμ¦ nigekIteLIg. lT§plén RbtikmμenH KW calcium silicate hydrated (CSH) nigkal;süÚmGuIRduksuIt [Ca(OH) ] . Fly ashes manPaKryén 2 suIlIkUnDIGuksuIt (SiO ) x<s;. enAeBlEdlmanvtþmanCamYynwgsMeNIm Ca(OH) eFVIRbtikmμCamYynwg SiO 2 2 2 edIm,ITTYl)an CSH epSgeTot. Fly ashes RbePT F )anBIlT§plénkardutFüÚgfμexμAPøW (anthracite) rWFüÚgfñ ekAs‘Ub‘ÍTIm (bituminous) nwgmansarFatu Pozzolan. vaRtUv)anbgðajedaykarRsavRCavnig GnuvtþedIm,Ipþl; nUv PaBrIkcMerInCaTUeTAénPaBFn;nwg sulfate nigedIm,Ikat;bnßynUvPaBrIkraldalénfμ alkali. Fly ahses RbePT Construction General - 41 -
  • 42. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC C )anBIlT§plénkardutFüÚgfμ lignite rWFüÚgfμ subbituminous. edaysarEtlkçN³KImIénFüÚgfμ fly ashes RbePTC manlkçN³suIm:g;t_edaybEnßmeTAkñúgsarFatu Pozzolon. Fly ash RbePT C Gackat;bnßyPaByUr GEgVgénebtug EdlvacUlrYmlaybBa©ÚlKña. 2> fμbMEbk Aggregate fμbMEbkKWCadak;bBa©ÚlKñanUvsarFatuCaeRcIndUcCafμ boulder, fμ cobble, fμkinbMEbk (crushed stone) fμ gravel, fμ aircooled blast furnace slage, xSac;FmμCati b¤xSac;sib,nimiμtþ nigRKYssib,nimiμtþ nig RKYsFmμCati Rsal. fμbMEbkGacRtUv)anBN’naeTAtamTMhMCaeRcIneTot. μ 2>1 fμbMEbkTMgn;Fmμta Normal –weigth aggregates fμbMEbkRbePTenHmandg;suIetxniC (specific gravity) enAcenøaH 2>0 nig 3>0. CaTUeTAvaRtUv)anEck eTAtamTMhMxageRkam³ fμ Bounder manTMhMFMCag 6in fμ Cobble mancenøaH 3in eTA 6in RKYs (coarse aggregate) manTMhMcenøaHkERBa©g Nº 4 eTA 3in xSac; (fine aggregate) manTMhMcenøaHkERBa©g Nº 200 eTA Nº 4 sarFatum:t;epHpg; (miniral filler material) qøgkat;kERBa©gelx Nº200 fμbMEbkTMgn;Fmμta EdleRbIenAkñúgsMNg;ebtugPaKeRcIn KW)anBIkarbUmBI)atTenø b¤CIkykBIkñúgdI nig )anBIkarbMEbkvtßúFatuepSg². ebtugEdlman)anBIkarlayCamYynwgRKYs nigxSac;TMgn;FmμtaCaTUeTAman TMgn;RbEhl 144 lb/ . 1ft 3 fμ Bounder nigfμ Cobble CaTUeTAmin)aneRbItamTMhMEdl)anEdl)anCIkBIkñúgdIeT b:uEnþRtUv)ankinbMEbk edIm,IeGaymanTMhMepSg²CaRKYs (coarse aggreagate) xSac;sib,kmμ (manufactured –sand) nigkMeTcepHpg; (mineral filler) . RKYs gravel nigxSac;EdlekIteLIgedayFmμCatiRtUv)anekIteLIgedayskmμPaBénTwknig karpøas;bþÚrrdUvkal nigkarnaMykdImkcak;kñúg)atTenø. sarFatuTaMgenHmanragmUl épÞrelag nigkarEbgEck TMhMénRKab;edaydMeNIrkary:agtictYc. sarFatuTaMgenHGacpÁt;pÁg;tamTMhMCaRKYsnig xSac;. Construction General - 42 -
  • 43. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC xSac;KWCasarFatuEdlqøgkat;kERBa©gTMhM 3¼8 in 100%. RKYsmanvtßúFatuEdlmanTMhMeTIelIkERBa©g elx 4. fμbMEbkmanbrimaNmaDKitCaPaKryeRcInCageK enAkñúgebtugsuIm:g;t_ lanning kMe)ar)ayGr b¤ asphaltic concrete . enAkñúgkarlayCaebtugsuIm:g;t_ lanning RKYsnwgxSac;cUlrYmRbEhlBI 65 eTA 70° én maDrbs;l,aysarub. sMrab; asphaltic concrete fμbMEbkcUlrYm 75 eTA 85°énmaDrbs;l,ay. CalT§pl fμμbMEbk KWCasarFatubMeBjminkMerIk. lkçN³fμbMEbkGacbgðajBIT§iBleTAelIRbBn½§CIvit nigPaByUr GEgVg énebtugEdlRKYsfμbMEbkRtUv)aneRbIdUcCasuIm:g;t_ lanning , asphaltic concrete, kMe)ar)ayGr b¤fμRkal RKwHfñl; (aggregate base) . karGnuBaØati[eRbIR)as;RKYs b¤xSac;sMrab;layenAkñúgebtug b¤kMe)ar)ayGr KWvinicä½yedaylkçN³Ca eRcInrYmmandUcCa karErgkMNt;TMhMRKab; (gradation) brimaNxSac;qøgkat;kERBa©g Nº 200, PaBrwg (hardness) , soudness, TMrg;RKab;/ PaBlMnwgénmaD (volume stability) RbtikmμeTAnwg alkili y:agskþanuBl (potential alkali reactivity) PaBFn;eTAnwgkarkkCaTwkkk nigkarrlayénTwkkk (resistance to freezing and thawing) nig sarFatuxniCminsuT§. 2>2 fμbMEbkEdlmanTMgn;F¶n;nig Rsal Heavy weigth and light weigth aggregate fμbMEbkTMgn;F¶n;rYmman magnitite Edlmandg;suIetxniC (specific gravity) 4>3 barite mandg;suIet xniC 4>2 limonit mandg;suIetxniC 3>8 EdkpUsV½rmandg;suIetxniC 6>3 nigkMeTcEdkmandg;suIetxniC 7>4. fμbMEbkTMgn;F¶n;xagelIGaceRbICMnYsfμ gravel b¤fμkinbMEbkedIm,IbegáItCaebtugd¾ENntan;. fμbMEbkTMgn;Rsal light weigth aggregate vaGacEbgEckCaBIrRbePTKW eRKagsMNg; (structural) nigminEmneRKagsMNg; (nonstructural) . va)an BIkarplit ¬eFVIBIdIdæ/ fμPaCn_ b¤silaqñÜn (slate) b¤kMeTcGamn_ EdkpÞúHecjBIL (blast furnace slage) b¤eday FmμCati (scoria nig pumice) . fμbMEbkenHGacbegáItCaebtugEdlmanPaBFn; nwgkMlaMgTUeTAenAcenøaHBI 3000 eTA 4000 psi PaBFn;énkMlaMgx<s;CagenHk¾GaceFVI)an. TMgn;Éktaxül;s¶Üt (air-dry unit weigth) én PaBFn;énkMlaMgx<s;CagenHk¾GaceFVI)an. TMgn;Éktaxül;s¶Üt (aiz-dry unit weght) énPaBFn;énkMlaMgFmμta énebtugTMgn;Rsal ¬ticCag 5000psi¦ enAcenøaHBI100 eTA 115 pcf . PaBFn;Edlx<s;énebtugTMgn;Rsal manTMgn;Ékta (unitweight) kñúgcenøaH 120pcf. Construction General - 43 -
  • 44. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC fμbMEbkTMgn;RsalminEmneRKagsMNg;FmμtaKW vermiculite nig perlite sUm,IEt scoria nig pumice k¾GacRtUv)aneRbIEdr. sMPar³TaMgenHRtUv)aneRbIenAkñúgebtugEdlmankMralxNнGuIsULg; karBarsMelg nig kMralminEmneRKagxagelIeK. fμbMEbkTMgn;RsalbegáItebtugEdlmankarcMlgkMedATab Edlmankar karBarePøIg)anl¥esμIKña. enAeBlebtugenHRbQmnwgkMedAxøaMg bMputsMeNImEdlmanenAkñúgebtug)anERbkøay y:agqab;BIPaBrav eTACacMhayEdlmanmaDrhUtdl;15dgFMCagmun. cMnYnrn§es<atd¾eRcIn nigmanTMhMFMenA cenøaHfμbMEbkTMgn;Rsal)anbegáIttMbn;sMBaFFUrRsal (pressure relief region) . 3> TwkfñaMKImIsMrab;ebtug Admixture for concrete TwkfñaMKImIKWCasarFatuepSgeTotBI suIm:g;t_ lanning Twk nigfμbMEbkEdlRtUv)anbEnßmeTAkñúgebtug edIm,IEkERblkçN³rbs;ebtug. rYmbBa©ÚleTAkñúgGtßn½yenHvaKWTwkfñaMKImI TwkfñaMEr: dUcCa fly ash nig silica fume sarFatukarBareRcH/ sarFatuEfmBN’ sarFatusésrsURt nigepSg² ¬CMnYykarbUm/ karBarsMeNIm/ bgá]sμ½n/ Pñak;garkat;bnßykarRCab¦. 3/1 TwkfñaMKImIBIKImI nig BIEr: Chimical and mineral admixture TwkfñaMKImIRtUv)aneRbICaTUeTAenAkñúgebtugCaGgÁFatuCYykat;bnßybrimaNTwk GgÁFatuBenøÓn nigBnüWt eBlkk b¤CaGgÁFaturYmpSM. A GgÁFatubnßybrimaNTwk B GgÁFatuBnüWteBlkkrwg C GgÁFatuBenøÓneBlkkrwg D GgÁFatubnßybrimaNTwk nigBnüWteBlkkrwg E GgÁFatubnßybrimaNTwk nigBnøÓneBlkkrwg F GgÁFatubnßybrimaNTwk kMritx<s; G GgÁFatubnßybrimaNTwk kMritx<s;nigBnüWteBlkkrwg TwkfñaMKImIkMritx<s;kat;bnßybrimaNTwk EdlcaM)ac;cUlrYmbegáItCaebtugCaBiessedayminpøas;bþÚr 12° b¤eRcInCagenH. TwkfñaMKImIkat;bnßybrimaNTwk Water-reducing admixture Construction General - 44 -
  • 45. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC TwkfñaMenH)ankat;bnßytMrUvkarTwksMrab;layebtugedayeFVIRbtikmμKImICamYynwg plitplGuIRdakmμ )anqab;eLIgedIm,IbegáItRsTab;TwkfñaMKImI m:UNUm:UelKulenATwksuIm:g;t_. RsTab;enH)anEjkRKab;suIm:g;t_ nig kat;bnßytMrUvkarfamBledIm,IeFVIeGayl,ayenH)anhUr. dUcenHl,ayenHKW “lubricated” nwgCMrujeGayRKab; suIm:g;t_cUlrYmGuIRdatkmμ. TwkfñaMKImIkat;bnßybrimaNTwkCaFmμtaplitBIGasuIt Lignosulfnic nig GMbilrbs;va GasuItkabUksuIlicGuIRduksuIt nigGMbilrbs;va b¤ polymer Edl)anBI melamine b¤ naphthalene rWGuIRdUkabUns‘ul pUNat. bnSMénTwkfñaMKImIEdleRbIenAkñúgl,ayebtugKYrEtRtUvRtYtBinitü nigeFVIBiesaFy:agRbugRbytñ½ edIm,I Fanafa lkçN³EdleKcg;)anRtUv)anTTYl. ]TahrN_GaRs½yeday kMritlay (dosage) énTwkfñaMKImI nig lkçN³KImIénsuIm:g;t_ vaGacmanlT§PaBeFVIeGayTwkfñaMKImIBnüWtkarkk nigBenøÓnkarkkrwgénebtug. vak¾ bgðaj nUvkarkt;sMKal;fa TwkfñaMKImIEdlCMrujkarkkrwgFmμta nigBnüWtkarkkRbsinebIkMritlayman brimaNelIs. elIsBIenHeTot edaysarEtPaBxusKñaenAkñúgPaKry énduMsUlItrvagplitpl )anBI Rkumh‘unepSgeTotvaEtg EtminmanTMnak;TMngKñaedaypÞal;rvagTwkfñaMKImIEdlmancMNat;fñak;dUcKña. dUcenH vamansar³sMxan;kñúgkarkMNt;smasPaBKImIy:agRbugRbytñ½ enAeBlRtYtBinitükarRbkYtRbECgénTwkfñaMKImI. TwkfñaMKImIEdlbegáItBBuHxül; Air-Entraining Admixture TwkfñaMenH)anbegáItBBuHxül;d¾EsntUcbMputCaeRcInEdlmanenAkñúgebtug edIm,IkarBarebtugBIeGanPaB bNþalmkBIskmμPaBRcMEdlénkarkk nigkarrlayénTwkkk b¤karEsþgénkarQøanBanénsarFatuKImI. sMrab;ebtug EdlRbQmnwgkarkk énkarrlayRcMdEdl enaHBBuHxül;pþl;nUvbnÞb;sMrab;rIkdalénTwk xageRkA nigxagkñúgEdleTaHCay:agNavaGacbNþaleGayeRKaHfñak;dl;ebtug. enAeBlEdlebtugEdlman BBuHxül;RCabecjmanvisalPaBtictYcCag ebtugKμanBBuHxül;enaHvanigekItmansésqμatictYcbnøayBIsñÚl énebtugdl;épÞxageRkA. dUecñHsésqμad¾tictYcenHCapøÚvcUlénkarQøanBanénsarFatuKImIeTAkñúgebtug. TwkfñaMKImIBenøÓnkarkk Set-accelerating admixture vaRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;kat;bnßyeBlevlaBIcab;epþImlayTwkeTAkñúgsuIm:g;t_ dMbUgénkarcab;dMeNIrkar nig begáInGaRtaénPaBFn;énkMlaMgEdlTTYl)anedayebtug. TwkfñaMKImIBenøÓnkarkkEdlRtUv)aneRbICaFmμta eRcInCageK KWkal;süÚmkørIt. eTaHCay:agNa kareRbIR)as;rbs;va KWRbqaMgkñúgkrNIEdlEdkBRgwgnig Edk prestressing manvtþman. mUlehturbs;va KWfavamanlT§PaBfa GgÁFatuBenøÓnnigbBa©Úly:agesrInUvEdkkørIt Construction General - 45 -
  • 46. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC eTAkñúgebtug dUecñHvanwgbgáeGaymaneRcHsuIEdk. PaBEbøkKñaénkareRbIR)as;Twk fñaMKImImYykñúgcMeNamTwkfñaM KImIEdlminmansarFatukørIt RtUv)aneRbI. TwkfñaMKImIBnüWtkarkk Retarding Admixture sMrab;visalPaBxøH TwkfñaMKImIkat;bnßybrimaNTwkFmμtaTaMgGs;BnüWtkarkkdMbUgénebtug. TwkfñaMKImIsarFatuEr: Mineral Admixture Fly ashes, pozzolans nig microsilicates RtUv)anbBa©ÚleTAnwgcMNat;fñak;fñaMTwkfñaMKImIsarFatuEr:. eBl xøHsuIm:g;t_FmμtaGaceRbICaTwkfñaMKImI. karkarBareRcHsuI Corrosion inhibitor CaTUeTAEdkBRgwgenAkñúgebtugRtUv)ankarBarRbqaMgnwgeRcHsuIedaysarFatu alkalinity y:agx<s;énebtug Edl begáItnUvRsTab;GskmμenABIelIépÞEdk. RsTab;enHmansmasFatuEdkGuksuIt (ferric oxide) EdlCasarFatulMnwg. eTaHCay:agNa enAkñúg b¤enABIelIépÞénEdkGuksuIt (ferric oxid) KWCasmasFatuEdkGuksuIt (ferrous oxid compound) EdlmanRbtikmμy:agxøaMg. enAeBlEdlsmasFatu EdkGuksuItcUleTATak;TgCamYynwg sarFatuQøanBan dUcCa chloride oxide vaeFVIRbtikmμCamYyGuksuIEsn edIm,IbegáItCaduMsUlIt plitpleRcHEdk GuksuIt (iron-oxide corrosion product) . lT§plenH)anbegáIn TMhMmaDrbs;va4dg nigbegáItkMlaMgrIkFak;kan; EtFMCagPaBFn;énkMlaMgTajpþac;énebtug. lT§plenHkan;Et eFVIeGayebtugmanlkçN³y:ab;yWnEfmeTot. enAeBlEdleRcHsuIcab;epþImkekIt vtþmanrbs; chloride enAcenøaHBI1 eTA 1>5lb/yd . ]TahrN_ 3 RbsinebIGacmanlT§PaB chloride GacRCabcUlBIxageRkAsñÚlebtug edayykTwkkkecjBIGMbil ebtugGac RtUv)ankarBaredaypleFobTwk nigsuIm:g;t_kan;EtTabeLIg² b¤begáInbrimaNRKb;dNþb;elIEdkBRgwg b¤BBuH xül;mankñúgebtug b¤bEnßmTwkfñaMKImIEdlmansarFatukal;süÚmnIRtat rWbEnßmTwkfñaMKImIr)aMgxagkñúg (internal- barrier) b¤karBarkartUt (cathodic protection) b¤CabnSMénvIFITaMgenH. edIm,IkarBareRcHsuI TwkfñaMKImI kal;süÚmnIRtatRtUv)anbEnßmeTAkñúgebtugkñúgeBlkMBuglaymþgeTot (batching) .vamin)anbegáItr)aMglkçN³rUbeTAnwgpøÚvcUlénEdkkørIkeT. va)anpøas;bþÚrlkçN³KImIénebtugEk,r KYrsmépÞEdk. vtþmanénG‘uksuItEdknIRTIt )anbMElg ferrous oxid eTACa ferric oxide. sarFatunIRTItk¾RtUv)anRsUbykenAÉépÞénsrésEdkehIy begáInkMlaMgdl;RsTab;Gskmμ ferric oxide. Construction General - 46 -
  • 47. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC sMrab;TwkfñaMKImI kal;süÚm nIRTItEdlRtUv)anykmkeRbI kMriteRbIR)as; (desoage) KYrRtUv)anEktMrUv edaysMrbCamYynwglkçxNÐRbQmrbs;ebtugeTAnwgPñak;gareRcHsuI. épÞRbQmkan;EtFMkMriteRbIR)as;KYrEt FMEdr. kMriteRbIR)as;d¾RtwmRtUvGacRtUv)ankMNt;eTAelIKMeragmYyeTA KMeragmYyedayQrelImUldæanCamYy nwgTinñn½ysMrab;esckþIesñIsuMTwkfñaMKImICak;lak;. TwkfñaMKImIr)aMgxagkñúg (internal –barrier) manBIrRkum. RkumTI mYymansmasFatukarBarRCabTwk nigkarBarRCabsMeNIm. RkumTIBIrmanPñak;garEdlbegáItRsTab;sarFatu xniCCuMvijEdkBRgwg bEnßmBIelIRsTab;Gskmμ. TwkfñaMKImIRbePTenH)anCMrujsMrab;bEnßmBIelIGRtaEdl)an kMNt;edayKμanKitBIkarRbQmnwgsarFatukørItdayKitfanwgekIteLIg. TwkfñaMKImIBN’ Coloring admixture sarFatuBN’RtUv)anbEnßmeTAelIebtugsMrab;ehtuplsßabtükmμ. vaGacCaG‘uksuItEr: b¤RKab;fñaMBN’ sib,kmμ. sarFatukabUneqABN’exμA RtUv)aneRbICaTUeTAsMrab;sarFatuBN¥exμAEdl)ankat;bnßybrimaNBBuH xül;EdlekItmanenAkñúgl,ayy:ageRcIn. dUcenHRbsinebIebtugBN’exμARtUv)aneKcg;)ansMrab;ebtugEdltMrUv eGaymanBBuHxül; ¬sMrab;ebtugEdlRbQmnwgPaBkk b¤rlayénTwkkk b¤karQøanBanénsarFatuKImI¦ enaH kabUnexμA (carbon black) KYrRtUvEkERbeTACaBBuHxül; b¤eTACaPñak;garbEnßmkekItBBuHxül;EdlGacrYm bBa©ÚleTAkñúgl,ay. karKitBIl,ay (mix design) KYrRtUv)aneFVIBiesaFn_eRkamlkçxNÐCak;Esþgénkardæan edIm,IeRbIR)as;enAkñúgsMNg;kardæan. kareRbIR)as;nUvtMrUvkarBN’edayRbugRbytñ½RtYtBinitüsMPar³ ]bkrN_ nigkarbEnßmbrimaNTwkedIm,IrkSanUvPaBminpøas;bþÚrenAÉkardæan. 4> kMe)ar)ayGr nig ebtug Mortar and concrete 4>1 kMe)ar)ayGr Motar )ayGrRtUv)anpSMeLIgedaysarFatusuIm:g;t_ RKYsfμl¥it xSac;nig Twk. vaRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;eFVIkMraldl; kargarrabdæ sMrab;bUk nig stucooes nig laybEnßmCamYyRKYsfμFM² køayeTACaebtug. karKitenATIenH RtUv )aneGayCadMbUgeTA)ayGrenaHEdlRtUveRbIR)as;sMrab;kagarrabdæ nigbUkkMe)ar. lkçN³rbs;)ayGrERbRbYly:agxøaMg GaRs½yeTAnwglkçN³énsarFatusuIm:g;t_EdlykmkeRbIpl eFobénsuIm:g;t_ nigxSac; lkçN³ nigkMritcMNat;fñak;xSac; nigpleFobTwknigsarFatusUlIt. Construction General - 47 -
  • 48. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 4>2 ebtugsuIm:g;t_B½rEln Portland cement concrete ebtugsuIm:g;B½rElnCal,ayénsuIm:g;t_ lanning Twk RKYsFM nigxSac; nigsmamaRt énTwkfñaMKImIedIm,I begáItCam:as)øasÞikEdlmanlT§PaBGaccak; dak; nigbBa©ÚleTAkñúgBum<EdlvanwgrwgeTACam:assUlIt. lkçN³ EdleKcg;)anénebtug)øasÞikenH KWPaBGaceFVIkarrbs;vaPaBGacdak; nigminbMEbksmasFaturYmpSM nigEdlva GackkeTAtameBlevlaEdleKcg;)an. ebtugEdlrwgKYrpþl;nUvlkçN³esvaEdleKcg;)an³ 1> PaBFn;énkMlaMg ¬sgát; nig flexural¦ 2> PaByUrGEgVg ¬ minmansñameRbH Fn;eTAnwgkarkk nigkarrlayénTwkkk nigkarvaylukén sarFatuKIm/ Fn;eTAnwgPaBrMj½r nigbrimaNxül;Edlman¦ 3> rUbragemIlBIxageRkA ¬BN’/ épÞmanPaBminRKb;lkçN³¦ lkçN³nimYy² CHT§iBldl;tMélcugeRkayénkarKitl,ay (mixdesign) nigtMélénkarcak;ebtugenA nwgkEnøg. lkçN³TaMgenHGacTTYl)anBIebtugTMgn;Fmμta TMgn;Rsal nigTMgn;F¶n;. 4>3 ebtugb:UlIEmr Polymer concrete lkçN³)øasÞikrbs;ebtugCamYynwg Rcv:ak;mU:elKuld¾EvgRtUv)aneKehAfa ebtugb:UlIEmrRtUv)aneKeRbI R)as;kñúgviFICaeRcInedIm,IbegáInnUvlkçN³rbs;ebtug karCMnYsnUvsuIm:g;t_ lanning EdlcUlrYmpSMCamYynwgl,ay dUcCaTwkfñaMKImI nigeFVIeGayebtugnwgs‘b;. ebtugb:UlIEmr dUcCa methyl methacrylate nig polyyester EdlminEq¥tTwk EdlenAkñúgenaHb:UlIEmr CMnYssum:g;t_ lanning GacmanPaBFn;énkMlaMg nigmU:DuleGLasÞic (modulus of elasticity) FMCagebtugsuIm:g;t_ lanning 2dg. CamYynwgebtugb:UlIEmr creep RtUv)anbnßynig PaBFn;énvdþénkarkk nwgkarrlayénTwkkk eLIgx<s;. ]TahrN_bnÞab;BIkarEfrTaMTwksMrab;ry³eBld¾xøIbMput eBjmYyyb;kñúgsituNðPaBbnÞb; ebtugb:UlIEmr )aneRtomxøÜnCaeRscsMrab;eRbIkar EdlpÞúyBIebtugFmμtaEdlRtUvTTYlkarEfrTaMsMeNIm RbEhlmYys)aþh_ munnwgTTYlbnÞúkBIxageRkA. m:UNUEmr nigb:UlIEmrGacRtUveRbICaTwkfñaMKImIsMrab;eFVIeGaydUcedImvij nigeFVIeGayépÞénebtugEdlman PaBy:ab;yWnmanPaBdUcedImeLIgvij. latexe én methyl methacrylate, polyester, styrene, epoxy-styrene, furan, styrence-butacliene nig vinylindene chloride RtUv)aneRbIsMrab;eKalbMNgTaMgenH. lT§plénkarkkrwg énebtugmansPaBelOnCagebtugFmμta. TwkfñaMKImIb:UlIEmrk¾GacnwgRtUv)aneRbIedIm,IbegáInlkçN³PaBs¥it én suIm:g;t_ Lanning. kardak;laybBa©Úlkñúgl,ayCaTwkfñaMKImIlayTwk sMrab;eKalbMNgenH TwkfñaMKImI)anpþl; Construction General - 48 -
  • 49. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC nUvbrimaNTwkCaeRcInenAkñúgl,ay EdlGaccUlrYmsMrab;RbtikmμGuIRdatkmμénsuIm:g;t_. karbeBa©jnUvbrimaN Twkk¾)ankMNt;nUvbrimaNTwkfñaMlayTwk. dUcenH karEfrkSasMeNImminRtUv)aneKeFVIeT sMrab;karEdlRtUvkarTwkfñaMKImIlayTwk brimaNeRcIn edIm,IeFVIeGays¶Üt nigbegáInnUvPaBFn;EdleKcg;)an. grout nig)ayGrEdlmanlayTwkfñaMKImIbegáInPaBs¥it (bondin admixture) begáInnUvPaBFn;énPaBs¥itkan;Etx<s;enAeBleKeFVIvaCaRsTab;y:agesþIgCagRkas ehIyPaB s¥itGacnwgxøaMgCagsMPar³sMrab;eFVImuxtMNreTot. Impregnation énebtugb:UlIEmr eBlxøHRtUv)aneKeRbIedIm,IBRgwgépÞEdlRbQmnwgcracrN_F¶n;². PaB Fn;énkMlaMg niglkçN³epSgeTotén impregnation ebtugKWRsedogKñaeTAnwgebtugEdlb:UlIEmrCMnYseday suIm:g;t_ lanning. Impregnation RtUv)anTTYlCadMbUgedayeFVIeGayépÞénebtugeLIgs¶ÜtedaykardutkMedAnig bnÞab;mkRtaMépÞebtugnwgm:UNUEmrdUcCa methyl methacrylate, styrence, acrylonitrile b¤ tert-butyl styrene. nigvaRtUvEfrrkSasMeNImkñúgeBlbnþeTotedaykMedA. RsTab;begðIyénkMral (slab topping) y:agticedayEpñk² edaysarEtPaBs¥ittex©aH epoxy RtUv)an pSMrUbmnþCamYynwgxSac; nigkMeTcepHepSgeTot edIm,IeFVIvavtßúFatueFVIépÞsMrab;ebtug. edaymindUcnwgbTdæanén RsTab;begðIyrbs;ebtug vtßúFatueFVIépÞ epoxy-based GacRtUveFVIy:agesþIg². CaBiessvamanRbeyaCn_sMrab; eFVIeGayépÞEdlmansPaBminFmμta eGaymanPaBrelag rabesμI. epoxy RtUv)ans¶Üty:agelOnEdlGnuBaØati eGayeRbIR)as;nUvRsTab;épÞenaH)ankñúgry³eBly:agxøI. Grout: sñameRbHénebtugGacRtUv)anCYsCuleday epoxy grout . grout RtUv)anbgçMeGayRCabcUlkñúg sñameRbH)any:ageRCAeRkamsMBaF. edaysarEtPaBFn;énkMlaMgén bonding rbs;val¥ expoxy grout GaceFVI eGayPaBFn;énkMlaMgmansPaBdUcedImvij )any:agTUlayEdlkñúgeBlCamYyenaHkarbiTP¢itsñameRbHRbqaMg nwgkarRCabénsarFaturav. 5> karcak;ebtug Concrete Placement 5>1 karGnuvtþn_d¾l¥ Good Pratice eKalkarN_énkarRKb;RKgd¾RtwmRtUvkñúgkarcak;ebtugKW karbMEbksarFaturYmpSMRtUv)anecosevogkñúgGMLúgeBlRKb;RbtibtþicenøaHeBllaynig cMNucénkar cak;rYmbBa©ÚlTaMgkarbgðab;cugeRkay (final consolidation) nigkareFVIeGayépÞmuxelIrabesμI. Construction General - 49 -
  • 50. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC ebtugRtUvEteFVIeGayhab;sBVsac; edayGnuvtþedayKμancenøaHRbehagCuMvijkardak;bBa©úHdgrMj½rbgðab; nwgKYrbMeBjRKb;muMnig RCugénBum<. enAeBlEdlebtugravRtUv)ancak;BIelIebtug EdlrwgrYcehIyPaBs¥itl¥RtUvEtbegáInBIelIebtugEdlrwg rYc. 5>2 viFIénkarcak; Methods of Placing ebtugGacRtUvdwknaMtaMgBIkarlayrhUtdl;cMNucénkarcak;edayviFInig ]bkrN_eRcInRbePTepSg² RbsinebIkardwkCBa¢Üny:agRtwmRtUvRtUv)anecosevogkarbMEbkFaturYmpSM.kareRCIserIsbec©keTssMrab;karsnMS sMécd¾smRsbCageK GaRs½yeTAnwglkçxNÐkardæankargar CaBiessTMhMKMerag ]bkrN_nig bTBiesaFn_ én Gñkem:Akar (contractor) . sMrab;sMNg;GaKarCaTUeTA ebtugRtUv)ancak;edayéd b¤eday power-operate buggies; edayFugcuHTMluH)at CamYynwg]bkrN_sÞÚceyag/ edaycak;eGayhUrtamCMerlT/ bUmedaybMBg; EdlGacbt;Ebn)an rWrwg/ shotcrete EdlTaMgsarFatus¶Üt nigTwkRtUv)an)acsacedayELkBIKña b¤l,ayénebtugRtUv)an)aj;eTAkñúgBum< nigsMrab;karcak;ebtugeRkamTwk tremie chute ¬bMBg;EdlGacbt;Ebn)anRtUv)anbiT¦. sMrab;sMNg;ebtugm:as reTHEdlGacebIkxag)anenABIelIpøÚv reTHd¾ceg¥ót (narrow-gage track) b¤RtUvdwknaMedayExSGacRtUv)aneRbI. sMrab;kMralépÞpøÚv ebtugGacRtUvdak; eTAkñúgFugBIdgsnÞÚceyagénm:asuInlay Edlcak;edaypÞal;edayLanEbn b¤LanRklukebtug b¤minpÞal; edayLaneTAkñúg]bkrN_)acsac. vIFICaBiessénkarcak;ebtug smRsbsMrab;lkçxNÐminFmμtaCaeRcInman karbMeBjgrout eTAelIRKYs fμFM² EdlerobCaeRsc. viFIenHGacmanRbeyaCn_CaBiesssMrab;ebtugeRkamTwk BIeRBaH grout RtUv)anbBa©Úl eTAkñúg fμbMEbktamry³kar)aj;edaybMBg;Rtg;y:agsnSwm² ehIypøas;kEnøgTwkEdlvamanTMgn;RsayCag grout. edaysar bearing contact énfμbMEbktUcCagFmμtaEdlPaBrYmmaDTaMgRsugk¾RtUv)anTTYl. 5>3 PaBelIsTwk Excess water sUm,ICamYynwg karkMNt;y:agCak;lak;sMrab; Slump nigpleFob Twk suIm:g;t_ PaBelIsbrimaNTwk RtUvEtecosvag. enAkñúgGtßbTenH PaBelIsénTwkRtUv)anbgðajsMrab;karbEnßménkarcak;RbsinebImankar bgðajnUvbrimaNTwkGENþteLIg ¬karbMEbkFaturUmpSMtamTisedAQr¦ nigbrimaNTwkhUr ¬karbMEbkFaturYm Construction General - 50 -
  • 51. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC pSMtamTisedAedk¦ ekIteLIg. PaBelIsTwkk¾GaceFVIeGayépÞénebtugmanPaBGaRkk;CagmunedaybegáInkar elcTwktamRbehagBum<. CalT§plGacCasMbukXμM Ca sanstreak CaeRcInBN’b¤ CacMNucTn;enAelIépÞebtug. sMrab;Bum<bBaÄr brimaNTwkekIneLIgbNþaleGay Plane exSaccenøaHRsTab;énkarcak;nimYy². Ca bEnßmeTAelIT§iBléneRKagEdlmansPaBkan;Ety:ab; Plane xagelI enAeBleLIgrwwgmanrn§EdlTwkGachUr qøgtamry³rn§. sMrab;eRKOgbgÁúMedk dUcCakMralxNн PaBelIsTwk)anekIteLIg nig bNþaleGaymanRsTab; laitance exSayenAelIbg¥s;. RsTab;enHrgnUvPaBFn;énkMlaMgTab PaBFn;nwgkarrMj½r PaBrYmmaDx<s; nigCaTUeTAman KuNPaBGn;. 5>4 kareFVIeGayhab; Consolidation eKalbMNgénkarbgðab; KWkat;bnßyrn§Edlmanxül; nigedIm,IFananUvkarb:HBal;y:agCitsñit nigsBV sac;énebtug nigépÞénBum< nigEdkBRgwg. eTaHCay:agNak¾eday karrMj½rd¾xøaMg k¾Gackat;bnßynUvmaDén BBuHxül; EdleKcg;)an b:uEnþkat;bnßyenHGacRtUvTUTat;edaykarEktMrUvénsmamaRténl,ay. ]bkrN_rMj½rEdlbeB©ajfamBlBIxagkñúgGacRtUveRbIedIm,IeFVIeGayebtughab;.eTaHCay:agNa sMrab; kMralesþIgEdlmanebtugKuNPaBx<s; slump TabGacnwg)anbgðab;eGayhab;edaymanRbsiT§iPaBedayman PaBelIsTwk eday]bkrN_rMj½répÞemkanic. sMrab;eRKOgbgÁúMEdlcak;TukRsab;EdlmanBum<rwg maM nigTwkcUl min)an karrMj½rBIxageRkA ¬énBum<xøÜnva¦ KWmanRbsiT§iPaBx<s;. karrMj½rBIxageRkAk¾manRbsiT§iPaBsMrab;Bum< enAnwgkEnøg b:uEnþKYrminRtUv)aneRbI elIkElgEtBum<enHRtUv)anKitrcnabøg;CaBiesssMrab;PaBekInCabeNþaH GasnñénsMBaFxagkñúgenAeBlEdlvtßúraveBjnig bUkbEnßmnUvkMlaMgén]bkrN_rMj½r. elIkElgsMrab;RbtibtþikarN_cak;kMralEdlKYreGayTukcitþ)an karrMj½rEdkBRgwgRtUv)anelIkElg. sUm,IEtvamanRbsiT§iPaBk¾eday karRtYtBinitücaM)ac;edIm,IkarBarrMj½relIs KWBi)ak. dUcKñaenAeBlEdl ebtugRtUv)ancak;CaeRcInRsTab; karrMj½rénEdkbBaÄrqøgcUlkñúgEpñkxøHénebtugrwgBIxageRkam GacmaneRKaH mhnþray. eTaHCay:agNa karkt;cMNaMfa karrMj½reLIgnUvebtugmun nwgkkrwgcugeRkay eRkamlkçxNÐén kar RtYtBinitüGacbegáInnUvPaBFn;énkMlaMgrbs;ebtugKYreGaykt;sMKal;nUvkat;bnßynUvrn§elIépÞebtug ¬rn§tUc²¦. bec©keTsenH KWBi)akNas;kñúgkarRtYtBinitüsMrab;karGnuvtþn_TUeTAkñúgkarcak;ebtugéneRKOgbgÁúMbBaÄr b:uEnþva manRbsiT§iPaBNas;sMrab;kMralbegðIyCamYynwg]bkrN_rMj½redayfamBl. karCIkedayEb:ledayeRbIéd manRbsiT§iPaBCageKsMrab;ykecjnUvBBuHxül;enAelIépÞBum<. Construction General - 51 -
  • 52. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC viFIenH KWmanRbsiT§iPaBCaBiesssMrab;sMPar³Bum<EdlmanRCabTwkrelagRtUv)aneRbI nigsMrab;épÞEdl manCMerleLIgelI. sMrab;KMeragsMNg;Fmμta lkçxNÐepSgKñaénkarcak;RtUv)anrab;bBa©ÚlCaFmμtaEdleFVI[ karcg;)anedIm,Ipþl;dl;bnSMénbec©keTsepSg² Edl)anBN’na. karRbugRbytñ½CaTUeTAmYyEdlGacGnuvtþ )anKW ]bkrN_rMj½rbgðab;minRtUveRbIedIm,Icl½tebtugtamTisedAedke T. 5>5 karcak;ebtugeRKOgbgÁúMbBaÄr Concreting vertical element Epñkxagkñúg énssrCaTUeTARtUv)aneFVIeGayCit vamanmaDFMsMrab;r)aEdkBRgwgebIeRboeFobCamYy nwg maDénebtug ehIyvamankMBs;FMebIeRbobeFob nwgTMhMépÞkat;TTwg. dUcenH ssrKYrRtUvcak;CabnþbnÞab; ebtugKYrRtUv)ancak;ekIneLIgmþg² kñúgCMerABI 2eTA 4ft nigbgðab;[ hab;eday]bkrN_rMj½rxagkñúg. vaRtUv)anelIkeLIgbnÞab;BIkarekIneLIgmþg² énkarcak;ebtugRtUv)anrMj½r. RbsinebIkarBnüaeBlkñgkarpÁt;pÁg;ebtugekIteLIgmunnwgssrRtUv)anbBa©b; ú esckþIxitxMCaxøaMgKYRtUveFVIy:ag NaecosvagmuxtMNr cold . enAeBlssrEdlcak;enAsl;RtUv)ancak;bnþ karcak;bnþelIkTI1KYrEtman brimaNtictYcehIyKYrRtUvrMj½redIm,IeGayRCabcUlEpñkxagBImuny:agtictYc. enAkñúgssrTaMgGs; nigCBa¢aMgEdlEdkBRgwgceg¥ót karcak;ebtugKYrcab;epþImCamYy 2 eTA 4ineday grout . mü:agvijeTot fμRtsuHnigRtUv)aneRCIserIsdak;xag)at pþl;nUvlT§plénkarkekItsMbukXμúM. grout enH KYrEtmansmamaRtEdlman slump RbEhlKña nwgebtug b¤eRcInCagbnþic b:uEnþRtUvmanpleFobénTwksuIm:g;t_ b¤ticCagenH. ¬visVkrexøHeBjcitþcab;epþImkarcak;bBaÄr CamYynwgl,ayEdlmansmmaRtesμIKñaénTwk suIm:g;t_ nigRKYsm:t;b:uEnþCamYynwgbrimaN1knøH énfμbMEbkFM dUcenAkñúgkarKitl,ay nigedIm,Icak;RsTab;cab;epþImkñúg CMerABI 6eTA 12 in¦. enAeBlebtugRtUvcak;sMrab;CBa¢aMgn½ysMrab;karGnuvtþ)anedIm,IecosvagkarbMEbkFatu rYmpSMRtUv)ancak;mineGayeRcInCag 24in kñúgmYyRsTab;eTAmYyRsTab;. RsTab;nimYy²KYrRtUvrMj½rdac;eday ELkBIKña nigrkSaeGaymankMritkMBs;esÞIrEtesμIKña. sMrab;CBa¢aMgEdleRCACag 4ft ebtugKYrcak;CalkçN³bBaÄr tambMBg;EdlGacbt;Ebn)an b¤TMlak;BIkMBs;RbEhl 8ft BIKña. bMBg;GacrwgnigGacbt;Ebnnig mkCaEpñkEdl eKGacelIkeLIgtamkMritkMBs;énkarcak;ebtugekIneLIg. ebtugminGacbt;Ebn)an nigmkCaEpñkEdlGac elIkeLIgtamkMritkMBs;énkarcak;ebtugekIneLIg. ebtugminKYrTukeGayFøak;esrI BIxagcugénbMBg;eT kMBs; elIsBI 4ft karbMEbkFaturYmpSM nwgekIteLIg CamYynwgRKYsfμFM)øat eTAekonBum<edIm,IenACab;Epñkmçag. RsTab; Construction General - 52 -
  • 53. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC EdlbnþbnÞab;BIRsTab;dMbUgGacRtUv)anRCabcUleday]bkrN_rMj½rxagkñúgsMrab;CMerARbEhl 4 eTA 6in edIm,I FananUvkarbBa©ÚlCamYyKñay:agsBVRKb;enAelIépÞRsTab;nimYy². karRCabcUleRCACagmunGacCaKuN RbeyaCn_ ¬karrMj½reLIgvij¦ b:uEnþkarRtYtBinitüeRkamlkçxNÐkardæanEdlERbRbYl KWsMrab;karENnaM énkarGnuvtþenH sMrab;kareRbIR)as;TUeTAminR)akdNas;. lT§plénkarcak;minl¥enAkñúgCBa¢aMgCaerOy² RtUv)anGnuvtþ³ RsTab;bnÞab;CMerl RbsinebImanvtþman TwkenaHnwgmansMbukXμúM nigelcTwk ehIyRbsinebIsñÚlRtUv)andak;CakMBs;bnþbnÞab;rhUtdl;karbnßyPaBFn; énkMlaMgdl;eTA 50°taMgBI)atdl;kMBUl. karRbugRby½tñcaM)ac;xøHedIm,IecosevogT§iBlminl¥TaMgenHKW ³ -karcak;ebtugenAkñúgRsTab;kMritkMBs;tamry³KMlatbMBg;b¤ chute y:agCitsñit -kuMcak;ebtugeBjCMerAenAral;cMNucénkarcak; -minRtUvcl½tebtugtamTisedAedkeday]bkrN_rMj½r - sMrab;CBa¢aMgEdl EvgnigeRCA kat;bnßy slump sMrab;RsTab;xagelIeK 2 eTA 3in BIeRkam slump sMrab;RsTab;Edlcab;epþIm. RbsinebIkarcak;ebtugRtUvEtTukeGayenAmYykEnøgcenøaHmuxtMNrsMNg;bøg;edk kMritkMBs;énkarcak; mYyRsTab; karykecjnUv laitance nigPaBelIsTwk nigeFVIeGayRtg;kMritkMBs;sMNg;muxtMNr RbsinebIGac eFVIeTA)anP¢ab;duMkMNat;eQId¾tUceTAelIépÞRbQménBum<. 5>6 karcak;ebtugeRKOgbgÁúMedk concreting horizontal element sMrab;épÞEdlnwgRtUvRKbnigkarBarRbqaMgnwgrMj½r nigGakasFatukarRbugRby½tñCaBiesstictYcRtUvkar caM)ac;. sMrab;ebtugkMral viFIénkarcak;EdleFVsRbEhspþl;nUvlT§plénkarbMEbkFaturYmpSMtamTisedAedk CamYynwglkçN³Edlcg;)ansMrab;TItaMgxus épÞxagelIEdlmanPaBelIsénTwk nigsarFatum:t;CamYynwgPaB Fn;énrMj½r nigGakasFatutucnigkarrYmmaDx<s;. sMrab;épÞénkMralmYypÞaMg (one course slab) ebtugEdlman slump Tab nigGb,brmaénrMj½r nigkarBRgabépÞebtugRtUv)aneKRtUvkarcaM)ac;. kareFVI screeding Pøam² eday ]bkrN_ screed rMj½redayfamBl KWmanRbeyaCn_kñúgkarBRgayebtugEdlman slump TabnigKuNPaBx<s;. KμankarBRgabbegðIyteTAeToteTKYrRtUvGnuvtþrhUtdl;brimaNTwkesrIminTan;manelc ecjrUbrag. ]bkrN_kþavIbgVilbgðab;edayfamBl GacrMlIgebtugEdlman slump TabNas;kñúgdMNak; kalenH. karrMlIgedaysøabRBacug bBa©b;KYrRtUvBnüaeBl RbsinebIcaM)ac;rhUtdl;épÞGaRT)anTMgn;énRsTab; Construction General - 53 -
  • 54. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC begðIy. enAeBlebtugRtUv)ancak;sMrab;FñwmeRCAEdlman monolithic CamYynwgkMral FñwmKYrRtUv)ancak; ebtugbMeBjmun. bnÞab;mkkarBnüaeBld¾xøIsMrab;karRBmeRBog KYrFanamunnwgkMralebtugRtUv)ancak;. kar rMj½rqøgkat;BIkMBs;kMralKYrRtUvTMluHcUlkñúgebtugFñwmRKb;RKan;edIm,IFanadl;karbgðab;eGayhab;sBVsac;. enAeBlkMralRtUv)ancak ebtugénkarlaymþg²bnþbnÞab;KñaKYrRtUv)ancak;bnþBICayénebtug Edl laymunedIm,IrkSanUvkarbMeBjbnþedayKμankarbMEbkFatu. sMrab;kMralEdlmanépÞCMerl karcak;ebtugCa FmμtaKYrcab;epþImenACayeRkameK. sMrab; shell esþIgEldmantMbn;CMerlecaT karcak;KYrRbtibtþiBIeRkam. Slump KYrRtUvEktMrUv ehIyRsTab;begðIy KYrRtUvsRmbsRmYledIm,IkarBarkarTb;edayr)aEdkBRgwg edk EdlbNþalmkBIkarRbHeday)øasÞicenAkñúgebtugRss;. 5>7 karcak;ebtugkñúgrdUvRtCak; Concreting in cold weather sarFatuEdlGackkTwkkkKYrminRtUvykmkeRbI. ebtugminRtUvcak;enAelIkMral subgrade Edlkk TwkkkeTehIy ehIyTwkkkKYrRtUvykecjBIBum<mun nwgcak;ebtug. ebtugEdlGnuBaØatieGay sMeNImeLIgkkmun b¤GMLúgeBl karEfrrkSasMeNImdMbUg GacnwgbgáeRKaHfñak;F¶n;F¶r. elIsBIenHeTot sItuNðPaBKYrrkSaeGayx<s;Cag 58 C sMrab;karEfrrkSasMeNImEdleFVIeRcInKYrsm (strengthgain) .GñkpÁt;pÁg; º ebtug)anbMBak;]bkrN_kMedAsMPar³ nig edIm,IdwkCBa¢ÚnebtugedayRtYtRtasItuNðPaBenAkñúg GakasFatu RtCak;. esvaenHKYrRtUv)aneRbIR)as;. sMrab;GakasFatuRtCak;xøaMg sMrab;EpñkEdlesþIgeRbIR)as; kñúgsMNg; GaKarebtugEdlcak;rYmfμI² RtUvEtRKb[ Citnig pþl;nUvkMedACabeNþaH Gasnñ. sMrab;EpñkEdlRkas;xøH b¤enAkñúgGakasFatuRtCak;lμm CaFmμtakarcMNay Gs;ticCagsMrab;pþl;eGaynUvBum<manGuIsULg;)aMg b¤eRKb edayGuIsULg;edIm,IbgçaMgkMedAdMbUg nigkMedAbnþbnÞab; éndMeNIrkarGuIRdatkmμ enAkñúgGMLúgEdlEfrrkSa sMeNImebtugdMbUg. tMrUvkarEfrrkSasMeNImGaRs½yeTAnwgsItuNðPaBEdlvarkSarTuk nigebtugEdlmanPaBFn;énkMlaMg eTogTat; b¤eLIgx<s;qab;RtUv)anykmkeRbI. ebtugEdlmanPaBFn;énkMlaMg eLIgx<s;qab;GacTTYllT§pl CamYynwgTwkfñaM KImI BenøÓn b¤CamYysuIm:g;t_EdlmanPaBFn;énkMlaMgx<s;qab; b¤pleFobTwksuIm:g;t_TabCag edIm,IbegáItnUv tMrUvkarPaBFn;énkMlaMgry³eBl28éf¶ kñúgry³eBl7éf¶. karRbugRbytñ½caM)ac;kñúgkareRbIR)as;nUvkMedAEdlmanr)aMgBT§½CuMvij KWpÁt;pÁg;kMedAedaymin)ansMgYt ebtug b¤eFVIeGaycMhay kabUnDIGuksuItehIrecj. kardak;eGayebtugRss;s¶Üt b¤ecjcMhaypþl; lT§ipleGay chalky. karRbugRbytñ½epSgeTotRtUv)aneCosvagkarpøas;bþÚrsItuNðPaBqab;énépÞebtugenA Construction General - 54 -
  • 55. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC eBlkMedAmin)anbnþCab;Kña. karpþl;kMedAKYrbnßyy:agsnSwm² ehIyr)aMgBT§½CuMvijKYrykecjBIkEnøgedIm,I GnuBaØati[briyakas sItuNðPaBRtCak;CabeNþIr² CaFmμtakñúgGMLúgeBly:agtic 24h. 5>8 karcak;ebtugkñúgGakasFatuekþA Concreting in hot weather karrlay nigkarcak;ebtugenAsItuNðPaBx<s;GacbgánUv flash set kñúg]bkrN_laykñúgGMLúgeBlcak; b¤munkargarbegðIyRtUv)anbBa©b;. kar)at;bg;PaBFn; énkMlaMgk¾GacCalT§plBIkarcak;ebtugekþA. sMrab;sItuNðPaBx<s;Cag kar)at;bg;PaBFn;énkMlaMgeTACakarsMxan;. dUcenHcUreFVIkarbegáInPaBrYmmaD ehIykarbegáInPaBrYmmaD KWGackMNt;eGayminEmnsMrab;EtsItuNðPaBx<s; b:uEnþk¾GacbegáIntMrUvkarbrimaNTwk edIm,IeGay)an slump dUcEdlkarekIneLIgénsItuNðPaB. sMrab;karGnuvtþcMeBaHsMNg;GaKarFmμta GñkpÁt;pÁg; ebtugRtYtBinitüsItuNðPaBénebtugedayeFVIeGayfμbMEbkRtCak; nigenAeBlcaM)ac;Gacpþl;CaEpñkénkarlay TwkCaTwkkkbMEbk. sMrab;GakasFatuekþAxøaMg karRbugRbytñ½enHbUknwg karcak;CaEpñkedIm,IGnuBaØatieKcecjBI kMedAénGuIRdatkmμ GacRtUv)antMrUvsMrab;kMralRKwHFM². TwkfñaMKImIBnüWtk¾GacRtUveRbICamYy nwgT§iBll¥edIm,I kat;bnßy slump Edl)at;bg;kñúgGMLúgénkarcak; nigkargarbegðIy. 5>9 karEfrrkSasMeNImebtug Curing concrete karEfrrkSasMeNImebtugmandMeNIrkar karbegáItedayFmμCati b¤sib,nimitþ EdlCHT§iBly:agvisal PaB nigGRtaénGuIRdatkmμénebtug. eRKagbgÁúMebtugxøHGacRtUvrkSasMeNImedayKμankarkarBarsib,nimitþRbePTNamYyeT. vaRtUv)an GnuBaØatieGayrwgenAeBlRbQmnigBnøWRBHGaTitüxül; nigePøóg. RbePTénkarEfrrkSasMeNImEbbenHmin GaceCOCak;)aneT BIeRBaHTwkGachYrtecjBIépÞ. viFIepSg² RtUv)aneRbIedIm,IrkSasMeNIm ebtug edayRtYtBinitüsMeNImkñúgrbs;va b¤sItuNðPaBrbs;va. kñúgn½yGnuvtþkarrkSasMeNImKW EfrrkSasMeNImdl;ebtugEdlcak;fμI² edaypþl;bEnßmnUvsMeNImedaybEnßm eGaymandUcedImvijnUvbrimaNTwkEdl)at;bg;edaysarkarhYt. CaFmμta karRbugRbytñ½tictYcRtUv)anKiteTAelIsItuNðPaB elIkElgkarrkSakñúgrdUvRtCak;nig EfrrkSa cMhayTwk. plRbeyaCn_énkarEfrrkSasMeNImd¾manRbsiT§iPaBCageK KwvaeFVIeGayebtugminRCabTwkxøaMgCagmun nigbegáInPaBFn;énkMlaMg. viFsMrab;EfrrkSasMeNImGaccat;Ca³ I Construction General - 55 -
  • 56. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 1> viFIEdlpþl;Twkdl;dMeNIrkarGuIRdatkmμTaMgRsugmuneBlkMNt; nigmaneKalbMNgcg;rkSa sItuNðPaBeGayÉksNæan. viFIenHrYmmanRtaMTwkdUcføúk )acsacTwk nigRkalnUv burlap esIm b¤kMNat; cotton dIesIm/ Gacm_rNa/ esμAs¶Üt b¤cMebIg. 2> viFIEdlKitedIm,IkarBarnUv)at;bg;Twk manT§iBltictYceTAelIkarrkSaÉksNæanPaBénsItuNðPaB. viFITaMgenHrYmmanRkdaskarBarRCabTwk nigPñasminRCabTwk. CaFmμtaeRkaymksarFatu føa b¤C½rekAs‘U (bituminous) RtUv)an)aj;eTAelIebtugedIm,IbMeBjrn§ nigkarBarrMhYt. sarFatuuehIrBN’enAkñúgfñaMRClk;BN’ enAkñúgfñaMRClk;BN’Edlqab;ehIreTAvijCYykñúgkar)aj; nigRtYtBinitü. RKab;fñaMBN’sEdleGay)øatkaMrsμI BN’RkhmGacRtUv)aneRbIsarFaturkSasMeNImedIm,I rkSaépÞebtugeGayRtCak;enAeBlRbQmeTAnwgBnøwRBH GaTitü. 5>10 muxtMNrsMrab;ebtug Joint in concrete RbePTmuxtMNrCaeRcInGacnwgekIteLIg b¤RtUv)anbegáItenAelIeRKagbgÁúMebtug³ sMNg;muxtMNrRtUv)an begáItenAeBlebtugRss;RtUv)ancak;Cab;nwgebtugEdlrwgrYc. muxtMNsMrab;karrIk (expansion joint) RtUv)anbegáItsMrab;eRKOgbgÁúMEdlmanRbEvgEvgedIm,ITb;Tl;nwg stress énkMlaMgsgát;Edlmü:ageTotCalT§plBIkarekIneLIgénsItuNðPaB. rUb 3-1 muxtMNrsMrab;karrYj muxtMNrsMrab;karrYj (contraction goint): (control joint) RtUv)anpþl;edIm,IGnuBaØatieGayebtugrYjenA eBlsItuNðPaBFøak;cuH nigGnuBaØatisMrab;karsMgYtEdlrYmmaD EdlKμanlT§plekItCasñaMeRbHécdnü Edlmin)an RtYtBinitü. muxtMNrsMrab;karrYj³ KYrdak;enAkEnøgNaEdl ebtugemIleTAGacnwg eRbHedaysarbMlas;bþÚr sItuNðPaBb¤ rYmmaD.muxtMNrKYrRtUv)andak;bBa©ÚlenAkEnøgNaEdlmankMras;pøas;bþÚr nig offset .CaFmμta muxtMNrKYrmanKMlat 30ft BIGkS½kNþal b¤y:agticsMrab;karRbQméneRKagsMNg; dUcCaCBa¢aMgTb;dI. Construction General - 56 -
  • 57. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC edIm,Iecosvag nUvsñameRbHEdlGaRkk;emIlbNþalmkBIkarrYmmaD muxtMNrsMrab;karrYjRbePT dummy RtUv)aneRbICaerOy². enAeBlNakarrYmmaDekIteLIgsñameRbHEdlekIteLIgedayectna )aneFVI eGay bøg;manPaBTn;exSay. sMrab;viFIenHsñameRbHEdlRtUvekIteLIg CabnÞat;Rtg;EdlgayRsYlCYsCul. control joint k¾GacmancenøaHRbehagBI 2eTA 3 ft kñúgbeNþayCBa¢aMg b¤kMral CamYynwgEdkBRgwg BI cugsgxagdak;RCYsmuxKñakñúgcenøaHRbehag. CaeRcIns)þah_bnÞab;BICBa¢aMgb¤ kMralRtUv)ancak;ebtugrYj cenøaH RbehagenaHRtUvbMeBjedayebtug. edayeBlenaH PaBrYmmaDPaKeRcInRtUv)anekIteLIg. sMrab;muxtMNrsMrab;karrIk CaFmμtaGgÁFatubMeBjRtUv)anpþl;edIm,IEckeRKagsMNg;CaBIrEpñkdac;eday ELkBIKña. GgÁFatubMeBjenH (filler) KYrEtCasarFatuEdlFn;nwgkMlaMgsgát;dUcCa corkboad or premolded mastic. GgÁFatubMeBjKYrmanlkçN³dUcEdlvanwgminRtUvPøat;ecjBImuxtMNr nigminRTuDRTm (slump) enAeBl RtUv kMedAénBnøwRBHGaTitü nigmineFVIeGayxUcépÞénebtug. muxtMNrRtUv)andak; edIm,IkarBarkarRCabTwk. sMrab;eKalbMNgenH copper flashing GacRtUv)aneRbI. CaFmμtavaRtUv)anbgáb;eTAkñúgebtug cugsgxagénmuxtMNr nignwgRtUvbt;bBa©ÚlkñúgmuxtMNEdlmanmuxtMNr GacebIkedayKμaneFVIeGayEdkdac;. flashing RtUvEtrwgRKb;RKan;edIm,Idak;vanwgnUvTItaMgenAeBlebtugRtUv)an cak;. Water stop EdlGacbt;Ebn)an nigsmasFatu polysuefide calking k¾GacRtUv)aneRbICaGgÁFatu P¢itEdr. eBlxøHmuxtMNrsMrab;karrIkcMhr RtUv)aneRbIsMrab;TItaMgxagkñúgEdlPaBcMhrRtUv)anCMTas; mineGay eRbIenAeBlEdlvaRtUvRbQmnwgTwkFøak;BIelI dUcCakEnøgctLanCaCan;². muxtMNrcMhrGacRtUv)anpþl;CamYynwg bMBg;bgðÚrTwk (gutter) BIxageRkamedIm,IbgðÚrTwkecj. visVkrKYr bgðajnUvmuxtMNr bBaÄr b¤edkcaM)ac; enAelIbøg;énkarKitbøg; (design drawing) . ral;bøg;lMGitEdlTak;Tg nwgGVIEdlCHT§iBldl;sésEdkBRgwg water stop nigGgÁFatuP¢it k¾KYrRtUv)anbgðaj. muxtMNsMNg;KYrRtUv)anKit nigRtUv)ankMNt;TItaMgRbsinebIGaceFVIeTA)anenAEpñkEdlmankMlaMgkat; pþac;Gb,brima. EpñkTaMgenHCaFmμtanwgRtUv)andak;enAGkS½kNþalénFñwmnwgkMral kEnøgEdlkMlaMgm:Um:g;Bt; mantMélFMCageKbMput. vaKYrRtUv)andak;enAkEnøgNaEdlmanPaBgayRsYlCageKedIm,IbBaÄb;kargar. muxtMNrsMNg;CaerOy² RtUv)andak;enAkEnøgNaEdlmanPaBkMlaMgkat;pþac;. RbsinebIva minGaceFVIeTA )ansMrab;kMralebtugTaMgmUl sMrab;RbtibtþikarmYymuxtMNrRtUv)aneKcUl Construction General - 57 -
  • 58. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC citþdak;CageKenAcMGkS½kNþal énElVg. muxtMNredkCaFmμtaRtUv)aneKpþl;enAcenøaHssr nigkMralxNн Edl ssrRtUv)ancak;ebtugmun bnÞab;mkeTIbeKcak;RbBn§½kMralTaMgmUl. 5>11 karRtYtBinitüBIkarcak;ebtug Inspection of Concrete placement ebtugKYrRtUv)anRtYtBinitüsMrab;m©as; munnwg/ kñúgGMLúgeBl nigeRkayBIkarcak;. munnwgebtugRtUv)an cak;kþaBum<RtUvEtBuMmanTwkkk kMeTckMTI nigRtUv)anlabfñaMy:agRtwmRtUvedayeRbgbMEbkPaBs¥it (bond – breaker oil) . r)aEdkRtUv)andak; TMrd¾RtwmRtUvedIm,I RTnUvcracrN_EdlnwgekIteLIgkñúgGMLúgeBlénkarcak;ebtug. lUbgðÚrTwk/ ]bkrN_EdleKjat;bBa©Úl nigEpñk epSg²eTotRtUveK)anbgáb;eGaycMTItaMgEdl)ankMNt;eGay)anENnedIm,IkuMeGaykMerIk. buKÁliksMNg;KYrEt manRbsinebIbMBg;Twk nigbMBg;ExSePøIgRtUv)anbgáb; CaFmμtaCageQICagdak;nigcgEdk nigCMnajd¾éTeTot RtUvmantYnaTICaGñkGegátBum< nigedIm,ItMrg;edIm,IvijnUvEdk bMBg;ExSePøIg b¤bMBg;TwkEdlpøas;kEnøg. enAeBlebtugRtUv)ancat; slump rbs;ebtug RtUv)anRtYtBinitünig mantMélkMNt;Cak;lak;dUcEdl)an B’NnaBIxagelIrYcehIy b¤PaBFn;énkMlaMgCak;lak;EdlQrelImUldæanén Slump GacRtUv)anRtUvkat;bnßy. GñkRtYtBinitüénkarcak;ebtug EdlCaGñkTTYlxusRtUv xagBiesaFn_KYrEtBiesaFn_ slump, entrained air sItuNðPaB nig unit weigths kñúgGMLúgénkarcak;ebtug nigKYrEtBinitükarEktMrUvNamYyén slump nig bEnßm brimaNTwknig suIm:g;t_. GñkRtYtBinitük¾KYrBinitübBa¢ak;fadMeNIrkarRbRBwtþkarcak; nigkarbegðIy EdlRtUv)anyl;RBmCamunfaral;kargarbnþbnÞab;KWRtwmRtUvedIm,IecosvagkarbMEbkFatubnSMénebtug.CabEnßm GñkRtYBinitüKYrFanafa muxtMNrsMNg;EdlbnÞan;RtUv)aneFVIcaM)ac;enAeBlkarpÁt;pÁg; ebtugRtUv)anbBaÄb; manePøóg b¤mankarBnüaeBlNamYyd¾RtwmRtUv)anekIteLIg nigRtUv)aneFVIedayGnuelam eTAtamdMeNIrkar Cak;lak; b¤)anTTYlkaryl;RBmBIvisVkr. kargarrbs;GñkBinitücatuTukfarYcral;enAeblEdlebtug)ancak;rYc BRgabépÞ rYc/ karBarsMrab; karEf rkSasMeNIm nigTTYl)anebtugEdlmanPaBFn;eBjelj. 6> eRKOgbgÁúMénsMNg;ebtug Members of concrete construction 6>1 kMral Slab kMralebtugEdkBRgwgmanTisedAmYy One way reinforced- concretslab Construction General - 58 -
  • 59. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC kMralebtugEdkBRgwgEdlmanTwsedAmYy KWCaeRKOgbgÁúMEdlrgkMlaMgBt;EdlmanElVg manTisedAEt mYyenAcenøaHTMrnigKWCaEdkBRgwgEdlrgkMlaMgBt;sMrab;EtTisedAEtmYy. RbsinebIkMralRtUvRTedayFñwm rW CBa¢aMgEdlmanxagTaMg4 b:uEnþElVgsMrab;TisedAEvgmanRbEvgEvgCagTisedAxøIelIsBIBIrdg bnÞúkPaKeRcInnwg RtUvRbmUleTAelITisedAxøI dUcenHkMralGacRtUv)anKitCakMralEdlmanTisedAmYy (one-way-slab) . kMral TwsedAmYyGacCaduMtan; (solide), ribbed b¤ Rbehag (hollow) . kMralTisedAmYyRbehagkñúgCaTUeTACakMral Edlcat;TukrYcehIy (precast) . sMrab;karcakenAnwgkEnøg kMralTisedAmYyRbehagkñúgGacRtUvsagsg;eday Bum<ragsuILaMgeFVIBIséssURt b¤eFVIBIbnÞÞHkþa (cardboard) edayBum<EdlGaceLIge):agEdlGacykmkeRbIkar mþgeTot)an b¤edaybøúk b¤RbGb;Edlcak;rYc. kMralTisedAmYyGacRtUv)ansagsg;enAelITMrEdlrgkMlaMgkat; b¤EdlmanPaBFn;kMlaMgkat;pþac;. kMralEdlmanTisedABIr A two-way slab kMralTisedABIr KWCapÞaMgebtugEdlBRgwgsMrab;rgkMlaMgBt;EdlmanTisedAeRcInCagmYy. RbePTén sMNg;rebobenHCaeRcInRbePTRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;kMralxN½Ð nigdMbUlrYmbBa©ÚlbnÞHrabesμI (flat plate) kMralrab esμItan; (solid flat slab) nig kMralrabesμI waffle. CaTUeTA ssrEdlRTsMNg;xagelIRtUv)antMerobEdlGkS½kNþalrbs;vaEckkMralCakaer b¤esÞIrEtCa pÞaMgkaer b:uEnþRbsinebIeFVItamkarcg;)an GacCactuekaNEkg RtIekaN b¤CapÞaMgEdlmanlkçN³mineTogTat;. bnÞHrabesμIKW CaTMrg;edlsmBaØCageKsMrab;kMralEdlmanTisedABIr EdlsamBaØCageKsMrab;kar viPaK karKitbøg; karlMGit karbegáIt nigkardak;sésEdk nigkarBum<. bnÞHrabesμIRtUv)ankMNt;CakMralTisedABIr EdlmankMrasÉksNæan EdlRTedaybnSMénssr nigCBa¢aMgEdlman rWKμanCayFñwm nig KμankarkMNt;Cay kMral (drop panel) Kμank,alssr nigEkgRT. kMlaMgkat;pþac;nig PaBdabkMNt;sMrab;bnÞHrabesμIEdlmanElVgRbEhl 30ft sMrab;bnÞúkRsal nig RbEhlBI20 eTA 25 ft sMrab;bnÞúkF¶n;. enAeBlbMerIbMras;énEdkBRgwg b¤eRKagEdkTMr kMlaMgkat;pþac;enAnwg ssrGacRtUv)anBnøÚtEdnkMNt;enHbnþicbnþÜc karGnuvtþn_cMbgrbs;va KWGnuBaØatieGayeRbIsMrab;ssrtUc. eTaH Cay:agNa RbePTepSgeTotCaeRcIn GacRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;bnøaybnÞúksnSMsMéc nig EdnkMNt;énElVg. Construction General - 59 -
  • 60. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 6>2 Fñwm Beam tamtMrUvkarPaKeRcInénFñwm b¤rtsMedAcMeBaHeRKOgsMNg;rgkMlaMgBt;. enAeBlkMral nigrnUtminRtUv )anKitTukmun kUdsMedAy:agCak;lak;cMeBaHFñwm nigmineTogTat;cMeBaHFñwm nigrt nigkarpþl;Gnuvtþn_esμIcMeBaHFñwm nigrt. dUecñHBaküEtmYy KW FñwmGacRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;krNIdUcxageRkam. niymn½yéneRKOgbgÁúMrgkMlaMgBt; niymn½yxageRkamGnuvtþcMeBaHeKalbMNgénEpñkxageRkam³ kMral³ CaeRKÓgbgÁúMEdlmanCMerAÉksNæanRTbnÞúképÞEdlpþl;eGayBIelIépÞkMral. kMralGacRtUv)an BRgwgedayEdksMrab;kMlaMgBt;tamTwsedAmYy b¤BIr. rnUtkMral (joist-slab)³ kMral ribbed Edlman rib TisedA 1b¤2. TMhMénkMralenHRtUvEtsßitkñúgEdn énkUdsMNg; ACI 318. Fñwm³ eRKOgbgÁúMEdlrgkMlaMgBt;EdlKitsMrab;TTYlrgnUvkMlaMgbnÞat;ÉksNæan b¤kMlaMgbnÞat;cMcMnuc. FñwmGacedIrtYCaeRKOgbgÁúMdMbUgsMrab;ssrFñwm (beam-column frames) rWGaceRbIedIm,IRTkMral b¤rnUtkMral. rt³ eRKOgbgÁúMEdlRtUv)aneRbIedIm,IRTFñwm nigRtUv)anKitedIm,IRTElVgenAcenøaHssr/ CBa¢aMg/ b¤rtepSg eTot. rtEtgEtCaeRKOgbgÁúMemeK. 6>3 CBa¢aMg Wall CaTUeTAeRKOgbgÁúMbBaÄrEdlRbEvg nigkMBs;FMCagkMras;eRcInenaHva RtUv)aneKrab;CaCBa¢aMg. CBa¢aMg EdlGacRTnUvbnÞúkbBaÄr)anRtUv)aneKeGayeQμaHfa CBa¢aMgTMr (bearing wall) . CBa¢aMgEdlminGacRTnUvbnÞúk eRkABIbnÞúkpÞal;xøÜndUcCapÞaMg b¤CBa¢aMgbiTCit RtUv)aneKehAfaCBa¢aMgminEmnTMr (non-bearing wall) .CBa¢aMg EdlmantYnaTIcMbgFn; nwgbnÞúkxagRtUv)aneKehAfa CBa¢aMg shear.BYkvak¾GaceRbICa bearing wall Edr. Bearing Wall CBa¢aMgebtugEdkBRgwg bearing wall GacRtUv)anKitCassrEdlrgnUvbnÞúkmincMGkS½kNþal. tamviFI Edl)anBIkarBiesaFn_GacRtUv)aneRbIenAeBlbnÞúkpÁÜbEdlmanGMeBIelIva sßitenAmYyPaKbIénkMras;CBa¢aMgBak; kNþal. Nonbearing Wall CBa¢aMgebtugEdkBRgwg nonbearing wall CaerOy²RtUv)ancat;TukdUcCapÞaMg (panel), partition b¤ crosswall GacRtUv)ancat;rYceRsc b¤cak;enAnwgkEnøg. enAeBl Panel RtUv)ancakrYceRscvaRKan;EtRtUv)an Construction General - 60 -
  • 61. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC eRbIR)as;Ca cladding CaFmμtaRtUv)anP¢ab;eTAnwgssr b¤kMralxN½ÐéneRKagbgÁúMEdlRTeday grade beam b¤RT eday spanning cenøaHeCIgtagEdleRbIR)as;TaMgCa grade beam nigCBa¢aMg. cross wall Edlcak;enAnwgkEnøg FmμtaPaKeRcInsMrab;eRKagRKwH. minCaerOy² panel cak;enAnwgkEnøgGacRtUv)anRTeday grade beam nigP¢ab; eTAnwgeRKagbgÁúM. PaKeRcInkarGnuvtþn_cMeBaHCBa¢aMg nonbearing wall stress KWTab nigsMPar³d¾éTeTot dUcCaCBa¢aMg dæKμan EdkBRgwgenAeBlRTedayFñwmBIelI grade b¤ panel énsMPar³epSgeTot k¾GacRtUv)aneRbI. Cavi)ak elIkElgEt ebtugEdkBRgwgEdltMrUvkarPaBs¥at pÞaMgénebtugEdkBRgwwgEdlman stress TabKYrRtUv)anKit cMeBaHkarsnSMsMéc Gtibrma. kMras;Gtibrma sésedkBRgwgGtibrmaplRbeyaCn_eBjeljénbTdæan PavUnIykmμsMrab; bec©keTsén mass-production nigKitsMrab;tYnaTIBIrTaMgCaCBa¢aMgnig FñwmeRCaKYRtUv)anTTYl. kMras;énCBa¢aMg ebtugEdkBRgwg nonbearing wall KYrEtmantMély:agtic 1¼30 éncMgaycenøaHTMrb:uEnþminRtUv tUcCag 4in. eTaHbICay:agNa karGnuBaØatieGayfycuHral;tMrUvkarGb,brimatamTMenIgcitþsMrab;kMras; nigsésEdk EdlkarviPaKeRKagbgÁúMbgðajnUvPaBFn;énkMlaMg niglMnwgRKb;RKan;. kEnøgEdlTMrRtUv)anpþl; dUcCasMrab;pÞaMg BIxagelI grade BIelI grade beam tP¢ab;eTAnwgssrGacRtUv)anKitlMGitedIm,IGnuBaØtieGaymanPaBrYmmaD. PaBkkitrvag eCIgénpÞaMg panel GacRtUv)ankat;bnßyedayRsTab; asphalt coating nig karminrab;bBa©Úlén dowel. karpþl;TaMgenHGacnwgGnuBaØti eGaykat;bnßyPaBrYmmaDénsésEdkedk. sésEdkbBaÄRtUv)an tMrUvedaykMr elIkElgEtmankarcaM)ac;sMrab;KMlaténsésEdkedk. RbsinebICBa¢aMg nonbearing wall RtUv)ancak;enAnwgkEnøg sésEdkGacesÞIrEtRtUvkat;bnßyelIkElg EtenAEpñkCay². RbsinebICBa¢aMgRtUv)ancak;CaeRsc stress énkaretagf<k;nwgRtUv)anRtYtBinitüCaerOy². cMnuc pickup eRcInEbby:agCamYynwg rigid-beam pickup nigkat;bnßy stress xagelI. Vaccumpad pickup Gackat; bnßy lifting stress esÞIrEtTaMgGs;. 6>4 RKwH Foundation RKwHsMNg;KYrEckbnÞúkCBa¢aMg nigssreTAdI nigfμEdlenABIeRkamRKwHeday limit EdlGacTTYlyk)an énlT§plénsm<aFdI nigPaBRsutsrub nig differential .bnÞúkénCBa¢aMgnig ssrmanbnÞúkxageRkA (live load) RtUv)ankat;bnßyedayGnuelamtam karGnuvtþn_kUdsMNg;TUeTA nigbnÞúkpÞal;xøÜnRtUv)anpSMCamYynwg bnÞúkxag Construction General - 61 -
  • 62. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC énxül; rMBa¢ÜydI sMBaFdI rWsMBaFGgÁFaturavRtUv)antMrUv. bnÞúkTaMgenHGacRtUv)anEckeTAEk,r Grade edayRKwH ECgtag b¤eTAdIenAkMritkMBs;TabCagenHedayebtug RKwHeRCA b¤ pier EdlxYg. RbePTénRKwH Type of Foundation RKwHebtugCaRcInRbePTRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;sMNg;GaKar. RbePTEdlFmμtaCageKxøHRtUv)anbgðajkñúgrUb 3-2. RKwHeCIgtagssrKWCa plain b¤kMralEdkBRgwgEdlmanTTwgFMCagCBa¢aMg EdlbnøaytambeNþayén CBa¢aMg. Plain b¤ssrEdkebtugRKwHeCIttagÉekaKW CaRKwHsamBaØ/ manCan; rWCMerlkMralebtug 2TisCabøg;kaer b¤ctuekaNEkg. sMrab;ssrBIrenACitKña b¤ssrxageRkAenACit property line dUcenHeCIgtag b¤eCIgtag pile- cap minGacdak;enAcMcMnuckNþalrYmeTeCIgtagrYm (combined footing) b¤eCIgtagRTEvgGacRtUv)aneRbIedIm,I TTYlsMBaFdIEdlbeBa©jesÞIrEtÉksNæan b¤bnÞúk pile. eCIgtagRTEvg (strap footing) køayCasnSMsMécCag combined footing enAeBlKMlatssrkan;EtEvgedaysarEtm:Um:g;Bt;FMsMrab;eCIgtagrYm (combined footing). sMrab;sMBaFdITabb¤kEnøgbnÞúkmantMélFMeFobeTAnwglT§PaBRTRTg;rbs;dI RKwHebtugsésEdkcak;eBj (reinforced concrete mat) b¤ raft foundation GacbgðajBIPaBsnSMsMéc. RKwHcak;eBjKW CakMralTisedA 2 (2 way slab) enABIeRkameRKagsMNg;TaMgmUl. CBa¢aMgebtug cross wall b¤Fñwm inverted GacRtUv)aneRbICamYynwg RKwHcak;eBjedIm,ITTYlPaBrwgmaMnigkarsnSMsMéc. sMrab;kEnøgEdllT§PaBRTRTg;rbs;dIRKb;RKan; KWeKGaceRbIRtwmEtRKwHkMritkMBs;TabCagTUeTA (pile foundation) b¤RKwHeRCAEdlxYg. Construction General - 62 -
  • 63. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC rUb3-2 RbePTRKwHFmμtasMrab;sMNg;GaKar Construction General - 63 -
  • 64. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC CMBUk IV sMNg;eRKagbgÁúMGMBIEdk STRUCTURAL STEEL CONSTRUCTION 3 1> karKitbøg;éneRKOgbgÁúM Design of Members sMrab;eRKOgbgÁúM GñkKitbøg;KYrtamdansegátelIlkçxN½Ð énPaBFn;énsMNg; b¤ Stress Ca eKalkarNmYy b¤eRcInCagmYy b¤bnSMTaMg5 rbs;vaEdlrYmman kMlaMgTajcMGkS½ (axial tension) kMlaMg sgát;cMGkS½ (axial compression) kMlaMgBt; (bending) kMlaMgkat;pþac; (shearing) nigkMlaMg cripping éneRKOgbgÁúM. lkçxN½ÐepSgeTotEdlKYrtamdanGegátBIeRkamlkçxN½ÐBiessKW local buckling PaB dabelIslb; (excessive deflection) kMlaMgrmYl (torsion) nigPaBGs;kMlaMg (fatigue) . rhUtmk dl;edImstSvtSqñaM 1990 karviPaKxagelIQrelIeKalkarN_ karKitedayQrelI stress Edl GnueRKaH allowable stress design (ASD) . sMrab;eBlfμI²enH viFIEdleKTTYlsÁal;fa CakarKitbøg; edayQrelIktþaPaBFn; nigbnÞúk (load and resistance factor design) (LRFD) RtUv)aneKykmkeRbI eRBaHvaGnuBaØatidl;karKitEdlRbkbedayvicarNBaØaNCag. va)anRbmUlnUvlkçxNнénbnÞúkEdl GacnwgekItman (probability of loading condition) nigsißtiénPaBéRbRbYlénPaBFn;nwgkMlaMg (statistical variation in the strength) b¤ smtßPaBénPaBFn; (resistance capability) b¤sMPar³énmuxtMN nigeRKOgbgÁúM. kareRbIR)as;nUvviFI LRFD pþl;nUvkarsnSMsMécsMPar³ CaTUeTAmantMélBI 15 eTA20° nig sMrab;eRKagbgÁúMFM² EpñkxøH)anbgðaj[eXIjnUvkarsnSMsMécrhUtdl; 25°. CaTUeTAkarsnSMsMéc nUvTMgn;xagelI KW)ann½yfakarcMNayGs;ticCagsMrab;eRKagbgÁúMEdk. eTaHCay:agNak¾eday elIkElgcMeBaH eRKagbgÁúMxañtFM enAeBlEdlktþaénkareRbIR)as; (servicability) dUcCaPaBdab (deflection) nig rMj½r (vibration) RtUv)anykmkKitsMrab;eRKOgbgÁúMmYy² enaHkarsnSMsMécFmμta tamviFI LRFD Tl;nwgviFI ASD emIleTAxusKñaRbEhlCa 5°b:ueNÑaH. Construction General - 64 -
  • 65. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 1>1 eKalkarN_sMrab; ASD nig LRFD BASED FOR ASD AND LRFD ASD KWQrelIRTwsþI elastic . karKwtbøg;Edl)ankMrit stress GtibrmaenAelIeRKOgbgÁúMKWRtUv )anGnuBaØatiedIm,IRTnUvkMritbnÞúkEdleRbIR)as; EdlkMNt;edaykarvinicä½yb:uEnþQrelIbTBiesaFn_ktþa suvtßiPaB. kUdsMNg;)anbegáIteLIgnUvÉktþa stress GnueRKaHEdlmanTMnak;TMngCaFmμtaeTAnwg Yield Stress Gb,brimasMrab;cMNat;fñak;énRbePTnimYy² . Plastic Design KWQrelIeKalkarN_PaBFn;énkMlaMgFM bMputéneRKOgbgÁúM. ebIeRbobeFobeTAnwgkarbegáIteLIgsMrab; Elastic Design ktþasuvtßiPaBRtUv)an eRbIsMrab;karKitbnÞúkedIm,I kMNt;nUvbnÞúkx<s;bMput (Ultimate Load) EdleRKOgbgÁúM GacmansmtßPaBRTrYc. LRFD KWQrelIeKalkarN_rebobKit EdlKμansPaBkMNt;Gnuvtþ)an (applicable limit state) KYrEtelIsenAeBleRKagbgÁúM b¤eRKOgbgÁúMNamYy b¤EpñkNamYyCaRbFanbTsMrab;bnSMénktþa bnÞúkd¾smrmü. Limit State KWCalkçxNнEdleRKagbgÁúM b¤smasPaBéneRKOgbgÁúMkøayeTACaminman smtßPaBrbs; Structural service Edlmanv½ykan;EtcMNas;. eRKOgbgÁúMGacman Limit State CaeRcInRbePT. Strength Limit State Tak;TgeTAnwg smtßPaBénkarTTYlbnÞúkGtibrma. Serviceability limit state Tak;TgeTAnwgkarRbRBwtþeRkamlkçxNн service FmμtaedayeKarBktþaPaBdab nigrMj½r xagelI. esovePAlMGitbec©keTssMrab;karKitbøg; (design specification) )anbegáIteLIgnUvktþabnÞúk edIm,IeRbIeTAelIRbePTén Service Load nimYy² dUcCabnÞúk pÞal;xøÜn (Dead Load) bnÞúkxageRkA (Live Load) nigkMlaMgxül; (Wind load) tMélénktþa KWGaRs½yeTAnwgbnSMénbnÞúkBiess Edldak; eTAelIeRKagbgÁúM. AISC “Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Building” tMrUv[eRKagbgÁúM rWeRKagbgÁúMpÞal;xøÜnrbs;vanimYy² minRtUvelIseBk. sMrab; Strength Limit State nimYy² karKitPaBFn;énkMlaMgKW begáItnUvPaBFn;énkMlaMgFmμta nigktþaénPaBFn; ø Casmtßkmμ sMrab; esovePAlMGitbec©keTs (Specification) . eday)anTajykCamYyénbMerIbMras;énRTwsþI Probability ø pþl;nUvkMritsuvtßiPaBbEnßmsMrab; limit state EdlRtUveFVIkartamdanGegát. PaBFn;énkMlaMgFmμta (norminal strength) éneRKOgbgÁúM GaRs½ynwglkçN³erxaKNit Yield b¤ Ultimae strength nig RbePTénbnÞúkEdlvaRtUvts‘UdUcCa kMlaMgTaj kMlaMgsgát; b¤kMlaMg Flexure. esovePAlMGitbec©keTsén AISC LRFD GnuBaØati[karviPaKeRKagsMNg;QrelIlkçN³ Elastic b¤ Plastic. CaTUeTA RTwsþIbT elastic RtUv)aneRbIR)as;PaKeRcIn. RTwsþIbT Plastic RtUv)an Construction General - 65 -
  • 66. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC ykeTAeRbIR)as;sMrab;eRKagbgÁúMsμúKsμaj ynþkarEdlGacGnuvtþ)anTaMgGs;EdlGacbegáItenAkñúg eRKagbgÁúMsμúKsμaj ynþkar)ak;Rsut KWCaynþkarmYytMrUv[bnÞúkRsalCageK sMrab;kar)ak;Rsut ekIteLIg. eKGacrk)ankmμviFIkuMBüÚT½rCaeRcInsMrab;viPaK nigKitbøg;éneRKOgbgÁúM b¤eRKagbgÁúM. Rbsin ebITinñplEdlRtUvbBa©ÚlBN’nanUveRKagbgÁúM nigbnÞúk)anRtwmRtUv enaHTinñplénkmμviFIenHPaKeRcIn pþl;nUvkarKitbøg;)any:agelOnnig RtwmRtUv. sMrab;eRKagbgÁMúsaMjauM eKKYrRbugRby½tñkñúgkar eRbIR)as;kmμviFIkuMBüÚTr½edIm,IRtYtBinitülT§pl edIm,IFanafavaBitCasmehtusmpl RbsinebIkar bBa©Úl Tinñn½ymankMhusqÁgd¾sMebImenaH vamingayRsYlkñúgkarEsVgrkeT. RbsinebIkmμviFIenaH Gace)aHBum<nUv rUbsNæan énbnÞúkenAelIeRKagbgÁúMedayQrelITinñn½yEdleGay kare)aHBum<RtUv)aneRbIsMrab;RtYtBinitü dUcCakarmin)anbBa©ÚleRKOgbgÁúM b¤kMhusqÁgepSgeTot enAkñúgTinñn½yEdlTak;TgKñaGacyl;y:aggayBI RkdasEdl)ane)aHBum<. 1>2 CMnYyénkarKitbøg; nigesckþIeyag Design Aids and References dMeNIrkarénkarKitbøg;edayeRbI esovePAlMGitbec©keTs ASD b¤ LRFD tMrUveGayeRbIR)as; tMélelxCaeRcIn EdlsMEdgnUvlkçN³énmuxkat;énTMrg;xøÜnvanimYy² b¤bnÞHeRkamkarKit. eragcRk ]sSahkmμ)anbegáItnUvesovePA énTMrg;CaeRcInedIm,Ipþl;[GñkKitbøg;nUvBt’mand¾manRbeyaCn_. 1>3 eRKOgbgÁúMrgnUvkMlaMgTay Tension member vaKWCa smamaRtEdlRklaépÞTaMgGs; nigRklaépÞsuT§ (gross and net area) manTMhMFM RKb;RKan;edIm,IFn;eTA nwgbnÞúkEdldak;elIva. lkçN³sMrab;kMNt;RklaépÞsuT§éneRKOgbgÁúMrgnUv kMlaMgTajCamYynwg rn§eLasuIvamalkçN³RsedogKñanwg ASD nig LRFD. kñúgkarkMNt;RklaépÞsuT§ TMhM TTwgenrn§eLasuI KYrRtUvyk[FMCa 1¼16 BIelITMhMFmμtaénrn§ eTAnwg TisedAén Stress . eTaHbICamuxkat;TaMgGs;rbs;eRKOgbgÁúMrgnUvkMlaMgTajEdlKμanrn§Rbehag KYryktam TisedAénRklatUc CageKEdl kat;tamCYr NamYyénrn§RbehagEdlkat;tamTTwgéneRKOgbgÁúM. dUcenHépÞRklasuT§ GacRtUvqøg kat;tamCYrénrn§ EdlsßitenAelIbøg;FmμtaeTAtamTisedaén Stress b¤ tamrn§beNþayGgát;RTUgénbnÞat; Zigang. muxkat;suT§sMrab;eRKOgbgÁúMEdlmanCYrrn§bnøaytamGgát;RTUg b¤bnÞat; Zigzag KWCaplKuN énTTwgsuT§nigkMras;. edIm,IkMNt;TTwgsuT§ KW)anBIkardkTTwgTaMgGs; nigplbUkénGgát;p©it én Construction General - 66 -
  • 67. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC rn§TaMgGs;kñúgCYr bnÞab;mkbUkbEnßm Gage Space énCYrEdlmanbrimaN S /4g Edl S= KMlattam 2 ry³beNþay (pitch in) énrn§BIrt²Kña nig g KWCaKMlattamry³TTwg (Gage, in) énrn§BIrdUcKña. muxkat;suT§EdlKYreGay)armÖ (critical net section) éneRKOgbgÁúMKW)anmkBICYrEdlmanTTwg suT§tUcCageK. enAeBleRKOgbgÁúMman Stress cMGkS½rgnUvkMlaMgTaj KWCaRbFanbTénkarbMElg bnÞúkminÉksNæan BIeRBaHtMNrtameLasuIeTAnwgmuxkat; énEpñkxøHEtb:ueNÑaH dUcCakñúgkrNITMrg; W, M rW S EdlP¢ab;EtÉgeedayeLasuItam Flange muxkat;suT§KYrEtkat;bnßydUcxageRkam 10° RbsinebITTwg Flange tUcCag 2¼3 CMerAénFñwm nigy:agticRtUvmansMPar³P¢ab;3 tambeNþay bnÞat; Stress 10° EdrsMrab;RTnab;eRKagbgÁúMEdl)anBIkarkat;tamTMrgxagelI 15° sMrab;TMrg; edImxøHEdlminmanlkçN³dUcxagelIenH nigsMrab;TMrg;epSgeTotEdlmansMPar³P¢ab;y:agtic3kñúg CYr Stress nig 25° sMrab;RKb;eRKOgbgÁúMEdlmanEtsMPar³P¢ab; 2kñúgCYr Stress. 1>4 ssr Column ktþaCaeKalkarN_Edl manT§iBldl;eRKOgbgÁúMEdlrgnUvkMlaMgsgát; KWman overall column buckling nigépÞRklamuxkat;TaMgGs; (Gross Section Area) .T§iBlén overall column buckling GaRs½ynwgpleFob Slenderness K1/ Edl K/KWCaRbEvg effective énssrKitCa In, L KW CaRbEvg Unbraced nig r KWCaRbEvgkaM r gyration tUcCageKénmuxkat;KitCa in. T§iBlén Local buckling GaRs½ynwgpleFobénTTwgnig kMras;énmuxkat;éneRKOgbgÁúM. TMrg; W EdlmanCMerABI 8/ 10/12/ nig 14 in RtUv)aneKeRbIR)as;TUeTAeRcInCageKsMrab;ssrGaKar nig eRKOgbgÁúMrgkMlaMg sgát;epSgeTot. sMrab;eRKOgbgÁúMrgnUvkMlaMgsgát;KμanCnÞl; TMrg;EdlmansmtßPaBCageK KWCaTMrg; EdlmantMél r y cMeBaHGkS½tUcCageK nigtMél r cMeBaHGkS½FMCageK. sMrab;muxkat;EdlekIneLIg bnþicmþg² x RtUv)aneRbICaeRKOgbgÁúMrgkMlaMgsgát; EpñkEdlcUlrYm kñúgEpñkCaeKalEdlrgbnÞúkdUcCa karcgr)arKYrmansmtßPaBkat;pþac;y:agtic 2°énbnÞúktamGkS½. RbEvgssr effective Affectivity column length rUbmnþGnuvtþn_d¾RtwmRtUvsMrab;smtßPaBssr sMrab; ASD b¤ LRFD GaRs½ynwgkareRCIs erIstMél K d¾RtwmRtUv. GkS½enHmanGtßn½yfa CapleFobénRbEvgssr effective eTAnwgRbEvg KμanCnÞl;BitR)akd (actual unbraced length) . sMrab;ssr pin-ended EdlmanclnabMlas;TIxag cugRtUvkarBar K=1 .b:uEnþCaTUeTA K GacFMCag b¤tUcCag 1Éktþa. ]TahrN_ BinitüemIlssrkñúg eRKagbgÁúMkñúgrUb 4-1 Construction General - 67 -
  • 68. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC vaGaRs½yTaMgRsugeTAnwgPaBrwgpÞal;xøÜnva sMrab;lMnwgRbqaMgnwgcMehogxøÜn. RbsinebIbnÞúkcMGkS½ manGMeBIMelIvaRKb;RKan; RbEvg effective rbs;vanwgelIsRbEvgBitR)akdrbs;va. b:uEnþRbsinebIeRKagbgÁúM RtUv)anTl;karBarcMehogxøÜn RbEvg effective RtUvEttUcCagRbEvgBitR)akd BIeRBaHPaBFn;énbgVil xagcugpþl;eGayeday girder . rUb 4-1 rUbragéneRKOgbgÁúMéneRKagrwgbNþalmkBIcMehogxøÜn tMélK tamRTwsþIsMrab;lkçxN½ÐRbkbedaysuRkitPaB 6EbbEdlmantMNbgVil nigbMlas;TIenA cugTaMgsgxag b¤k¾Kμan)anbgðajkñúgrUb 4-2. Construction General - 68 -
  • 69. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC rUb 4-2 tMélRbEvgssr effective K sMrab;lkçxNнRbkbedaysuRkwtPaB karkt;cMNaMtMélpgEdrRtUv)anENnaM edayRkumRbwkSaRsavRCavssrsMrab;eRbIR)as;enAkñúgkarKit bøg;enAeBl lkçxNн TaMgenHmantMélRbhak;RbEhl. enAeBlEdlmuxtMNmanPaBrwgmaMRtUv)an TTYleBjeljedaykMr tMélénkarKitbøg;mantMélFMCag tamRTwsþIbnþic RtUv)anpþl;sMrab;ssr EdlmancugrwgmaM. esovePAlMGit bec©keTs (Specification) min)anpþl;nUvlkçN³sMrab;PaBFn; cMehogxøÜn eRkambnÞúkbBaÄrBIeRBaHvamin GacvaytMél)anRtwmRtUvnUvPaBrwgmaMénsmasPaBepSg énsMNg;GaKar. pÞúyeTAvijesovePAlMGit bec©keTs sMGageTAelIlkçxN½ÐTUeTAEdlFøab;man bTBiesaFn_Bimux KWCakarRKb;RKan;. 1>5 Fñwm Beam FñwmRtUv)ancat;TukCa compact RtUv)anGnuBaØaticMeBaH bending Stress KitCa Ksi Edl F =0.66f b y sMrab;épÞcugbMputTaMgsgxagsMrab;kMlaMgTaj nigkMlaMgsgát;Edl F KWCa Yield Stress KitCa ksi. y eRKOgbgÁúMxagelIEdlmanGkS½suIemRTIeTAnwgbøg;énbnÞúk flange EdlrgnUvkMlaMgsgát; RtUv)anTl;y:agRKb;RKan;edIm,IkarBarnwgkarbMlas;TIxag ehIyva)anbegáInnUvm:Um:g; Plastic eBj elj (section modulus KuNnwg yield stress) munnwgekag (buckling) . Construction General - 69 -
  • 70. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 1>6 Plater girders Plater girders GacmanTaMgCaTMrg;RbGb; b¤TMrg;GkS I. smasPaKcMbgKW Plate b¤ Plate nigmuM RtUv)antMerob Edlbøg;BMnuHkat;TTwgKWsuIemRTIeTal b¤TaMgKUr. CaTUeTAEpñknimYy²RtUv)ant P¢ab;edaykarpSay:agCab;bnþKña. sMrab;sMNg;EdlmanRsab; kartP¢ab;GaceFVIeLIgedayrIev b¤b‘ULúgkat; plate nigmuM. rUb 4-3 BN’naBI girder RbePTTMrg;GkSr I. Plate girders RtUv)aneRbICaTUeTAsMrab; ElVgEvg EdlvacMNayGs;luyticCag rolled TMrg; GkSr W b¤kEnøgEdleRKOgbgÁúMtMrUveGayman web esþIg b¤CMerAFMCagGVIEdl rolled TMrg;GkSr W man. rUb 4-3 Plate Construction General - 70 -
  • 71. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 2> karksagsMNg;Edk Steel erection karyl;[)anc,as;BIGIVEdlGñkplit[ nigGVIEdleKminpþl;[dl;Gñksagsg;CaTUeTA sMrab;kic©snüa plit KWGacehAsMrab;EtkardwkCBa©ÚnEtb:ueNÑaH vaCaerOgsMxan; ehIy]bmaEdkEdl)anplit eKTijedayQr elIkar dwkdl;TIkEnøgCamUldæanb:ueNÑaH. karpþl;[enAkñúgkic©snüasagsg;)aneFVICaelxkUd CaEpñkénkic©snüaEdlRtUv)aneRbI CaerOy² enAeBlEdlkarbegáItCaTUeTAenaH)anTTYlkaryl;RBm nigyl;y:agc,as;BIkMritbnÞab; rvagGVIEdlpþl;[nwg GVIEdlmin)anpþl;[enAkñúgkic©snüa. karxVHxatdUcCakarpþl;[ kic©snüa edIm,Iecosvag karyl;RclM enAeBleRkayRtUvEtrab;eGay)anlMGitfaetI vaCaPar³kic©rbs;PaKI NamYysMrab;kic©snüa. eRkamelxkUd nigy:agehacNas;k¾manehAbBa¢ak;y:agc,as;sMrab; Éksarkic©snüa dUcCa bg¥ÜcEdk (steel sash) EdksnøwkdMbUlpñt; b¤EdksnøwkCBa¢aMg nigEdkrnUt openweb nigEpñkRsedogKña eTaHRbsinebIvaeFVIBIEdk nigmanbgðajkñúgbøg;kic©snüak¾edayk¾vamin RtUv)anrab;bBa©ÚlkñúgRbePTeRKagsMNg;EdkeT. dUcKñasMrab; RbePTeRKagTVarRtUv)andkecjeTaHbI eFVIBITMrg;eRKagbgÁúMk¾eday RbsinebIvaminP¢ab;eTAnwg eRKagbgÁúM tamviFI edIm,IsMrbsMrYlCamYynwg ¬CaEpñkéneRKagEdk¦. mü:agvijeTotFñwmLaMgtU Edldac;EtÉg EdlbgðajenAelI bøg; b¤enAelI kmμviFIdac;edayELkRtUv)anrab;bBa©Úl. Construction General - 71 -
  • 72. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC rUb 4-4 karpSatMNssr tamry³elxkUd plitkr)anpþl;CamYynwgeRKagbgÁúMEdk sMrab;sagsg;edayGñkNamñak; enaHnUv b‘ULúg EdltMrUvsMrab;P¢ab;eTAnwgEdk. eTaHCay:agNak¾eday plitkrmin)anpþl;[eTnUv ral;sMPar³xageRkam elIkElgEtmankarbBa¢ak;y:agc,as;enAkñúg lixitGeBa¢Ij [edjéfø rYmman Slim, Fitting –up bolt, drift pins, temporary cable FUbpSa b¤EdkbnÞHkMritkMBs;y:agesþIgsMrab;)at sesr. elxkUdk¾)ancg¥úlbgðajpgEdr BIkarGnuvtþkarsagsg;. ]TahrN_ Gñksagsg;kuMlabfñaM BIelIk,aleLasuI field weld b¤Ekkunkarrlat;RTnab;Edk b¤GnuvtþnUvkarlabfñaMepSgeTot elIkElg EtmankartMrUvkarbgðajy:agc,as;EdlmanCamYynwgkarGeBa¢IjeGayedjéfø. Construction General - 72 -
  • 73. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 2>1 ]bkrN_énkarsagsg; Erection Equipment RbsinebImanbMEbkCasklén]bkrN_sagsg; vaKWCa]bkrN_sÞÚceyag (crane) .vaRtUv )andak;elIkg; b¤ tractor thread vaGaccl½t)an TaMgenAkñúgkardæan nigcl½tBIkardæanmYyeTAkardæan mYyeTot. edayesckþIRbtibtþi RKb;sMNg;GaKarRtUv)ansagsg;edayeRbI]bkrN_sÞÚceyagd¾man RbsiT§PaBenH. CakarBitNas;mankarelIkElgcMeBaHGaKarx<s;² (Skyscraper) EdlmankMBs;x<s;Cag kMBs;]bkrN_sÞÚceyag. edayRbtibtþim:asuInsÞÚcenAnwgkMritkMBs;pÞal;dI ]bkrN_sÞÚceyagRtUv)an eRbIedIm,Isagsg;GaKarmankMBs;RbEvg20Can; kMBs;GtibrmaGaRs½yeTAnwgRbEvgéndgsÞÚc nig TTwgGaKar. Guy Derrick KWCa]bkrN_sÞÚceyagEdleKeRbIR)as;sMrab;sagsg;GaKarx<s;² y:agTUlM TUlay. GtßRbeyaCn_d¾cMbgrbs;va KWCakardak;Can;elIKña y:aggayRsYlkñúgdMeNIrkarsagsg;BI eRkameLIgelI. dgsnÞÚcnig dgekþagmanTItaMgpÞúyKña ehIyGacbt;EbnedIm,IelIksMPar³epSgeTot vaRtUvkarry³eBl 2em:agedIm,Idak;Can;Kña )ankMBs;2Can;. Stiff-leg derrick nig gin poles KWCa ]bkrN_sÞÚceyag2 epSgeTot EdlCYnkal RtUv)aneRbIR)as;TUeTAedIm,ICMnYydl;]bkrN_sÞÚceyag (crane) nig guy derrick . Gin poles KWCa]bkrN_sÞÚceyagFmμtaCageK nwgmandgsÞÚceRbIExS eyagy:agsmBaØ. kMral)atrbs;vaRtUvEtman karFanaedaysarEteRKaHfñak;edaysarkarFøak;ecj. ]bkrN_enHmanRbeyaCn_sMrab;elIkdak;sMPar³bnÞab;b nSMsMrab;edaHruHerI nigeFVIeGay]bkrN_sÞÚc eyagFM² kan;EtTabeLIg² nigsMrab;sagsg;sMNg;EdkRsalEdlkareRbIR)as;]bkrN_sÞÚceyag Crane minGac eRbIR)as;)an. ]bkrN_sÞÚceyag Stiff-leg derrick KWmanRbsiT§iPaBCageK EdleKGactMeLIgvasMrab; ry³eBlyUrGEgVg. vaRtUv)aneKeRbIR)as;edIm,Isagsg;sMNg;GaKareRcInCan; b:uEnþminsUvman RbCaRbiyPaB BIeRBaHeKtMrUvkarelIkbnþúbCaCan;² kñúgry³eBlyUr. eKalkarN_cMbgEdleKeRbI R)as; ]bkrN_sÞÚceyag stiff-leg KW ¬1¦ elIkEdkecjBIreTHrujelIpøÚvEdkdak;elILandwk ¬2¦ pÞúknwgdak;tamRbePTsMPar³ nwg¬3¦ enAeBldak;elIdMbUlrabesμI nigelIkEdkeTAkan;kMritkMBs;dMbUl CaTIkEnøgEdlGacEjk nigdak;eday]bkrN_ guy derrick nimYy². ]bkrN_elIkdak;EdlRtUvkarry³eBldak;bnÞúkelIKñaCaCan;² ry³ticKWsMrab;RbePT ]bkrN_elIkdak; Crane dak;elIEdkGaKarx<s;RbePTRbGb; (steel box type tower) RbEhlkMBs;bI Can; Edldak;enABIxagkñúgRbelaHm:asuIneyagb¤ RbelaHRsedogKñaenHsMrab;sagsgEdk. ]bkrN_sÞÚceyag Construction General - 73 -
  • 74. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC Tower crane TaMgenHKWRtUv)aneyageLIgelIy:agsmBaØedaysMBaF Hydaulic b¤edayExSkabEdlman kagarsagsg; GMBIEdlsMrab;CadgTMrg. sMrab;viFId¾éTeTot ]bkrN_sÞÚceyag stiff-leg derrick RtUv)andak; enAelII trusse rabesμI nigeKagenAelIssrBIr b¤eRcIn nigfamBlEdlGacQandl;kar sagsg;ssrxageRkA. CabEnßmsMrab;GtßRbeyaCn_énkarelIdak;bnþúbelIKña )any:agelOnCagmun viFIenHGnuBaØati[dMeNIr karsagsg; Edk)ankan;Etx<s;kan;Etqab;. 2>2 RbeLaHkñúgkarsagsg;Fñwm Clearance for erecting beams GñkKitbøg;RtUvEtpþl;nUvRbelaHRKb;RKan;pgEdr sMrab;RKb;eRKOgbgÁúMTaMgGs;EdlGnuBaØati [kar sagsg;Kμan karRbeRCotCamYynwgEdkEdl)ansagsg;mun. GñkKUrKMnUrsMrab;kargarEtgEt erobcMy:ag lMGitEdl eRKOgbgÁúMGacdak;cUleTAkñúgTItaMgcugeRkayrbs;va edayGacGgáileRKOgbgÁúM EdleyIgGact P¢ab;vaeTA nwgTItaMgcugeRkay. rUb]TahrN_xageRkambgðajBIlkçxN½ÐEdlCYbRbTH jwbjab;CageK kñúgkargarsagsg;sMNg;GaKar³ rUb 4-5 karsagsg;edayTukRbeLaHsMrab;Fñwm sMrab;eRKagbgÁúMtMNFñwm ¬rUb 4-5¦ cMgayCagbnþicBIcugmçag eTAcugmçagéntMNEkg (B-½ in) ebIeRbobeFobCamYynwgcMgayQmmuxKña rvageRKOgbgÁúMTMr CaTUeTARtUv)anpþl;RKb;RKan;edIm,Iruj bBa©ÚlkñúgTItaMgcugeRkay. eTaHCay:agNak¾eday yUr²mþedaysarFñwmmanRbEvgxøI b¤FñwmmantMN EkgrwgEdlmaneCIgTUlayd¾l¥RtUv)antMrUv RbEvgGgát;RTUgEtmYyeLasuIpÞúM² eTAnwgeRKagFñwmedIm,I GnuBaØtidl;karruHerIvakñúgkarsagsg;. dMeNaHRsaydéTeTot RtUv)aneRbIsMrab;P¢ab;CaGcié®nþy_eTA Construction General - 74 -
  • 75. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC elImuxtMNEkg énKUrmçag² eTAnwg web énFñwmTMr nigmYleLasuIbeNþaHGasnñeTAnwgEkgepSgeTot én Web sMrab;pÁúMdUcbgðajkñúgrUb 4-6. rUb4-6 viFId¾éTeTotsMrab;pþl;RbeLaHkñúgkarsasg; FñwmKYrRtUv)anGegátsMrab;RbeLaHsMrab;kardak;eLasuItMNEkgGcié®nþy_BImun. eKKYrmankarRbug Rby½tñcMeBaHPaBRbeRCotKñakñúgkardak;sMPar³P¢ab; énFñwmeTAnwgTIkEnøg enAeBlEdleRKOgbgÁúMTMr KW plate girder . ]TahrN_epSgeTotKW sMrab;FwñmEdldak;eKagelIssr web ¬rUb 4-7¦. CMhanTI1KWruHelI EkgxagelIeK nigbnÞH shim beNþaHGasnñecj. bnÞab;mkenAeBlEdl derrick cgBüÜredayExS reyag FñwmRtUvTajbnþwgcugmçageTAnwgCayéncug flange bnÞab;BIvabgVilRtlb;mkTItaMgedkehIy dak;enAelIbgÁúy. RbEvgGgát;RTUgFMCageK G énFñwm KYrmanRbEvg ⅛ in tUcCagcMgay F cenøaHmux QmKñaénssr Web .vak¾RtUvEtXøatecjBI]bsKÁxagelI ]TahrN_ RbEvg G RtUvEtesμI b¤tUcCa RbEvg C b¤karlMGitBI]bsKÁRtUvEtbBa©Úlb‘ULúgsMrab;karruHerIbeNþaHGasnñ. Construction General - 75 -
  • 76. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC rUb 4-7 RbeLaHsMrab;Fñwmdak;elItMNssr Web edIm,IGnuBaØatisMrab;karRbeRCotcUl)an RbEvg L rbs;FñwmKYrRtUvtUcCagRbEvglMGitE eday tMély:agticEdlGnuBaØatidl;karkat;tMélGnueRKaH. Cajwkjab; ]bsKÁsMrab;tMNFñwmxagelIGac CakarlMGiténmuxtMNrssr. vaGaccaM)ac;cgP¢ab;eTAnwgmuxtMNénssr Web .sMPar³enAxag eRkamcugénxagelIbMputrbs;dgbgVil RbsinebIsagsg;Fñwmmunnwgsagsg;ssrsMrab;Can;xagelI. Construction General - 76 -
  • 77. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 2>3 lMdab;énkarsagsg; Erection sequence karbBa¢asMrab;karplit nigdwkCBa¢ÚnEdkeTAdl;TIkEnøgsagsg;RtUvmanEpnkarCamunedIm,I kuMeGayman karb:HTgÁicCamYynwg viFIb¤eBlevlasagsg;rbs;GñksMNg;. ]TahrN_RbsinebIEdk RtUv)ansagsg;eday ]bkrN_sÞÚceyag derrick TItaMgRbhak;RbEhlRtUv)ankMNt;BIkartMeLIg sMrab;dak;]bkrN_sÞÚceyag b¤CaEpñk eTAkñúgeRKagbgÁúMTaMgmUl RtUvEtbMEbkedIm,IerobcMeGayman rebob. enAeBlEdlrt;eLIg) andwkCBa¢ÚneTAdl;kardæansMrab;TItaMgEdl)ankMNt;BImuneKRtUverob cMEpnkard¾smrmü edIm,Ikat;bnßykargar EdltRbeyaCn_. Bt’manGacRtUvbgðajeTA[bnÞb; Gñk KUrKMnUr EdlkartMeLIgGacRtUvbgðajenAelIbøg; sagsg;ng bgðajenAelIbBa¢IénsMPar³. srab;kar sagsg; i CamYyGaKareRcInCan;eday guy derrick karGnuvtþn_KWkarelIknig dak;RKb;ssrsMrab;Can; nImYy² dMbUgFñwmkat;ElVg nigCBa¢aMgTl;bnÞb; ehIyFñwmkñúgnig CBa¢aMgTl;bnÞb; ehIyFñwmkñúgCamYy nwgFñwmbMeBj cugeRkayeKbg¥s;. bBa¢ak;[kan;Etc,as; karsagsg; RtUvcab;epþImedayElVgEdl enAq¶ayBI]bkrN_sÞÚceyagcUlmkkan;Etekok]bkrN_sÞÚceyag rhUtTal;Et)an biTCit. bnÞab; mk]bkrN_sÞÚceyagRtUv)andak;bnþúb rhUtdl;kMBUledayGnuvtþRcMEdlsMrab;Can;eRkay². Ca TUeTACan;cugkMBUleKRtUvRkalkþaBIelIedIm,ITTYl)annUvkMraskargarrabesμIsMrab;Gñksagsg; nig edIm,Iman lT§PaB karBarCMnajkargarEdlenABIeRkam. eTaHCay:agNak¾eday munnwg]bkrN_sÞÚc eyagRtUv)andak; bnÞúbbnþ kþabnÞH RCugRtUv)anRbeyal[Rtg; RsedogKña enAeBlkþabnÞHRtUv)an sagsg;katGaKar ExSkabRtUv )ancgbnþwgedIm,IRbeyaleRKagsMNg;. 2>4 dMeNIrkarpSar Field –Welding muxgarcMbgénlMdab;énkarpSarKW karRtYtRtanUvkarxUcrUbragEdlbNþalmkBIT§iBlén karkMedApSar. CaTUeTAkMedAd¾ekþAEdlpþl;[kñúgry³eBld¾xøI)anbNþal[xUcRTg;RTayy:agxøaMg. dUcenHvaEtgEteFVIeTA)ansMrab;muxtMNFM² edIm,IpSartamlMdab; CamYynwgeBlRKb;RKan;cenøaHral; lMdab;nimYy² edIm,IFananUvkareFVIeGayEbkExVkénkMedAsBV elIkElgcMeBaHkMedAEdlRtUvkaredIm,I b®gÁb;sItuNðPaB Interpass- temperature. sarsMxan;esμIKña ehIyRbEhlmanT§iBlCagBITsSn³ rbs;Gñksagsg; KWCaviFIEdldak;[manPaBesμIKña nUvkMedAbBa©ÚlkñúglkçN³Edlcg;e)aHbg;ecalnUv T§iBlvibtþirUb. pSarBIelI Flang mYyénssr)aneFVI[ssrmanlkçN³Ggáaj;² enAEpñkxageday Construction General - 77 -
  • 78. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC sarEtPaBrYjmaDén Stress. karGnuvtþn_d¾RbesIrCagsMrab;tMNFñwm enAelIépÞsgxagénssrKWpSar tMNépÞpÞúyKñaRBmKña. dUcenHPaBrYjmaDén flang nimYy²KWrkSalMnwg nigrkSassrmanPaBRtg;. RbsinebIkarpSarRBm²Kña minGaceFVIeTA)an bnÞab;mkdMeNIrkarpSarKWeFVIedaylMdab;. RbEhl60°énkarpSarRtUv)aneFVisMrab;FñwmTI1 bnÞab;mkmuxtMNenAelIépÞpÞúyKñaGacnwgRtUvpSar eGay)ansBVRKb;CabBa©b; karpSarenAelIFñwmTI1GacRtUvb®gÁb;. dMeNIrkarenHGacbnßynUvvibtþirUb )any:agRbesIr. tambTBiesaFn_ )anbgðaj[eXIjfa karGnuvtþn_d¾l¥kñúgkarpSarKWcab;epþImBI kNþal b¤CitTIkNþalrYcpSarecjmkxag. ssrKYrRtUv)anBinitüfa jwbjab;sMrab;CYrQr BIeRBaH PaBrYjmaDénTwkbnSaGacnwgeFVI[cMgayrvagssrkan;EtxøI. eTaHbICakarpøas;bþÚrTMhMénmuxtMNr nimYy² mantMéltUcEmnETnk¾eday k¾vaGacRbmUlpþúMKñaCabrimaNKYreGayCMTas;sMrab;CYredky:ag Evgénssr. viFImYysMrab;kat;bnßy vibtþirUbKWGnuBaØati[PaBrYjmaDenARKb;muxtMN 1¼16 sMrab; ElVg 20 ft edayTaj[twg b¤latenAelIssr. dUcenH karlat ⅛ in sMrab;cugTaMgBIrénFñwmEdlman Flange pSarTl;eTAnwgssrGacnwg sagsg;enAkñúgsib,kmμ ]TahrN_edayBRgIkKMlaténrn§eLasuIsMrab;Fñwm)at Flange. eTaHCay:ag NakarRtYtBinitü KWedayExSlYsrhUtdl;RKb;cMnucTaMgGs;RtUv)anpSar. kareFVIeGaykan;EtxøIeLIg² énElVgGackøayeTACaxøaMgeLIg² sMrab;CYredkénssrEdlFñwm P¢ab;eTAnwgssr flange BIeRBaHkareFVIeGaykan;EtxøIedayPaBrYjmaDGacnwgpSMCamYynwgkarkinenA elICMerAénssr. CayUrmþg karbEnßmedIm,Ilatssr GaccaM)ac;edIm,IEktMrUvlkçxNнedaybEnßm EdkbnÞHbMeBj b¤erobcMedaykarpSarEdk. Construction General - 78 -
  • 79. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC rUb 4-8 karbgðajBIlMdab;énkarpSarmuxtMN GñkKitbøg;xøHéneRKagsMNg;edaysarkarpSarFM² cUlcitþ lMGitlMdab;karpSarsMrab;muxtMNnimYy². ]TahrN_enAelIKMeragmYy dMeNIrkarsMrab;muxtMN)an bgðajkñúgrUb 4-8 EdlehAfakarGnuvtþn_4Rbtibtþi b¤4 lMdab; ³ TI1 xagelIkMBUl 6in énkarpSar kat;pþac;edaymuxtMNQrRtUv)aneFVI TI2/ pSareTAelI flange xagelI/ TI3 pSaeTAelI flange xageRkam nigTI4pSarnUvkEnøgsl;sMrab;muxtMNQr. sItuNðPaBEdkRtUvTuk[eTA rksPaB Fmμtamunnwgcab;epþImdMNak;kalnImYy². KuNsm,tþimYyéndMeNIrenH KWRbeyaCn_én prestressing EdlTTYlenAkñúgkarpSarmuxtMN. Stress kMlaMgTajRtUv)anbegáInenAkñúg flange xageRkamenAeBl RtCak; stress kMlaMgsgát;énTMhMRsedogKña EdlCalT§pl)anBI Flange xagelI. enAeBl Stress TaMgenHpÞúyeTAnwgGVIEdlbegáItedaykMralbnÞúk stress énkarpSarKWmanRbeyaCn_sMrab;RTnUvkMral bnÞúk. sUm,IEtkarCMnYjplitGac)ankark¾eday vaminmanviFIyl;RBmsMrab; edaHRsayRbeyaCn_ énkarecaTRbkan; eTAkñúgkarKitbøg;tamEbbsnSMsMéc. karsagsg;eRKagsMNg;eRcInCan;eday]bkrN_ TMrBIelIkargarEdkdUcvaelIkedaydak; bnÞúksagsg; RbQmnwg stress nigPaBlUtrYj strain . lT§plénkMhUcRTg;RTayKYrKitenAkñúgrUbmnþ énkarpSarCalMdab;. Construction General - 79 -
  • 80. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC CMBUk V eRKOgbgÁMGMBIeQI nigsMPar³ WOOD STRUCTURE AND MATERIAL 3 Construction General - 80 -
  • 81. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 1> sMPar³ Material 1>1 lkçN³mUldæanrbs;eQI Basic Characteristic of Wood Gtßn½yEbøk² BIKñaCaeRcInGMBIeQIRtUv)anmkBIsMPar³sMNg;epSgeTot. rcnasm<½n§eka sikarrbs;va KWTTYlxusRtUveTAnwgkMritd¾sMebIménPaBxusEbøkKña enH. edaysarEtrcnasm<½n§enH lkçN³ rcnasm<½n§GaRs½yeTAnwgTisedAénsés eQI. enAeBlEdlrcnasm<½n§énsmÖar³KWCa isotropic Edl lkçN³esÞIrEtdUcKñaenARKb;TisedA eQImanTisedAsréscMbgbIKW tamry³beNþay (Longitudina) tamry³CakaM (radial) nigtamry³pudæerxa (tangential). bnÞúkEdlpþl;[tamTisedA beNþay KWsMedA elIbnÞúkEdlRsbeTAnwg sréseQIcMENkÉbnÞúkkat;tam TTwg KWsMedAelIbnÞúk Edlkat;séseQI. eQImanPaBFn;nwgkMlaMg niglkçN³rwgCagtamry³beNþaysréseQI. PaBFn;nwgkMlaMg nig lkçN³rwmanlkçN³TabeRcInCagcMeBaHbnÞúkEdlkat;sréseQI. cMeBaHkat;sgát;eQITTYlbnÞúkRsbeTAnwgsréseQIKWxøaMgCag 6eTA10dgenAeBlvaTTYlbnÞúk EkgeTAnwg sréseQI. elIsBI enHeTotbgÁMeQImanm:UDúleGLassÞik (modulus of elasticity) 3EdlmanpleFobBIFMCag eKeTAtUc CageKedayTMhMKW 150³1. eQIrgnUvkarpøas;bþÚrTMhMBI PaBxusKñaEdlmanenAkñúgrcnasm<n½sMPar³. dUcCa eQIrIkmaDedaysarkMedA (thermal expansion) KWmantMéltUcNas;EdlmincaM)ac;cMeBaHkar eRbIR)as;TUeTA. eTaHCay:agNa Gtßn½yénkarpøasbþÚrTMhMRbRBwtþeTAedaykar)at;bg; b¤TTYl sMeNIm. karrIkmaD nigkarrYmmaDbNþalmkBIkarpøas;bþÚrsMeNImERbRbYleTAtamTisedAénsrés eQITaMg3³ karpøas;bþÚrTMhMTaMgenHKW 5eTA 10° tamTisedapudæerxa (tangential) 3eTA7° tam TisedArgVas;kaM (radial) b:uEnþmanEtBI 0>1 eTA 0>3°tamTisedAbeNþay (longitudinal) . eQIpþl;nUvsarRbeyaCn_y:ageRcInenAkñúgkarGnuvtþn_sMNg; rYmmankarkk;ekþA esaPN½ÐPaB PaBGacEkécñ)an PaByUrGEgVg PaBgayRsYleFVIkar tMélefakkñúgmYyepan pleFobrvagPaB Fn; nigTMgn;x<s; PaBmincMlgcrnþGKÁIsnI karcMlgkMedATab nigPaBFn;nwgkMlaMgd¾tex©aH enA sItuNðPaBTab.vamansmtßPaBkarBareRKOgqk;x<s;.vaGacRTaMRTl¥eTAnwgkarswkricril CaBiess enAcug bBa©b;énséseQI. vaGacbt;Ebn)any:aggayRsYledaymanTMnak;TMngeTAnwg]bkrN_ EkécñmutRsYc. fñaMlabbegðIyEdlRKbdNþb;elIvis½yCaeRcIn GacRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;tubEtglMG b¤ sMrab;eKalbMNgkarBar. eQIGacRtUv)aneRbITaMgkñúgkarGnuvtþn_s¶Ütnig esIm. fñaMlabkarBarrkSa sac;eQIGacRtUv)aneRbI Construction General - 81 -
  • 82. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC enAeBlcaM)ac;dUcCaBnüWtkareqH ¬minsmRsbsMrab;rab;plitpleQITaMg Gs;eT¦. vak¾mankareRCIserIs énlMdab;eRcIny:agEdlCalMdab;énlkçN³EtmYyKt;. CabEnßm RbBn½§eRKageQIeRcInEbbk¾Gacrk)an. bMNgénkareRbIR)as;eRKagTItaMg PUmisa®sþ tMrUvkarrUbrag tMél nigktþaepSg²xøHeTotkMNt;nUvRbB½n§bgÁMd¾l¥bMputsMrab;eRbIR)as;kñúg KMeragBiess². FmμCatirbs;eQIKWFn;eTAnwgKImIxøHEdleFVIeGaysMPar³xøHmaneRcHxøaMg. vaKWsMPar³ sMNg;Edll¥CageK kñúgkarFn;eTAnwgGasuItEdlminxøaMgCaBiess kñúgsItuNðPaBFmμta. vaFn;l¥ bMput eTAnwgGasuItxniCPaKeRcIn CaBiess GaesTic (acetic) . eTaHCay:agNa eKkMrykeQIeTA eRbICamYyl,ayEdlexSayCag Gal;kaLaMg. RbtikmμKImIedaykardak;laybBa©ÚlGuksuIEhSn nigGMbwlEdk sMrab;bnSMkñúglkçxNнsMeNIm RtUv)anecosvag. eQIRtUv)anpSMedaysarFatu cellulose RbEhlBI 50 eTA 70° lingin BI25 eTA 30° nig extractive 5° EdlticCagRbUetGuIn 2°. GasuItdUcCa GaesTic (acetic), formic, lactic nig boric min)anbegáItGuIy:ugRKb;RKan;enAkñúg bnÞb;sItuNðPaBedIm,IbMpøaj cellulose eT dUecñHehIymin)aneFVI[eQIxUcxateT. enAeBl PH én sUluysüúgGasuItexSay KW 2b¤eRcInCagenH pleFobén]Tskmμ ¬hydrolysis= karEjkykFatu Twk¦ BI cellulose KWtUc nigGaRs½yeTAnwgsuItuNðPaB. kar)a:n;sμanRbhak;RbEhlénT§iBlsItuNðPaB KWral;karekIneLIg20 F pleFob ]Tskmμ nwgekIneTVrdg. º GasuItEdlmantMél PH FMCag2 b¤)asEdlmantMél PH tUcCag 10 manT§iBlexSactictUc eTAelIeQIenAkñúgbnÞb;sItuNðPaB RbsinebIry³eBlénkareFVIRbtikmμenA cenøaHkNþal. karpþaMepJIrBIkarKit Design Recommendation xageRkamenHKW CakarpþaMepJIr kñúgeKalbMNgTTYlnuvkarKitRbkbedaykarsnSMsMécnUv eRKagbgÁMeQI ³ - eRbInUveQIGarEdlmanTMhM niglMdab;fñak;EdlCabTdæan. ykcitþTukdak;kñúgkareRbIR)as; CabTdæannUvsmasPaKeRKagbgÁM rYmmaneQIGar FñwmEdl)anBIbnSMeQIbnÞHedaybiTkav ¬stoc glue-laminated beam ¦ b¤eRKagbgÁMepSgeTotEdlKitsMrab;eRKagbgÁMeGaymanPaBRKb;RKan;man KuNPaB nigkarsnSMsMéc. - eRbInUvmuxtMNrtictYc nigsmBaØEdlGaceFVIeTA)an. dak;tMNenAeBlcaM)ac;enAkEnøg Edlman stress tUcCageKbMput. kuMdak;tMNenAkEnøgEdlmanm:Ub:g;kac;FM dUecñHecosvagnUvkarKit kartMeLIg karbegáIteLIgEdlmanPaBlM)ak. ecosvagkarpøas;bþÚrmuxkat;TTwgénbgÁMEdlmincaM )ac;tambeNþay RbEvgrbs;va. Construction General - 82 -
  • 83. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC - eRbInUvbTdæanlMGit enAkEnøgNaEdlGacRbRBwtþeTA)an ecosvagnUvkarKitCalkçN³ Biessnig karplitnUvmuxtMNeRKOgrwg. - eRbInUvkarKiteRKOgbgÁMdUcKña RcMdEdl²sMrab;eRKagbgÁMTaMgmUl enAeBlNaEdlGaceFVI eTA)an. rkSanUvelxénkartMerobEbøkKñaeGay)anGb,brima. bBa¢ak;nUvtMrUvkarénkarKit stress edIm,IGnuBaØatinUv lMdab;d¾TUlayénplitplEdlGac[ykmkeRbIsMrab;pþl;nUvsßanPaBénkarKit. - eRbInUvplitplKabeQI erobcMCamYynigkarrkSakarBar kEnøgEdllkçxN½ÐesvabBa¢a. karcaM)ac;énRbRBwtþkmμxagelIminRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;sac;eQIBuk b¤k¾stVl¥itkat;. karlabfñaMBnüWt GKÁIP½yGacRtUv)aneRbIedIm,IbRgÁb;nUvGRta specific flamespead sMrab;RsTab;begðIyEpñkxagkñúgb:uEnþ mincaM)ac;sMrab;eRKOgbgÁMEdlmanmuxkat;TTwgFM² Edldak;y:agTUlaynigmanPaBFn;nwg ePøIgBI FmμCatieday sarEtTMnak;TMngeTAnwgTMhMk¾FMrbs;va. - CMnYsnUvElVgsamBaØehIyEvg cUrBicarNaeRbIR)as;nUvElVgCab; b¤BüÜrb¤ElVgsmBaØEdlmandg BüÜrBIelI. cUreRCIserIsnUvlMdab;Edlbgðaj[eXIjEdll¥CageK EdlsakmüeTAnwgKMerag. kuMeRCIs erIsnUv lMdab;Edl)anbgðaj[eXIjEdlmanKuNPaBx<s;CageKsMrab;eRKOgbgÁMTaMgGs;RbsinebIvaminRtUvkar. 1>2 lkçN³emkanicéneQI Mechanical Properties of Wood edaysarEtrcnasm<n½§rbs;va eQImanlkçN³Fn;eTAnwgkMlaMgtamTisedAbeNþaynig Ekg eTAnwgséseQIepSgKña. PaBFn;enAnwgkMlaMgTaj kMlaMgBt; kMlaMgsgát; mantMélFMCag sMrab; kMlaMgEdlRsbnwgsésreQI nigmantMéltUcCagsMrab;kMlaMgEdlkat;sésreQIEdlPaBFn;nwg kMlaMgkat;pþac; mantMéltUcCagsMrab;kMlaMgEdlRsbnwgsésreQI ehIyFMCagsMrab;kMlaMgEdl kat;TTwgsésreQI. elIkElgsMrab;eQIkug)øaek Plywood PaBFn;eTAnwgkMlaMgkat;pþac;éneQI CaTUeTARtUv)anRKb;RKgtamTisedARsbnwgsésreQI. PaBFn;nwgkMlaMgsgát;tamTisedAepSgBI Rsb rWEkgnwgsésreQIRtUv)anpþl;[tamrUbmnþxageRkam ³ C1 . C 2 Cө = C 1 sin2ө + C 2 cos2ө Edl Cө :KWCaPaBFn;eTAnwgkMlaMgEdlpþl;[EdlmanmuM ө eFobnwgsésreQI C : KWCaPaBFn;eTAnwgkMlaMgEdlRsbeTAnwgsésreQI 1 Construction General - 83 -
  • 84. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC C2: KWCaPaBFn;eTAnwgkMlaMgEdlEkgeTAnwgsésreQI karekIneLIgénsMeNIm)ankat;bnßynUvRKb;lkçN³Fn;nwgkMlaMg elIkElgEtkMlaMgBt; EdlsMrab;eQIRss;rwgmaMgCageQIs¶Üt. kñúgkarGnuvtþn_KμanPaBxusKñaRtUv)anKiteTrvagPaBFn;én kMlaMgsMrab; eQIRss;nig eQIs¶Üt sMrab;visVkmμeQIBIeRBaHedaysarkgVHxaténkarsMgYtEdlGac ekIteLIgeTAelIeQI nigBIeRBaHCaTUeTAeQIFM²RtUv)andak;[eRbIR)as;edayKμansMgYt. vaminEmnCa karBiteT sMrab;eQIbnÞH (laminated timber) EdleQIs¶ÜtRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;edIm,ITTYlnUvkarbiTmux tMNedaykar)anl¥. sMrab;eQI bnÞHeKGaceRbI stress x<s;CageQIGarFmμta. CaTUeTAkMlaMgsgát; nigkMlaMgBt;tambeNþaysac;eQIRtUv )anTTYlT§iBlPaKeRcInBIsMeNIm Edlm:UDuleGLasÞic (modulus of elasticity) PaBFn;nwg kMlaMgkac;pþac; nigPaBFn;nwgkMlaMgTajk®nþak;TTYlT§iBlticCag. kñúgkarGnuvtþn_PaBFn; nwgkMlaMgTajk®nþak;RsbeTAnwg séseQImantMélesμIKñanwgPaBFn; énkMlaMgBt;éneQI. edIm,ITTYl)annUv Working Stress BIva xageRkamenHRtUv)anykmkKit ³ ¬1¦³ duMnimYy²RtUvERbRbYl25°BIxageRkam nigBIxagelIénmFümPaKdac;edayELkBIKña ¬2¦³ tMélEdlTTYl)anKW)anBIkarBiesaFn_CalkçN³bTdæanEdl)anbMeBjkñúgry³eBl b:unμannaTI. eTaHCay:agNak¾eday elIsBIGMLúgeBl1qñaM eQIGacnwgGn;fyeRkambnÞúkbnþbnÞab; Cab;KñaRbEhl 9¼16 énlT§plEdl)anBIkarBiesaFn_CalkçN³bTdæan. ¬3¦³ mUDul rupture énkarBiesaFn_ flexural CalkçN³bTdæannUvsMNak 2-in-deep KWFM CagGVIEdlsMrab; deep beam. dUcenHsMrab;Tajyk working stress eKRtUvKitBIkarpøas;bþÚrEdlGac ekIteLIgkñúgGMLúgeBlénbnÞúk nigTMhMehIykarkat;bnßyktþaRtUv)aneRbIeTAelIPaBFn;CamFüm Edlx<s;Cag eKedIm,Ipþl;nUv basic stress b¤ working stress sMrab;eQIGaEdlmansñamCaM. Stress enHk¾enAEtRtUv)an kat;bnßyteTAeTotedIm,IsnμtsñamCaMxagelICa duMBk (knot), wane,sréseQI ragCMerl (Slop of grain) (shakes) (checks) edIm,Ipþl;[ working stress sMrab; fñak;visVkmμeQIBaNiC¢kmμ. 1>3 lkçN³T§iBlRsUbcMhayTwkkñúgxül; Effect of hygroscopic properties edaysarEtFmμCatirbs;va eQImanTMnrRsUbnUvsMeNImkñúgxül;enAeBlEdlTMnak;TMngsMeNImeLIg x<s; nigbeBa©jmkvijenAeBlTMnak;TMngsMeNImcuHTab. sMeNImEdlepSImcUleTAkñúg cell wall eFVI [eQIrYm nigrIkmaDdUceTAnwgkarpøas;bþÚrsMeNImkñúgxøÜnva CamYynwgTMnak;TMngsMeNIménxül;Edl BT§½CuMvijva. brimaNGtibrmaénsMeNImEdlepSImkñúg Cell wall Gac[eKdwgfaCacMNucsésrEq¥t Twk (Fiber-saturation Construction General - 84 -
  • 85. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC point) nigsMrab;RbePTPaKeRcInTMgn;eQIsMgYtrYc (Oven-dry) Rbhak;RbEhl BI25 eTA30°b:ueNÑaH. brimaNTwkesrI (Free Water) EdlmanenAkñúgRbehagekasikarelisBI cMnucsésEq¥tTwk (fiber- saturation point) min)anCHT§iBleTAelIPaBrYm nwgPaBrIkcMerInsac;eQI eT. karpøas;bþÚrénsMeNImEdlTabCag cMnucsésEq¥tTwkCHT§iBlsþÜcesþIgbMputdl;karrIkmaD nigkar rYmmaDénsac;eQIEdlPaBrIkmaD nigkarrYmmaDénsac;eQI EdlPaBrIkrYmmaDenHCaTUeTARtUv)aneKmineGIeB. b:uEnþkat;TwgséseQIvij karIkrYmmaDEdlKYreGayKit)anekIteLIgTaMgtamTisedAkaM rgVg; (radial) nigpudæerxa (tagential) . karrYmmaDtampuerxa (tangential) dUcCasMPar³kat;CabnÞH (flat-cut material ) CaTUeTARbhak;RbEhl 50°FMCagkarrYmmaDtamkaMrgVg; (radial) dUcCasMPar³ Caysés (edge-grain material) . séseQIEdlEjkecjBIKña b¤ checking KWCalT§plénsMeNIm énépÞeQIEdleFVIeGayTabeLIgy:agelOn rYmpSMCamYynwgPaBEbøkKñarvagEpñkénsac;eQIxagkñúg nigxageRkA. enAeBlEdleQI)at;bg;sMeNIm eTAkñúgbriyakasBT§½CuMvijva ekasikaénsac;eQIxag eRkA)at;bg;nUvGRtaelOnCagekasikaxagkñúg. enAeBlEdlekasikarxageRkABüayamnwgrYmmaD vaRtUv)anbgçaMgedayEpñkénsac;eQIxagkñúg. karsMgYtEdlmanel,ÓnelOnCagGac[PaBxusKña énkarrYmmaDénsac;eQIxagkñúg nigxageRkAFMCag ehIybNþayeGay stress énkarrYmmaDk¾FMCag EdrCalT§pl check GacvivDÆeTACary³rEhksac;eQI. Check EdlCakareRbHtamkaMrgVg; KWbNþalmkBIkarsMgYtminÉksNæanénsac;eQI. kar ry³rEhk KWCasñameRbHEdlCalT§pl)anBIkarEjkEckséseQITaMgRsugtamkMras;énsac;eQI nigbnøayRsbtam sréseQI. (Shake KWCaRbePTénKuNvibtþiepSgeTot. CaTUeTACakarvivDÆn_én sac;eQIEdlRsbeTAnwg kaMrgVg;ragCacieBa©ón enAeBlEdledImeQIminTan;RtUvkab; cMENk Check nigkarry³rEhkKWCaKuNvibtþi énkarsMgYt¦.c,ab;énkarcat;fñak;eQIGarkMNt;nUvRbePTénKuNvibtþi TaMgenH. check CHT§iBldl;eQInUv PaBFn;eTAnwgkMlaMgkat;pþac;tamExSedk. ktþaénkarkat; bnßyy:agFMKWRtUv)aneRbIedIm,IBiesaFn_tMélkñúg karbegáIteLIgnUvkarKittMél (Design Values) esÞIrEtsmamaRtedaypÞal;eTAnwg pleFobénCMerAén check enAsMrab; kMlaMgkat;pþac;tamExSedkKW RtUv)anEktMrUv sMrab;GnuBaØati[RtYtBinitünUvkMrit Stress CaeRcInkñúg GMLúgeBlénkarcat;cMNat;fñak;. enAeBlEdllkçN³ énPaBFn;nwgkMlaMgrbs;eQIekIneLIgCamYy nwgPaB s¶Üt check GacnwgBRgIkTMhMCamYynwgkarekIn eLIgnUvPaBs¶ÜtbnÞab;BIkardwkCBa¢Ún edaymin )ankat;bnßy nUvPaB Fn;nwgkMlaMgkat;pþac;Edl KYr[cab; GarmμN_xøaMg. check nigkarry³rEhkEdl kat;tamsés eQIEdlmanenAépÞxagénduMeQI b¤ check nigkarry³rEhkd¾elIslb;Edlcg;cUlrYm kñúgkEnøgkat;Kña Construction General - 85 -
  • 86. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC GacCabBaðad¾F¶n;F¶r nigGactMrUvnUvkareFVIesvakmμ. karpþl;sMrab;karRtYtBinitü T§iBlén check enAkEnøg kat;KñaGacnwgRtUvrYmbBa©ÚlKñaeTAkñúgkarKitlMGit. edIm,IecosevognUvkarry³rEhkkan;EtekIneLIn cenøaHCYrénb‘ULúgEdl bNþalmkBIkarrYm maDGMLúgeBlsMgYt duMeQIsUlItEdlGarrYc (Solid-sawn timber) CYrénb‘ULúgenaHminKYrmanKMlat eRcInCag 5Guin BIKñaeT b¤Gacm_rNarRtUvjat;cUleTAkñúgrn§enaHenAcenøaHCYrénb‘ULúg. enAeBlEdl GacmanlT§PaB cMgaycugGtibrmasMrab; KYrEtbBa¢ak;edIm,Ikat;bnßyT§iBlén check Edldak;cUleTA kñúgkEnøgtenaH. GñkKitbøg;xøH (Designer) tMrUv[efñrénb‘ULúgEdlmanmux tMNeRcInéneRKOgbgÁúMTTYlbnÞúk beBaäógeTAnwgséseQI. efñrénb‘ULúgRtUvrkSaPaBtwg nigmanEdk BRgwgenAeBlEdl check FM. eKalkarN_d¾mansarsMxan;mYyénsMNg;eQIbnÞHbiTkav (Glued-laminated timber) KWman TMnak;TMngrYcputBI check. eTaHCay:agNa karsMgYt check GacRbRBwtþeTA)anenAkñúgeRKOgbgÁMbiT Cab;KñaCabnÞH² edayC½rkavCamYynwgcMNat;fñak; EdlmanEbbEpnénsMeNImkñúxøÜnvaBI 7 eTA 16° sMrab;karbnÞHeQIEdlbiTCabnÞH² kñúgeBlénkarbiTehIyvanwgmansMeNImkñúgxøÜnRbhak;RbEhl kñúglkç½xNнeRbIR)as;Fmμta edayehtuenH check RtUv)ankat;bnßy. dUcenHsMeNImenAkñgsac;eQI EdlmanTMhMFM² bnÞab;BIbiTkavCalT§plénkarrYmrIksac;eQI ehIykñúgkMLúgeBlrYmmaD check GacvivDÆn_TaMgkñúgmuxtMNkavnig sac;eQI. GRtaénPaBxusKñarvagkarrYmmaD énkþabnÞHbiTnimYy² nigRbmUl stress énkarrYmmaD enACitb¤enAnwgExSkavEtmþg. sMrab;ehtuplenHCaTUeTA check ekIt eLIgenAnwg b¤enAEk,rExSkav. vtþmanénkarEjkecjBIKñaénsésreQI (Wood fiber separation) cg¥úlbgðajnUvPaBs¥itCab;énkavy:agRKb;RKan; nigminGacebHecjBIKña)an. CaTUeTA Check man T§iBltictYcbMputeTAelIPaBFn;énkMlaMgrbs;eRKOgbgÁMGMBIeQIbnÞHbiTkav. karbiTCab;éneRKOgbgÁMxagelIedaykavKW manlkçN³esþIglμmEdlgayRsYlsMgYtkñúgLsMgYt edaymin )aneFVIeGay Check vivDÆn_. enAeBlEdl check sßitenAelIbøg;kaMrgVg; (radial plane) ehIykþabnÞH biTkavPaKeRcInmansésreQIrabesμICaBiessenaH Check RtUv)ankMNt;TItaMg elIeRKÓgbgÁúMeQIbiT kavtamExSedkEdlvaCasMPar³EdlminCHT§iBldl;PaBFn;énkMlaMgkat;pþac;. enAeBlEdleRKOg bgÁúMKitCamYybnÞHkþaeQIbiTkavtamTwsedAbBaÄr ¬EdlmanmuxFMRsbeTAnwgTisedAénkMlaMgEdl pþl;eGayva¦ ehIyenAeBl Check GacmanT§iBleTAelIPaBFn;énkMlaMgkat;pþac; T§iBlén check GacnwgRtYtBinitükñúgrebobdUcKña nig Check enAkñúgeRKOgbgÁúMeQIsUlItEdlGarYc (Solit-sawn member) . Construction General - 86 -
  • 87. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC Check EdlekItBIkarsMgYtenAkñúgeRKOgbgÁúMEdlrgnUvkMlaMgBt;manT§iBlEtelIPaBFn;nwg kMlaMgkat;pþac;tamExSedk. CaTUeTAvaminmanCaeRKagbgÁMsMxan;eT elIkElgEt check KWmanTMhMFM enAkñúgCMerAnwg ekIteLIgenAkNþalkMBs;éneRKOgbgÁMEk,rTMr ehIyEdlRbsinebIkMlaMgkat;pþac;Et1 dwknaMkarKiténeRKOgbgÁM. karkat;bnßysMrab;PaBFn;énkMlaMgkat;pþac;elIssrminEmnCaeRKOgbgÁM sMxan;elIkElgEt check vivDÆn_eTACary³rEhkehtudUecñHcUrbegáInnUvkpleFob slenderness én ssr. Check EdlmanTMhMtUc² GacRtUvbdiesFecal eRBaHktþasuvtßiPaBRKb;RKan;RtUv)aneRbI sMrab;tMélénkarKitGnueRKaH. karsMerccugeRkayKWenAeBlEdl check énkarrYmmaDmanGnþray eTAnwgtMrUvkarPaBFn;énkMlaMgéneRKagbgÁM b¤karKitbøg;BiessNamYy KYrTukeGayvisVkrEdlman smtßPaBehIymanbTBiesaFn_kñúgsMNg;GMBIeQIKwitnig KNna. 1>4> lMdab;fñak;éneQI Grade of Wood eQIGarRtUv)ancat;cMNat;fñak;edaysmaKmn_éneragcRkpliteQICaeRcInedaymankar vinicä½yelIeRcInCMBUk. eKalkarN_2 RtUv)anelIkykmkeRbIkñúgc,ab;énkarcat;fñak;eQIKW sMrab;eQI Tn; (soft wood) nigsMrab;eQIrwg (hard wood) . eQITn; Soft wood eQITn;RtUv)ancat;fñak;Cas¶ÜtenAeBlsMeNImkñúgsac;eQI 19° b¤ticCagenHehIyRss; enAeBl sMeNImkñúg sac;eQIelIsBI 19°. eyagtambTdæaneQITn;GaemrickaMg (American Software Lumber Standard) eQITn;RtUv)ancat;fñak;edayeyagelIkareRbIdUcCa³ - Yard Lumber: cMNat;fñak; TMhM nigKMrUéneQIGarEdlCaTUeTARtUv)aneRbIkñúgeKalbMNg sMrab;sMNg;Fmμta nigsMNg;GaKarTUeTA. - Structural Lumber: eQIGarEdlmankMras;Fmμta2GuIn b¤eRcInCagenHnigTTwgsMrab;eRbI enAkEnøgNaEdl working stress RtUvkar. - Factory nig Shop lumber: eQIGavplit b¤eRCIserIsCadMbUgsMrab;eKalbMNgsMrab;plit kñúg]sSahkmμ. karcat;fñak;eQITn;edayeyagelIvisalPaBénplitplKW³ - eQIGaeRKIm (Rough lumber): eQIGarEdlminTan;)anerobcM b:uEnþ)anGarkat;Cay nigtMrwmrYc. Construction General - 87 -
  • 88. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC -eQIGarEdlTan;)anerobcM (Dressed (surfaced) lumber) eQIGarEdl)anerobcMrYceday qøgkat;m:asuInQUsrYm (planning machine) ¬sMrab;eKalbMNgcg;)anépÞrabesμInig man TMhMCaÉksNæan¦ sMrab;1xag (S1S), 2xag (S2S), Cay1 (S1E) Cay2 (S2E) b¤bnSMénxagnig Cay(S1S1E, S1S2, S2S1E, S4S) . - Worked Lumber: eQIGarEdlbEnßmelIsBI dressed RtUv)an matched, shiplapped or platterned. - Match Lumber: eQIGarEdl)an worked CamYynwgGNþatenACaymçagénduMeQInimYy² nigcg¥ÚrenACaypÞúyKñamçageTot ¬eFVItMNab;eQI¦ - Shiplapped lumber: eQIGarEdl worked b¤dab;CayTaMgsgçagedIm,IGnuBaØatidl;kar begáItmuxtMNbiTCitRCYsKña (Close-lapped joint). - Patterned Lumber: eQIGarEdlmanrUbragCaKMrU b¤CaBum<eQITn;k¾RtUv)ancat;fñak;eday eyagelITMhMEdr - Board: eQIGarEdlmankMras;FmμtatUcCag 2GuIn nigTTwgFmμta 2in b¤eRcInCagenH. Board EdlmanTTwgFmμtatUcCag6 GuInGacRtUv)ancat;fñak; strip. - Dimension: eQIGarEdlmankMras;Fmμta 2GuIneLIgeTAedayminrab;bBa©Úl 5GuIneT ehIymanTTwgFmμta2GuIn b¤eRcInCagenH. Diamension GacRtUv)ancat;fñak;CaeRKag (framing), rnUt (joist), epÞag (rafter), emeQI (stud), kþa (plank), small timber .l. - Timber: eQIGavEdlCaFmμtamanTMhMy:agtic5GuIn b¤FMCagenH. timber Gaccat;fñak; Ca rnUt (beam), stringer, begÁal (post), cap, sill rt (girder), purlin .l. TMhMBitR)akdéneQIGaKWtUcCagTMhMFmμta edaysarEtPaBrYmmaDnig dressing.CaTUeTA TMhMén board s¶Üt/ dimension lumber nig timber EdlmanTTwg b¤kMrastUcCag 2in KWtUcCaTMhM Fmμta ¼in TTWgb¤kMras;BI2 eTA7 GuintUcCag ½ GuIn nigTTwgb¤kMras;elIsBI 6GuIn tUcCag 3¼4GuIn. eQIGarRs;EdlmanTMhMTTWgb¤kMras;tUcCag 2GuIn KWFMCageQIs¶Üt 1¼32 GuIn TMhMTTwgb¤kMras;BI 2 eTA 4GuIn FMCag 1¼16GuIn sMrab;TMhMTTWgkMras; 5 nig6GuInFMCag ⅛ GuIn nigsMrab;TMhMTTWg b¤ kMras;8GuIn b¤elIsenH FMCagTMhMeQIrGars¶Üt ¼ GuIn. eTaHCay:agNavamankrNIelIkElg. Yard Lumber RtUv)ancat;cMNat;fñak;edayQrelIeKalkarN_énKuNPaBdUcxageRkam³ Construction General - 88 -
  • 89. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC - rUbragxageRkA (apppearance): eQIGarEdlmanrUbragxageRkAl¥ nigKuNPaBén smiT§plCaerOy² eKehAfa select . + saksmsMrab;kargarbegðIy (finish) EbbFmμCati Citføa (Practically clear) føaCaTUeTA nigKuNPaBx<s; + saksmsMrab;kargarbegðIyedaykarlabfñaM bnSaMxøÜneTAnwg labRsTab;begðIyEdlmanKuNPaBx<s; enAcenøaHkNþalrvagcMNat;fñak; kargarbegðIylMdab;x<s; (high-finishing grade) nig cMNat;fñak;Fmμta ehIynigcUlrYmbnþicbnþÜcénFmμCatiTaMgBIr. - Common: eQIGarsaksmsMrab;eKalbMNgsMNg;TUeTA nig]bkrN_eRbIR)as; CaerOy² pþl;nUvkarKitEbbBaNiC¢kmμCaeRcInRbePT. + sMrab;kareRbIR)as;kñúgbTdæansMNg; saksmsMrab;bMNgsMNg;RbePTl¥Cag (better type construction) bnSaMy:agl¥sMrab;bTdæansMNg;beNþaH karKitsMrab;sMNg;GasnñEdlGs;éføefak. + sMrab;bMNgtMrUvkartictYc KuNPaBTabEtGaceRbIR)as;)an - tMélTaMgenHRtUv)anykeTAKitCaktþaxagelIdUcCa TMhM nigTItaMgén Knot, slop of grain, wane nig shake b¤check rYmTaMgTMnak;TMngRTg;RTayxøHetotdUcCaGRtaénkarlUtlas; nig smmaRtén summerwood . Factory nig shop lumber RtUv)ancat;fñak;edayeyageTAelIkar eRbIR)as;rbs;vaCaTVa b¤bg¥Üc b¤QrelIeKalkarN_énlkçN³TTYlT§iBl énkareRbIR)as;rbs;va vasMrab;eKalbMNgkat;Ca duMCaTUeTA b¤QrelIeKalkarN_énTMhMénkarkat;. cMNat;fñak; én Factory nig Shop Lumber RtUv)ankMNt;edayPaKryénRklaépÞén Board b¤ Plank nimYy²Edl Gacykmkkat;)antamkarbgðaj b¤tamkarpþl;[nUvTMhMGb,brima nigKuNPaB. cMNat;fñak;én Factory nig Shop lumber RtUv)ankMNt;BIépÞmuxd¾Gn; sUm,IEtKuNPaBénépÞTaMgsgxagénkarkat; nimYy²RtUv)anykmkKitBIcarNa. eQIrwg Hardwood Construction General - 89 -
  • 90. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC edaysarEtPaBepSg² KñaCaeRcInénkarGnuvtþn_sMrab;eQIrwgTaMgxagkñúgnig xageRkAsMrab; sMNg;]sShkmμ k,Ünkñúgkarcat;cMNat;fñak;eQIrwgKWQrelIeKalkarN_ smamaRténduMEdl[ EdlGackat; CaduMtUc²sMPar³EdlmanépÞmçagc,as; b¤TaMgBIr nigminmanTMhMtucCagkarbgðajbBa¢ak;. dUcenHkar cat;cMNat;fñak;KW QrelIeKalkarN_énbrimaNPaBføakñúgduMeQIén eQIGarEdlGaceRbI )an. k,Ünénkarcat;cMNat;fñak;eQI CaBiessEdlKYr[cab;GarmμN_sMrab;sMNg;]sSahkmμBwg Ep¥kelI eQIrwg s‘umxagkñúg nigk,ac;rcnaEdlmanépÞmçagRtUEtCitTMenrEdlminRKb;lkçN³nigEdlkMrit A Gac kMNt;bEnßm eTotTaMgbrimaNénsac;eQIbnÞab;sMbkeQI nigsñamRbLak;. elIsBIenHeTot k,ÜnkMNt;TMhMeQIrwg GaRs½yelIPaBføaEdlRtUvmanmuxføaTaMgsgxag b¤føaépÞmYynigGaRs½yelIKuNPaB fñaMlab EdlGacRKbeday fñaMlab ehIyGaRs½yelIrn§RbehagEdlRtUvEtmanPaBrwg elIépÞ TaMgsgxag nigsaksmsMrab;karbiTrn§Rbehag ehIynigGaRs½yelIPaBrwgEdlCacMNat;fñak;én kareRbIR)as;TUeTA. kMraleQIrwgRtUv)ancat;cMNat;fñak;tamk,Ündac;edayELkBIrRbePTKw TI ¬1¦ sMrab;edIm maple, edIm birch nigedIm beech nigTI ¬2¦ sMrab;edImEsnBN’s nigBN’Rkhm nigedIm Pecan . sMrab;TaMgBIrRbePTenH cMNat;fñak;énBN’ nigKuNPaBerobBIKuNPaBkMBUldl;cMNat;fñak;eKOg eRbIR)as;TabCag. edImEsnGac RtUvcat;cMNat;fñak;bnÞab;teTAkan;Etq¶ayeTotCa qarter sawed nig plain sawed. sMrab;RKb;cMNat;fñak; TaMgGs;sMParr³EdlmanKuNPaBkMBUlRtUvEtmanBN’Ék sNæanenAeBlEdlcMNat;fñak;epSgeTotminman kMNt;BIBN’. epÞag (shingle) RtUv)ancat;cMNat;fñak;eRkamk,ÜnBIessCaTUeTA manCabIfñak;KW elx1 elx 2 nig elx 3. elx 1 KWRKb;Caysés nigPaBføay:agditdl; minRtUvmansac;eQIbnÞab;sMbkeQIeT. elx2 nigelx3 dac;xatPaBføaRtUvmancMgayq¶aylμmBI butt edIm,IRKb)any:agl¥eday course énepÞagbnÞab;. 1>5 sarFatubMpøaj nig sarFaturkSakarBar Destroyer and preservative. sarFatubMpøajeQIcMbgKW karBukrlYy EdlbNþalmkBIBBYkrukçCatipSit nigkarbMpøaj edaystV srIr³CaeRcInRbePT rYmmankeNþór/ Rsemac/ dgáÚvénBBYkEbøkKñaCaeRcInmanBBYkXμúM knøg; GeNþIkmas xüg nig Limnoria EdlsuT§CaBYkstV bMpøajsac;eQICacMbg. elIsBIenHeToterogral;qñaMGKÁIP½y)anbMpøajCaTUeTAnUv eRKageQI. karBukpuynigminekItmaneTRbsinebIeQIrkSaenAkEnøgmanxül;ecjcUl nigxül;s¶ÜtEt pÞúymkvij Rbsin ebIvaRtUv)anrkSakñúgTwkCabnþbnÞab;enaHKμanxül;eT. keNþórPaKeRcInenAshrdæ- Gaemric KWCastV Construction General - 90 -
  • 91. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC eRkamdI nigRtUvkarTak;TgCamYynwgdI. keNþóreQIs¶Üt nig keNþóreQIesIm Gac rkeXIjtam beNþay Cayxagt,ÚgénRbeTs nigtambeNþayeqñrxagliceTaHCay:agNak¾eday vaminRtUvkarTak;edaypÞal; CamYy dIeTnigmankarlM)akkñúgkarRbtYtRta. xüg nig limnoria nig sarFatubMpøajeQIGENþtTwkxøHeTot RtUv)anrk eXIjEtenAkñúgTwkéRbb¤éRbbnþicbnþÜc. CMBUkeQIepSg² ERbRbYleTAtamGayukalCaFmμCati nigPaBFn;nwgkarBukpuy nigkarbMpøajeday stVl¥it. sac;eQIbnÞab;BIsMbkeQIénRbePTeQITaMgGs;Kw mankargayRsYlkñúgkarbMpøajmanEtbNþÚlrbs; vab:ueNÑaH EdlGaccat;TukfaFn;nwgkarBukpuyenH. sarFatuKImIRtUv)aneRbIR)as;sMrab;RbyuT§RbqaMg nigPñak;garbMpøajepSg²Gac nwgEbgEck CabnþeTACa oily, GMbilrlaykñúgTwk nigsarFatuxnicrlaykñúgGgÁFaturMlay. sarFaturkSakarBar oily cMbgKWfñaM Creosote layeRbgeqAeQI nwgfñaM creosote layeRbg. kareRbIR)as;GMbilrlaykñúgTwkFmμtaPaKeRcInKW Tg;EdgRkUm:at/ Tg;EdgRkUm:at GaesNat nigGaesnIt/ pøúyGrRkUmepNulGaesNat/ sgá½sIRkUma: tkørIRDic/ nigsarFatuepSg²eTotEdlCa erOy² RtUv)anlk;eRkameQμaHepSg². sarFatuxniC rlaykñúgGgÁFaturMlayCacMbgmanepNul kørIRDic dUcCabg;takørepNul nigTg;EdgNab;etNat. sarFaturkSarkarBarGacRtUv)aneRbIeday viFIepSg²rYmbBa©ÚlTaMglab edayCk; nigRClk;sMrab;karlabGtibrmaeKtMrUv[eRbIkMlaMgedIm,I[ TwkfñaMRCabcUlkñúgsésreQI)aneRCA. eBlxøH butt of pole nig EpñkxøHeTotRtUv)aneKdak;kñúg creosote b¤sUluysüúgGMbilEdldaMBuHekþA ehIybnÞab;BITwkkñúgeQI)anERbkøayeTACacMhayrYcehIy eKRtUvRbjab; epÞreTAFugRtCak;Edlmandak;sarFaturkSakarBardUcKña. enAeBlcMhaykkCaejIs va)anbegáItsuBaØkas PaKxøH EdlGaceGaysarFaturkSarkarBarGacRCabcUlkñúgépÞsac;eQI)aneRCAlμm. karGnuvtþn_eday sm<aFRtUv)anEckecjCaBIr KW full-cell nig emply-cell. sMrab;kaGnuvtþn_ eday full-cell PaKxøHénsuBaØkas RtUv)andak;[bWtykecjnUvbrimaNxül;PaKeRcInenAkñúg ekasikaeQIenAkñúgFug Pressure-treating CadMbUg. bnÞab;mkeTIbeKdak;sarFaturkSarkarBarcUl edayminbMEbksuBaØakasEdlekIteLIgedaysMBaFenAkñúg sUluysüúgekþA. enAeBlEdlkarGnuvtþn_ cb;sBVRKb;eKsnñidæanfaekasikanimYy² RtUv)anbMeBjedaysarFatu rkSakarBarRtUv)anbUmeRkamsMBaFeTAb:Hnwg EpñkxageRkayénm:asuInsgát;edaysMBaFxül;eTAkñúgsac;eQI. PaBTb;sát;karbMpøajénsarFaturkSakarBarGaRs½yelIkarGnuvtþn_. sMrab;lkçxNÐ teredo-infestation, Construction General - 91 -
  • 92. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC karGnuvt nUv creosote eday full –cell RtUv)anbgðajeGayeRbIR)as;sMrab;kar karBarBYkstVbMpøajenH eday eRbI 16 eTA 20 lb kñúg 1foot KIbéneQI. sMrab;lkçxNнBukpuyFmμta nigFn;nwgstVkeNþór nig sarFatubMpøajepSgeTotEdlmanFmμCatiRsedogKña viFI empty –cell GacRtUv)aneRbIedIm,ITb;sáat; edaysarFatuGMbilRtUv)aneRbIedayGMbils¶ÜtRbEhsBI 1½ eTA 3 1b sMrab;eQI 1foot KIb. sarFatuxniCrlayedayGgÁFaturMlay dUcCab:g;takørepNul tamFmμtaRtUv)aneKeRbI sMrab;GnuvtþelI EpñkxøHénTVa nigbg¥ÜcedIm,IcUlrYmy:agxøaMgkñúgkarts‘UnwgkarBukpuy. CaTUeTAvaRtUv)anGnuvtþedaysamBaØedayRClk;EpñkénduMeQIeTAkñúgl,aysUluysüúg rYcehIyTuk va[s¶Üt. enAeBlEdlGgÁFaturMlayxniChYtGs; vabnSl;nUvsarFaturkSakarBarTwkmin eGayrlay (Water insoluble preservative) BIxageRkaysac;eQI. sarFatuxnicTaMgenHk¾RtUv)aneRbIR)as;sMrab;karGnuvtþn_sarFaturkSakarBarTUeTAEdrrYmman ssrrbg nigeRKagbgÁMeQI. GMbilrlayTwk nigsarFatusßabtükmμxniCrlayedayGgÁFaturMlay eFVIeGayeQIs¥at nigGaclab)an. CaTUeTAeQIEdlmansarFatu creosote minGnuBaØati[labBIelIeT ebIeTaHCaEpñkxøHGaceGay labedayfñaMBN’GaluymIj:aÚmesþIg² EdlmanKuNPaBx<s;CageK (top quality aluminum flake pigment paint) k¾eday. CaTUeTAsMrab;RbRBitþkmμRbqaMgePøIgGKÁIP½ymankareRbIR)as;GMbilEdlman Gam:UjÚ:m nig pUsVat Edlm:UNUGam:Uj:ÚmpUsVat nigEIGam:Uj:ÚmpUsat RtUv)aneRbIR)as;y:agTUlMTUlay. sMrab;kar Tb;sát;eday eRbIGMbils¶ÜtBI 3 eTA 5lb sMrab;eQI 1foot KIb eQIminGacRTaMRTnwgkarqabeqHeday xøÜnvaeT ehIyBnøW RBal²eRkayeBlRBHGaTitülic enAeBlEdlykePøIgecjKWry³eBlxøI. RbRBwtþkmμcMeBaHépÞeQICaeRcIn k¾RtUv)aneRbIEdr PaKeRcInKWGaRs½yeTAnwgkarbegáIténRsTab;BBuH]sμ½n EdlminkMerIk (inert- gas bubble) BIelIépÞeQIkñúgeBlvtþmanénGNþaePøIgb¤RbPBkMedA. RsTab;BBuH]sμ½nenHedIrtYrCaGuIsULg;GKÁIP½ysMrab; eQIenABIeRkamva nigBnüWtkarraleqH. 1>6 kavnig sarFatus¥itsMrab;eQI Glues and adhesives for wood bc©úb,nñsarFatus¥iteRcInRbePTGacrk)ansMrab;eRbIR)as;CamYyeQI GaRs½yelIkarGnuvtþn_cug eRkay. sarFatus¥itBImun rYmmankavstV (animal glue), casein glue nigRbePTepSg²énkav bEnø (vegetable glue) EdlsBVéf¶sENþkes,ógmansarsMxan;CageK. kavstVpþl; nUvPaBrwg PaBtwggayRsYleFVImuxtMN EdleTaHCay:agNavaminFn;nwgsMeNImeT. Casein layCamYynwgTwk RtCak;edayrUbmnþRtwmRtUv Construction General - 92 -
  • 93. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC vapþl;nUvmuxtMNrkavEdlFn;nwgsMeNImx<s; EdleKminGacehAvafa RsTab;karBarTwk (Waterproof) eT. kavbEnøenAeBls¶ÜtmanPaBFn;l¥ b:uEnþminFn;nwgsMeNImeT. sBVéf¶kavEdlmanPaBFn;x<s; (high-strength) TUeTA)anmkBIkarsMeyaKC½reQI Edlman phenol formaldehyde nig expoxy Edlmansar³sMMxan;CageK. epNul resorcinol nig melamine pþl;vanUvmux tMNkavEdlkarBarRCabTwk)ansBVnig minGacbMEbkecjBIKña)an enAeBlGnuvtþénkardut [BuH)any:agRtwmRtUv. Urea formaldehyde pþl;nUvmuxtMNekAEdlFn;eTAnwgsMeNImy:agx<s; eTaH bICaminl¥CagdUcCabIRbePTepSgeTot. epNul nigemLamIn tMrUvGnuvtþTaMgkMedA nigsMBaFedIm,I biTsarFatus¥it. eTaHCay:agNak¾eday Urea nig Resorcinol GacmanrUbmnþlayCamYyTwkenAsItuNðPaBFmμta nigkkrwgedayKμan karGnuvtþn_kMedABIelI room temperative. tamFmμtakug)øaek minRCabTwk (waterproof plywood) plitkñugkarsgát;ekþA (hot-plate presse) CamYynwgsarFatus¥it phenolic b¤ melamine. Sorcinol minRtUveRbIenAkEnøgNaEdlb:HnwgkMedAdUcCa dMeNIrkarpÁúMtMeLIg RbePTxøH nigkarplitbnÞHkþabiTCab;KñadUcCaem)atnava EdlRtUvEtmankar FanaPaBRCabTwk KuNPaBGtibrima. Cr½eQI Epoxide pþl;nUvmuxtMNry:agrwg. sarFatus¥itmansarFatu elastomeric dUcCaC½rFmμCati b¤C½rsMeyaK Gaccat;fñak;Ca Contact b¤ mastic. GñkBImunlabépÞEdlRtUvBak;Kña TaMgsgxag nigTukeGayvas¶ÜtedayEpñk GnuBaØati[s¥itCab;Kñaeday Contact . Mastic mansPaB xab;Nas;nigRtUveRbICamYysøabRBakMe)ar b¤ Putty knife. vaGacRtUveRbIedIm,IeFVIkMraleQIbøúk (wood- block flooring) . TwkfñaMC½r Polyviwyl acetate bMerIsMrab;eKalbMNgTUeTACasarFatus¥it sMrab;dMeNIrkarttM eLIgTUeTAkEnøgEdlminRtUvkarPaBFn;énkMlaMg nigPaBFn;énkMedA b¤sMeNImGtibrima. TwkfñaMenH manPaBs¥itRKb;RKan;edIm,IlabelIépÞ bnÞab;BIvaRtUv)ansgát;cUlKña ehIysarFatus¥itk¾RtUvTuk eGaykkrwg. 1>7 karplitkþakug)øaek nigkþabnÞHepSgeTot Plywood and fabricated wood board. tamFmμtakug)øaekplitedaymanbnSMúénbnÞHeQIy:agesþIg (thin sheet b¤ venee) rYmnwgkav eQICamYyKña. sésreQIRtUveKdak;[EkgRsTab;kþaCit²Kña. edIm,ITTYlnUvkug)øaekEdlesμIKa enaH rYmmanmine)ar minrYj b¤rmYlRCulhYsehtueBk RsTab;bnÞHkþanimYy² RtUv)aneRCIserIsy:agyk citþTukdak; nigtMerob[manépÞTaMgsgxagrbs;vaqøúHKñaedayeFobeTAnwgbøg;kNþal. RsTab;xageRkA b¤EpÞxagmuxRsbKña eTAvijeTAmk nigCaRbePTeQIEdlmanlkçN³rYmmaDdUcKña. dUcKñaRtUveFVI eGaymansnÞHxNнy;agRtwmRtUv. Cavi)akkþakug)øaek manRsTab;CacMnYness y:agtic3RsTab;. Construction General - 93 -
  • 94. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC sarRbeyaCn_CaeKalkarN_rbs;kþakug)aøekBIelIeQIGar KWvamanlkçN³Fn;énkMlaMgesÞIrEtesμIKña sMrab;beNþay nigTTWgFMCag PaBFn;én Checking xøaMgCag karkat;bnßyPaBrYm nigPaBrIk maDFMCag nigFn;eTAnwg Spitting . meFüa)ayedIm,IeFVI[PaBFn;énkMlaMgrbs;kþakug)øaekesμIKa sMrab;TisedAepSg² KW)anedaysarkarbegáInnUvPaBFn; nwgkMlaMgtamTisedARsbnwgsésreQI. ]TahrN_³ kþakug)øaekminsUvxøaMg sMrab;TisedARsbnwgRsTab;muxrbs;vadUceQIGar sMrab;PaBRsb nwgséseQIeT. b:uEnþkþaku)øaekRtUv )anKitfaxøaMgCagsMrab;TisedAEdknwgRsTab;épÞxagmux CageQI EdlEkgeTAnwgséseQI. elIsBIenHeTot PaBFn;énkMlaMgpþac; énkþakug)øaeksMrab;bøg;EkgeTAnwg bøg;énkþakug)øaekKWmantMélFMeRcInCagsMrab;eQIFmμta RsbeTAnwgséseQI. eTaHCay:agNak¾ eday sMrab;TwsedARsbnwgbøg;énkþakug)øaek PaBFn;énkMlaMg kat;pþac;rbs;va KWtUcCageQIFmμtaEdlRsbeTAnwgséseQI BIeRBaHsMrab;TisedAkat;pþac;edayrmUl ekIteLig EtsMrab;kþakug)øaekEtb:ueNÑaH. ]TahrN_séseQIenAkñúgRbGb;kþabnÞHmYymanTMneTAelIkarrmUrCagkarrGil. GaRs½y edaysarkþakug)øaek RtUv)aneRbIR)as;sMrab;kargarTUeTA b¤eKalbMNgtubEtglMGr kþabnÞHesþIg² RtUv)ankat;edaykarCitCarebobbksMbkBIedImeQI CarebobeRcokCabnÞH² b¤sBVéf¶CakarkMrNas;tamrebob Ga. karGarnigkareRcokpþl;nUvesriPaB nigPaBsÞat;CMnajl¥CageKtamrebobGar. karGarnigkareRcok pþl;nUvesrIPaB nigPaBsÞat;CMnajl¥CageK kñúgkareRCIserIsséseQI. kareRcok CarebobbksMbkpþl;nUvmaD nigkarplity:agelOnl¥CaeK BIeRBaHRKan;EteQImUlbgVilCuMvijkaMbitsMEb:tehIybnÞHkþaesþIg² RtUv)anbk ecjCabnÞHeQIbnþy:agEvg. kþakug)øaekRtUv)ancat;fñak;sMrab;xagkñúg nigxageRkAGaRs½yedayRbePTén sarFatus¥itEdlykmkeRbI. kug)øaekcMNat;fñak;sMrab; xagkñúg (interior-grade plywood) RtUvmankMrit énPaBFn;énsMeNImKYrsm b:uEnþmincaM)ac;RtUvkarBar CMrabTwkeT. sMrab;cMNat;fñak;xageRkA (exterior-grade- plywood) RtUvEtmanPaBkarBarCMrabTwk TaMgRsug nigmanlT§PaBTb;Tl;nwgkarBnøicTwk b¤GacTb;Tl; nwglkçxN½ÐxageRkA)anyUr. sMrab;karcat;cMNat;bEnßmeTot kþakug)øaekRtUv)anEbgEckbnþCaeRcInRbePT epSgeTot GaRs½yeTAnwgKuNPaBénépÞénRsTab;kþa. KuNPaBx<s;CageK KWmanépÞmçag b¤TaMgsagxagføac,as; elIkElgsMrab; karbiTb:H yUr²mþg. KuNPaBTab;GnuBaØatiKuNvitþén Sound dUcCa knot nigsñamCaM RsedogKñaEdl min)aneFVI[Gn;fyBIkareRbIR)as;TUeTAénkþakug)øaek b:uEnþGn;fyBIrUbragxageRkA begðIy rbs;va. Construction General - 94 -
  • 95. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC Particle board:kMeTcbMENkeQI Gacm_rNa nig flake RtUv)ansgát;CamYysarFatus¥it (urea- formaldehyde b¤ phenol-formaldehyde) edIm,IplitCa board (sheathing, underlayment, corestock) EdlmanPaBFn;énkMlaMgÉksNæan nigPaBrYmmaDtUcsMrab;bøg;én board. Hardboard kMeTcbMENkeQI ¬RtUv)aneFVIeGaypÞúMedaykardutcMhaysMBaFx<s; (high pressuree stream) eTAkñúgséseQI¦ CamYynwg lignin RtUv)ansgát;edIm,IbegáItCa board Edlman dg;suIetepSg². sarFatubEnßmRtUv)anbEnßmsMrab;Fn;eTAnwgGakasFatu niglkçN³epSgeTot. 2> karpliteQI timber nigkarksag timber fabrication and erection kñúgGMLúgeBldMeNIrkarplitnigksag sMrab;sNg;eQI plitpleQI KYrRtUv)anRKb;RKgnig M RKbdNþb;edIm,IkarBarkarxUcxat énépÞeQI nigkarRsUbbWtsMeNIm. kñúgGMLúgeBlRKb;RKg nig sagsg;KYrecosvag overstress elIeRKOgbgÁúMnigmuxtMN. GñkRtYtBinitüRbkbedaysmtßPaBKYr RtYtBinitü sMPar³ nigsñaéd. 2>1 karpliteRKagbgÁúMeQI Fabrication of structural timber karplitKW rYmman karxYg karkat; karGar karkat;rwm dapping, routing, lanning, nigebImin dUecñaHeT shaping framing nig finishing duMeQIRtUv)anGarb¤biTP¢ab;Kña rYmbBa©ÚlTaMg panel edIm,Idak; vakñúgkEnøgBiessrbs;va kñúgeRKageQIbegðIyeGaysml¥. eTaHCakarpliteLIgenAkñúghag b¤ kardæank¾eday k¾plitplRtUvEtbgðajnuvKuNPaBsñaédx<s;. Jig, pattern, template, shop b¤n½y saksmepSgeTotRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;karpÁúMEdlsaMjauM nigeRcInEbby:agedIm,IFananUvPaBCak;lak; ÉksNæan nigRtYtBinitünUvRKb;TMhM. RKb;karGnueRKaH sMrab;karkat;kar xñg nig Framing RtUvEt GnuelamCamYynwgkarGnuvtþl¥ nig PaBGacGnuvtþ)antamkarbgðajbBa¢ak; nigkarRtYtBinitü. kñúg eBlplitkarGnueRKaHminRtUvFMCagGVI EdlmankarbgðajkñúgbBa¢IxageRkamelIkElgEtkarplit enaHminsMxan; nigmintMrUvnUvkarGnuvtþn_d¾tex©aH. eTaHCay:agNak¾edaykargarBiess GactMrUvkar GnueRKaHenaHkan;EttUc. TItaMgénkarbiTP¢ab; lacation of fastening Construction General - 95 -
  • 96. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC RbEvgcenøaH nigRKb;TItaMgbiTP¢ab;TaMgGs; kñúgmuxtMNKYrRtUvGnuelametAtamKMnUrkargar (shop drawing) nig esovePAlMGitbec©keTs (specification) CamYy nigkarGnueRKaHGtibrma RtUv )anGnuBaØati[ 61¼16 GuIn. dUcenaHehIy karpliteRKOgbgÁúMEdlRtUvpÁúMedaymuxtMN KYrRtUvP¢ab; eGay)ansmRtwmRtUv. TMhMrn§eLasuI Bolt hole sizes karxYgrn§eLasuI enAxagkñúgRKb;eRKagbgÁMeQITaMgGs;enAeBl TukCatMNeRKagbgÁúMvaKYrman TMhM 1¼16GuIn FMCagGgát;p©iteLasuI ½ nigmanTMhM 1¼32GuIn FMCagsMrab;Ggát;p©iteLasuItUcCag enH. RbeLaHkan;EtFMtMrUvsMrab;eLasuIepSgeTot dUcCaeLasuITMBk; nigEdktg;süúg (tension rod) . rn§Rbehag nigcg¥Úr Holes and Groove rn§RbehagsMrab;eLasuI Stress-carrying, connector niggroove connector daps RtUvEtrelag nigRtg;sßitkñúgtMél 1/16in sMrab;CMerA 12GuIn. TTWgén Spite –ring connector groove KYrEtsßit kñúgtMél 0>02GuIn énmuxkat;rbs;rgVg; nigmintUcCagkMras;énmuxkat;rgVg;EdlsuIKña. rUbragrbs; cg¥ÚrrgVg; RtUvEtGnuelamCaTUeTAeTAtamrUbragmuxkat;TTwgénrgVg;. ecjdMeNIrBI tMrUv karenHGacRtUv)an GnuBaØatienA eBlmankarKaMRTedaykarBiesaFTinñn½y. m:asuInxUg nigm:asuInkat; epSgeTotGacRtUvkMNt;edIm,I GacsMerc )annUvTMhMrUbragCMerAénrn§cg¥Úr dap .l. beNþay length eRKOgbgÁMGacRtUvkat;kñúgtMél 61¼16 GuIn énTMhMEdl)ancg¥úlbgðajfaeQImanRbEvg rhUtdl; 20ft nig 61¼16 GuInsMrab;RbEvg 20ft enAeBleQIenaHmanRbEvg 20ft. enAeBlEdl TMhMbeNþaymin)anbBa¢ak;y:agc,as; b¤mankMhus tMélGnueRKaHenHGacRtUvbdiesF. kat;cug End cut elIkElgEtmankarbBa¢ak;y:agc,as; RKb;cugeQITaMgGs;RtUvEtkat;tMrwg[ecjragbYnRCug esμIkñúgtMél 1¼16 GuIn kñúg1 foot sMrab;CMerAnigTTwg. cugEdlmanrag4 RCugesμI b¤ragCMerlEdl RtUvTTYlbnÞúk sgát;KYr RtUvkat;edIm,Ipþl;nUvkarb:Hy:agsMxan;sMrab;épÞEdlcb;sBVRKb;. Construction General - 96 -
  • 97. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 2>2 karsagsg;eQI timber erection karsagsg; timber framing tMrUveGaymanCagEdlmanbTBiesaFn_ nig]bkrN_elIkdak; RKb;RKan; edIm,IkarBarCIvit nigRTBüsm,tþi nigedIm,IFanafaeRKagbgÁúMRtUv)anpÁúMedayRtwmRtUvnig min xUcxatkñúgeBl kMBugRbtibtþi. ral;kardwkCBa¢ÚneQIKYrRtYtBinitü cMnYn nigPsþútagénkarxUcxat. munnwgkarsagsg;cab; epþIm bøg;TMhMKYrRtUv)anepÞógpÞat;enAkardæan. PaBCak;lak;nig PaBRKb;RKan;én CnÞl;Tb;[maM (abutment), eCIgtag (foundation), pier nigeLasuITMBk;KYrRtUvkMNt;. Cagsagsg;RtUvEtemIlfa RKb; TMr nigTMBk; KWmanRKb;cMnYn GaceRbIR)as;)an nig Kμan]bsKÁ. XøaMenAkardæan Job –site storage enAeBleRKOgbgÁúMeQIRtUvrkSaTukenAkardæansMNg; vaKYrRtUvTukdak;kEnøgNavamin)an begáItmhnþray dl;sMPar³d¾éT b¤eRKOgbgÁúMxøÜnvapÞal;. eRKOgbgÁúMTaMgGs;EdlRtUvrkSaTukenAkardæan RtUvTukdak;eGayputBIdI Edlkl;edaybøúky:agRtwmRtUv. sMrab;karGnuvtþn_eRKOgbgÁúM b¤sMPar³cg Ca)ac;² KYrRtUvEjkecjBIKña edaycMerokeQIEdlxül;Gaccl½tRKb;RCugTaMgGs;. BIxagelInigRKb;xagTaMgGs;én KMnreQIKYrRtUvRKbeday kMralFn;nwg sMeNImEdlpþl;nUvkarkarBarBIsarFatukxVk; nigkMeTckMTI énkardæan. kareRbInUvpÞaMg polyethylene føaminRtUv)anENnaMeT edaysarFatuEteRKOgbgÁúMeQIGaceLIgBN’s edaysarkMedARBHGaTitü. karvicx©b; edayELkKYrRtUvvHTMluH b¤ecaHrn§enAxageRkamedIm,IbgðÚrTwkejIsecjEdlRbmUlenAkñúgkBa©b;. karEfrrkSa CaBiessKYrRtUvykcitþTukdak; CamYynwgeRKOgbgÁúMdUcCa eQIbnÞHkþarbiTkav EdlRtUvdak;bgðajrUbragenAelIe RKagbgÁúMEdlrYcral; ehIyeRKOgbgÁúMeQIbnÞHkþabiTkavén Primium nig Architectural Appearance ¬nigkñúgkrNIxøH Industrial Appearance ¦ CaFmμtaRtUvdwkCBa¢ÚnedaymankBa©b;karBarEdlCa RkdasFn;nwgTwk. enAeBlRkdasenH min)anpþl;nUvPaBeBjeljBIkarb:HBal;CamYyTwk bTBiesaFn_)an bgðajfa kBa©b;karBarKWmanPaBcaM)ac;Nas; edIm,IFananUvrUbragxageRkAd¾RtwmRtUvbnÞab;BIsagsg;rYc. eTaHCaRtUv )aneRbIR)as; CaBiesssMrab;karBarkñúgkareFVIdMeNIrqøgkat;d¾eday RkdasenaHKYrenArkSakuMeGayxUc GMLúgeBlrkSaTukkñúgkardæan. karykRkdasenaHecj kñúgGMLúgeBlsagsg; KWCaKMnitrbs;Gñk Kitbøg; rW GñkCab;kic©snüa (contrator) . ]TahrN_RbsinebIRkdasepSgeTot RtUvykmkCMnYsminKYrrkSaenA TItaMgrhUtdl;RKb;kBa©b;RtUv)anruHerI b¤RKb;RkdasTaMgGs;RtUv)anruHerIedIm,Ikat;bnßyPaB minesμIKñaénBN’esøk EdlbNþalmkBIkarcaMBnøWRBHGaTitü. Construction General - 97 -
  • 98. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC enAkardæanedIm,IkarBarépÞBIkarxUcxat nigkarxUcxatdl;eRKOgbgÁMú karRbugRbytñ½xageRkam KYrykcitþTukdak;³ elIkeRKOgbgÁM b¤ remoldak;elI dolly b¤rU:lUecjBIpøÚvLan. erIecjBILaneday édeday forklift b¤eday crane. minRtUvEbn Tajb¤GUseRKOgbgÁúM .kñúgGMLúgeBlerIecjBILan eday]bkrN_elI eRbIExSrkv:at;RkNat; b¤ExSs<ayepSgeTotEdlmineFVIeGayeQIxUc. pþl;bEnßm nUvbøúkkarBar enACayéneRKOgbgÁM. karBarRbLak; PaBkxVk; sñameCIg karrlat; b¤karxUcxat eTA rUbragCay b¤RCugRsYc. ]bkrN_ Equipment ]bkrN_EdlmansmtßPaBRKb;RKan;kñúgkarelIkdak;TMnijd¾RtwmRtUv CamYynwgkarRtYtBinitü sMrab;cl½t nigkardak;eRKOgbgÁúM KYrRtUveRbIsMrab;RKb;dMeNIrkar. vaKYrEtCaFmμCatisMrab;karFana suvtßiPaB nigkardak;sMPar³y:agRsYl. Crane nig]bkrN_emkanicepSgeTotRtUvEtmankarRtYt BinitüRKb;RKan;fa Fñwm ssr arche b¤sMPar³epSgeTot GacRtUv)andak;eTAkñúgTItaMgRbkbedayPaB Cak;lak;. ExS sling ExS rope nig]bkrN_EdlRbkdedaysnþisuxminRtUveFVI[xUcsMPar³enAeBldak;eT. Cagsagsg;KYrkMNt;TMgn;nigcMnuc tulüPaBén eRKOgbgÁúM munnwgcab;epþImelIk dUcenH]bkrN_ EdlRtwmRtUv nigviFIelIkGacRtUvykmkeRbIR)as;. enAeBl truss eQIEdlmanElVgEvg RtUvelIkeGayQr edIm,IerobcMelIPaBxusKña én stress TaMgGs;BIkarKit stress RtUvbgðaj.TMhMtMélnwgkarEcknUv Stress GaRs½y elIktþadUcCaTMgn;/ TMhM nigRbePT truss. RbsinebImanGñkeFVIekþagd¾mansmtßPaB nigcat;Tuk ktþaTaMgenHsMrab;kMNt; etIRtUvBüÜrb:unμan nigkar eFVIeGayrwg nigTItaMgrbs;va. PaBGaceTAdl;)an Accessibility TIFøaTMenrRKb;RKan;RtUvmanenAkardæansMrab;CaXøaMgTuksMPar³beNþaHGsnñ BIeBlsMPar³eTAdl;rhUt dl;eBlykeTAsagsg;. ]bkrN_elIkdak;sMPar³KYrmanpøÚvt]bsKÁBIXøaMgrkSaTMnij dl;cMnucsagsg;. eTaHCasagsg;RtUvcat;EcgBIxagkñúgsMNg; b¤GacRtUv)aneFVIBIxageRkA nigkMNt;nUvTItaMgRtUvkardMeNIrkar ]bkrN_. CMnajepSgeTot KYreFVIeGaykEnøgsagsg;s¥atrhUtdl;eRKOg bgÁúMtMeLIg nigRtUv)anTl;eday CnÞl;beNþaHGasnñ b¤Tl;CaGcié®nþy_edayRbBn½§sMNg;. karpÁúM nigkarpÁúMbnÞab;bnSM Assembly and subassemply eTaHCaRtUveFVIehIyenAkñúghag b¤enAelIdI b¤kNþalvalenAkardæan karpÁúM nigkarpÁúMbnÞab; bnSM KWGaRs½yelIRbBn½§ eRKagsMNg; nigTak;TgnwgkartCaeRcInRbePT. RtUvykcitþTukdak;CamYy nwgkarcab;KUr Construction General - 98 -
  • 99. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC eTAelIsMPar³EdleFVItamkarbBa¢aTij. karpÁúMRtUvEteFVI[RsbKñaCamYynwgbøg;kargar Edl)anTTYlkar yl;RBm. karxYg b¤ dapping bEnßm dUcCakartMeLIgkartenAkardæan RtUv)aneFVI tamrebobdUckmμkr. CaerOy² truss eQIF¶n;² RtUv)andwkCabMENk²b¤ bMEbkecjBIKñaTaMgGs;. vaRtUv)anpÁúMenA elIdI enAkardæan munsagsg;. Arches CaTUeTAdwkCBa¢ÚnCaBak;kNþalGacRtUvpÁúMenAelIdI b¤kartGac eFVIbnÞab;BI arche mçageTotenAnwgTIkEnøgEdr. enAeBl truss nig arch RtUv)anpÁúMrYcenAelIdIenAkardæan karpÁúMKYrmanbøúkkMrit kMBs;esμIRTBIeRkamedIm,IeGaykartmuxtMN)ansmRsbRtwmRtUv nigFana nUvPaBtMNwgedayKμankarxUcxat. muxtMNxagcugEdlRtUvsgát;RtUvdak;cUleTAkñúgTMreGayeBj nigelIkþarbnÞHsgát; kEnßgEdlRtUvtMeLIg. munnwgsagsg; karpÁúMKYrRtUvRtYtBinitüsMrab;karbBa¢ak;RKb;TMhM RKb;ragekag nigPaBCak; lak;éntMNEdkTMBk;. karsagsg;RtUverobcM nigRbRBitþtamviFIEdleGaysaksm nigrUbragxag eRkAénmuxtMNCitl¥ nigtYreRKagbgÁúMTaMgmUlnigminRtUv)aneFVI[Gn;fy. kargarpSa Field Welding enAeBlmantMrUvkarkarpSar kargarenHKYrEtRtUveFVIedayCagpSar EdlmanCMnajnig RBmeRBog CamYybøg;kargar nig esovePAlMGitbec©keTs. karkat;nigkareFVIeGaysuIKña Cutting and Fitting kartTaMgGs;KYrsaksmeTAtambøg;kargar nig esovePAlMGitbec©keTs nigKMnUrlMGitkargar shop drwaing Edl)anyl;RBm. karkat; framing nigkarxYgTaMgGs;KYrRtUv)aneFVIedayRBmeRBogCamYy karGnuvtþn_y:agl¥. enAkardæanxøH karkat; dapping b¤karsVankñúgRtUv)aneFVItamrebobdUckmμkr CamYynwgGVIEdlTTYl)annUvkarcat;TukeBleRbIR)as;cugeRkaybg¥s; nigrUbragxageRkA. karTl; Bracing eRKOgbgÁúMRtUv)andak;edIm,Ipþl;nUvkarTb;xag nigTMrbBaÄr edIm,IFanafakarpÁúMEdlrYcral; ehIy nwgbegáItnUveRKagbgÁúMEdlmanlMnwg. CnÞl;enHGacbnøaytamry³beNþaynigtamry³TTwg .vaGacbegáItrYmKñaCacl½t kat;TTwg bBaÄr Ggát;RTUg nigdUceRKOgbgÁúMEdlTb;nwgxül; rBa¢ÜydI karsagsg; karbegáInel,Ón karcab;RhVaMg nigkMlaMg epSgeTot. ehIyvaGacCa knee brace, ExSkab , rod EdkTab (strut), ties, shores, diaphrags, frame rwg nigsmasPaBEdlRsedogKñaepSgeTotkñúgbgÁM. Construction General - 99 -
  • 100. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC CnÞl;GacCabeNþaHGasnñ nigGcié®nþy_. CnÞl;Gcié®nþ tMrUvdUcCaEpñkTaMgRsugéneRKag sMNg;rYcral; Edl)anbgðajenAelIbøg;sßabtükmμ b¤bøg;visVkmμ nigCaFmμtak¾RtUveyageTAtam esovePAlMGitbec©keTs . CnÞl;sMNg;beNþaHGasnñ KWtMrUvedIm,IeFVI[manesßrPaB b¤eRbIkñúg kEnøgeRKogbgÁúMGcié®nþy_ kñúgGMLúgeBl sagsg; rhUtdl;eBleRKOgbgÁúMGcié®nþy_epSgeTotEdlRtUv P¢ab;enAnwgkEnøg. CnÞl;enH KWCakarTTYl xusRtUvrbs;Cagsagsg;EdlFmμtapÁt;pÁg; nigsagsg;va ehIy]bkrN_karBarRCug nig]bkrN_karBar epSgeTotRtUv)antMeLIg edIm,IkarBareRKOgbgÁúMBIkar xUcxatedaykarTl;. kñúgsMNg; truss eQICnÞl;beNþaHGasnñGacRtUveRbIedIm,ITl; trusse eGayRtg;enAeBlsag sg; nigTb;vanwgkEnøgrhUtdl;eBl eRKagbgÁúMTI2 epSgeTot nigeRKagtMbUlRtUv)antMeLIg. Epñkén CnÞl;beNþaHGasnñ PaKeRcInsMrab; truss RtuvTukenAnwgkEnøgeRBaHvaRtUv)anKitTukedIm,ITl;eRKag sMNg;EdlrYcral;eGayts‘U nigkMlaMgxag. CaFmμtakarbenÞas cMeBaHTItaMgénkarcg nigkarTl; sMng;beNþaHGasnñ edayminRKb;RKan; b¤minRtwmRtUv sMPar³sMNg;EdlmanbnÞúkelIs b¤PaBminsuI cgVak;KñarvagCnÞl;sMNg;beNþaHGasnñ nigkMlaMgRKb;RKan;Edlpþl;BIxageRkAeTAelIva. eRKagbgÁúMeQIRtUvEtrwg nigxøaMgEfmeTot. vaRtUvEt)ancgy:agRtwmRtUv b¤Tl;BIxagTaMgkñúg GMLúgeBlsagsg; nigCaerogrhUtenAkñúgeRKag Edlsg;rYcral;. eQIbnÞHkþabiTCab;KñaEdlmanmuxkat; ctuekaNEkgFM manTMnak;TMngPaBFn;énkMlaMxagx<s; nigFn;eTAnwg stess rmYl (torsional) kñúgGMLúgeBl sagsg;. eTaHCay:agNak¾eday Casagsg;minRtUvsnμt;Camunfa arch eQI FñwmeQI b¤ssreQIGac dkCnÞl;ecjkñúgGMLúgebltMeLignigsagsg;. CaerOykarcg¥úlbgðajy:agc,as;tMrUvfa³ 1> CnÞl;beNþaHGasnñKYrpþl;[edIm,ITb;eRKOgbgÁúM eGayenAnwgkEnøgrhUtTal;EteRKagbgÁúM RtUv)anbBa©b;edaybribUN_. 2> CnÞl;beNþaHGasnñKYrpþl;[edIm,IrkSanUvPaBRtg;esμI nigkarBarkarrMkiléneRKOgbgÁúM rhUtTal;EtkarbBa©b;CasßaBrnUvCBa¢aMg nigkMral. 3> Cagsagsg;KYrpþl;nUvCnÞl;beNþaHGasnñRKb;RKan; nigRbugRbytñ½ kñgdak;bnÞúkRCulhYsehtu ú enAelIEpñkNamYyéneRKagbgÁúMkñúgGMLúgeBlsagsg;. enAeBlEdlTMhMénkMlaMgTb;Edl KYrpþl;[edaykar cgExSkab b¤CnÞl;minGackMNt;)anCak;lak;bTBiesaFn_TUeTA bgðajfaCnÞl; KW RKb;RKan;RbsinvapÁt;pÁg; edIm,ITb;kMlaMgesμInwg 2° énkarpþl;kMlaMgesIs b¤kMlaMgsgát; flange én Fñwm. vamineRbIkMlaMgeRcIn Construction General - 100 -
  • 101. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC edIm,ITb;eGayeRKOgbgÁúMenAtamCYr b:uEnþenAeBlEdlvaecjBICYr enaH kMlaMgcaM)ac;edIm,ITajeGaycUlCYrvij KWeRcInKYrsm. CMBUkVI³ eRKagCBa¢aMgerob¬dæ/ bøúk/ fμ¦ nigsMPar³ Masonry Structure and Material 3 1> esckþIepþIm Introduction 1>1 CBa¢aMgerobdæ Masonry Wall CBa¢aMgerobdæ(Masonry)ekItmkkarpÁúMKñaénsMPar³minEmnelah³ minGacduteqHdUcCafμ dæ eRKagek,Óg bøúkebtug bøúkEkv bøúkmñagsila b¤dæeqA (adobe brick) . duMdæEdlpÁúMeLIgedaysMPar³ Edlerobrab;xagelI CaTUeTAmanRbEvgnigkMBs;cenøaH BI 4eTA 24 GuIg ehIymankMras;BI 4 eTA 12 GuIg. duMnimYy²RtUv)anP¢ab;Kña eday)ayGr b¤sMPar³suIm:g;t_. CBa¢aMgnig pÞaMgxNнRtUv)ancat;fñak;Ca Load-bearing nig non-load-bearing. lkçN³énkarKitepSgKña RtUvQrelIRbePTTaMgBIrenH. 1>2 niymn½yénCBa¢aMgerobdæ Masonry Definition xageRkamenHKW CacMENkFmμtaPaKeRcInEdleKrab;bBa©ÚleTAkñúgkargarsMNg;rabdæ. Construction General - 101 -
  • 102. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC - Ashlar Masonry CBa¢aMgrabdæEdlpÁúMedayduMctuekaNEdlCaTUeTAmanTMhMFMCag dænigmankarbiTCit )anl¥ RtUv)anGar RtUv)anerobcM b¤man)atkaer:. vaRtUv)anerobBIelI)ayGr. - Bearing Wall: Load- bearing wall - Bonder ( sUmemIl Header) - dæ³ duMdæmanragctuekaNEkg mi nticCagsUlIt 75° eFVIBIdædut fμPaCn_ b¤l,ayTaMgBIr. - Buttress: ssrdæEdlCaEpñkTaMgRsugénCBa¢aMg ehIybnßykMras;taMgBIeRkamrhUtdl;elI EdlTaMg enaHminmankMras;esþIgCagCBa¢aMgeT. vaRtUv)aneKeRbIsMrab;pþl;nUvPaBnwgfál; EpñkxagénCBa¢aMg. - Ceramic Veneer: dutedaykMedAxøaMg/ non- load- bearing sMNg;dIdæEdllabfñaM[relag minlab rabesμIb¤mank,ac;rcna. - Chase KWCa Recess bnþbnÞab;enAkñúgCBa¢aMgsMrab;bMBg;Twk bMBg;lU. - ssr³ KWCaEpñkrgnUvkMlaMgsgát; EdlmanTTwgmin[FMCag4dg énkMras;nigmanbeNþayFMCag3dg én TMhMxagEdltUcCageK. - bøúkebtug³ duMdæEdleFVIedaym:asuIn EdlmanbnSMénsuIm:gt_Br½ELn fμbMEbk nigTwk. - Coping: k,alénCBa¢aMg/ ssrRKwH/ bMBg;EpSg b¤ssrbYnRCug edIm,IkarBarCMrabTwkeTAkñúgCBa¢aMgdæ xageRkam. - Corbel: karlanecjduMdæbnþbnÞab;ecjBIépÞCBa¢aMgedIm,IbegáInkMras;rbs;va b¤edIm,IbegáItdUcCaeFñIr. - Course: duMdæEdlrabP¢ab;Cabnþ)anmYyCYredk. - Cross- sectional area: épÞmuxkat;suT§ (net cross- sectional area) KWCapldkrvagépÞmuxkat;TaMgmUl (gross cross-sectional area) nigépÞRbehagb¤ Cellular Space. épÞmuxkat;TaMgmUlrbs;RbehagRtUv)an kMNt;eTAxageRkAénRbehagRtUv)ankMNt;eTAxageRkAénRbhag b:uEnþépÞmuxkat;éncg¥ÚrminRtUv)andk edIm,I)anépÞmuxkat;eT. - Eccentricity: cMgay normal rvagGkS½énTIRbCuMTMgn; nigkMlaMgpÁÜbEdlRsbeTAnwgGkS½enaH. - Effective Height: kMBs;EdleKsnμtsMrab;KNnasmamaRt Slenderness - Effective Thickness: kMras;EdleKsnμt;sMrab;KNnasmamaRt Slenderness - Grout: Cal,ayénsuIm:g;t_fμbMEbkm:t; nigTwkRKb;RKan;sMrab;plitnUvl,aysMrab;cak;EdlKμanPaB pøas;bþÚr nigminbMEbkFatupSM. Construction General - 102 -
  • 103. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC - Grout Cement: CBa¢aMgerobdæEdltMNxagkñúgbMeBjedaykatcak; Grout cUleTAkñúgenaHenAeBlEdl kargarrIkcMerIn. - Header(bonder): duMdæ b¤duMdæebtugepSgeTotEdlrabcugCBa¢aMgExVgKña edIm,I)an bond two wythes - Height of wall: cMgaybBaÄrBI)atRKwHCBa¢aMgdl;cugCBa¢aMgb¤ enAcenøaHTMr. - duMdæRbehag³ duMdæEdlmanépÞmuxkat;suT§ RsbeTAnwg bearing surface tUcCag 75% épÞmuxkat;TaMg mUlvas;kñúgbøg;dUcKña. - TMrxag³ dUcCa Cross Wall, ssr Pilaster, Buttresses, kMralxN½Ð/ dMbUl nigFñwm Spandrel EdlmanPaB Fn;nwgkMlaMgRKb;RKan; nigmanPaBlMnwgEdlFn;nwgkMlaMgbMElgedk EdlGaccat;TukCaTMrxag. - Load- bearing wall: CBa¢aMgEdlRTnUvkMlaMgQr nigrYmTaMgTMgn;xøÜngrbs;vapÞal;. - Masonry: karsagsg; b¤bnSMénduMdæEdlP¢ab;KñaBImYy eTAmYyday)ayGr b¤suIm:g;t_. - )ayGr (Mortar): KWCal,ay)øasÞikénsuIm:g;t_ fμbMEbk nigTwk. - Partition: CBa¢aMg non-bearing wall EpñkxagkñúgénmYyCan; b¤mankMBs;xøI. - Pier: KWCassrénCBa¢aMgdac;edayÉg. CBa¢aMg bearing wall EdlmanrabenAEpñkxagnUvdæ RtUvcat;Tuk fa Pier enAeBlEdlTMhMedkvas;EkgnwgkMras;minFMCag4dgénkMras;. - Pilaster: ssrerobdæEdlCaEpñkmYyénCBa¢aMg b:uEnRkas;CagCBa¢aMg ehIymankMras;esμIKñataMgBIKl; dl;cug. vaedIrtYCaFñwmbBaÄr/ ssr b¤TaMgBIrEtmþg. - Prism: KWCabnSMrvagdæ nig)ayGrkñúgeKalbMNgBiesaFn_ rkPaBFn;énkMlaMgRtYtBinitüKuNPaB sMPar³ nigTwkéd. kMBs;Gb,brimaén Prisms KW 12 GuIgehIysmamaRt Slenderness KYrenAcenøaH 2 nig 5. - Coursed rubble: KWCakarrabfμEdlmaneRKImeGaymanépÞelIesÞIrEtrabesμI s¥itCab;Kñal¥ nigcenøaH bBaÄrbnþbnÞab;KñaeGaymanépÞrabesμI. - Random Rubble: KWCakarrabfμEdlmanrageRKIm s¥itCab;Kñal¥ EtcenøaHbBaÄrminbnþCab;KñaeT b:uEnþesÞIr EtmanépÞrabesμI. - Rough or Ordinary rubble: karerobfμEdlmanragminc,as;las; b:uEnþs¥itl¥. - smamaRt Slenderness: KWCasmamaRtén effective high eTAnwg effective thickness Construction General - 103 -
  • 104. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC - duMdæsUlIt Solid Masonry Unit: duMdæEdlmanépÞmuxkat; suT§RsbeTAnwgépÞ bearing surface 75% b¤ eRcInCaenHeFobeTAnwgépÞmuxkat;TaMgmUlvas;bøg;EtmYy. - CBa¢aMgdæsUlIt³ CBa¢aMgEdlpÁúMedayduMdæsUlItrabbnþbnÞab;KñaEdlmanmuxtMNrvagKñaeday)ayGr b¤ Grout. - Stretcher: duMdæEdlrabtambeNþayedk nigRsbeTAnwgCBa¢aMg. - Veneer: karP¢ab;y:agCab;nUv Wythe eTAnwgCBa¢aMg b:uEnþeKmin)ancat;TuksMrab;EckrMElkbnÞúk b¤bEnßm PaBFn;eTAvaeT. - Virtual Eccentricity: GkS½bnÞúkpÁÜbén Eccentricity tMrUvsMrab;begáItnUvsmIkarsmaRtén Stress axial nig bending EdlbegáItedaybnÞúk axial nigbnÞúk transverse. - CBa¢aMg Wall: sMNg;bBaÄ b¤esÞIrEtbBaÄrEdlmanbeNþayEvgCagkMras;3dg sMrab;biT)aMgTIlMhr b¤ Tb;dI b¤pÞúksMPar³. - Bearing Wall: CBa¢aMgEdlRTbnÞúkbBaÄrrYmTaMgTMgn;xøÜnvapÞal;. - Curtain Wall: CBa¢aMg non-bearing wall xageRkA. - Faced Wall: CBa¢aMgEdlmanépÞxagmuxnig xagxñgrabedaysMPar³epSgKña nigs¥itCab;Kñaedaykarsgát; nUvRbtikmμFmμtaeRkambnÞúk. - CBa¢aMgRbehag³ CBa¢aMgdæEdlrabedaymanlMhrxagkñúgCBa¢aMgenAcenøaH Wythe xagkñúgnig xageRkA - Cavity Wall: RtUv)ansg;BIedayduMdæ b¤cak;ebtug b¤edaybnSMénsMPar³TaMgBIrEdlrabedaymanxül; lMhrkñúgCBa¢aMg EdlmanbMeBjedayGuIsULg; nig Wythes xagkñúg nigxageRkARtUvcgP¢ab;Kñaeday EdkcMNg. - Non bearing wall: CBa¢aMgEdlminRTnUvkMlaMgbBaÄreRkABITMgn;xøÜnvapÞal;. - Party Wall: CBa¢aMgenAxagkñúgdIlUt_ eRbIsMrab;CacMNgénGaKarBIr.; - Shear Wall: CBa¢aMgEdlFn;nwgkMlaMgedkEdlpþl;[bøg;énCBa¢aMg. - Spandrel Wall: CBa¢aMg Curtain Wall xageRkAénFñwmkMralxN½ÐxageRkAenAtamkMritkMBs;enAsMNg; GaKareRcInCan;. eKGacKitcab;BIk,alénbg¥ÜcxageRkamdl;)aténbg¥ÜcxagelI. - Veneer Wall: CBa¢aMgEdlmanmux nigxñgénCBa¢aMgP¢ab;edaysMPar³epSg b:uEnþmins¥itdUcRbtikmμFmμta eRkambnÞúkeT. Construction General - 104 -
  • 105. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC - Wythes: kMras;énduMdænimYy² EdlrabbnþbnÞab;)anCaEpñkbBaÄrénCBa¢aMg. rUb 6-1 CBa¢aMgdæxageRkA 2> KuNPaBénsMPar³sMrab;CBa¢aMgrabdæ Quality of Material for Masonry dæEdleRbIR)as;rYcmþgehIyKYr ykmkeRbIR)as;vijedaykarRbugRbytñ½x<s;bMput. ]bkrN_dæEdl )anmkBIkarkMeTcsMNg;cas;² Edlsg;BIdæsUlItnigdutedaykMedAxøaMg EdleRbIsMrab;CBa¢aMgxageRkA nigduM Salmon RtUv)aneGayykmkeRbIvij. BIeRBaHBN’epSgKña Edl)anBIsMNg;edIm nigdæEdl)an eRCIserIsRtUvbiT )aMgCamYynwg)ayGr. maneRKaHfñak;c,as;las;Edlykdæ Salmon RtUv)aneGayykmk Construction General - 105 -
  • 106. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC eRbIsMrab;CBa¢aMgxageRkA nwgGacEbky:aggay. eKmin)anENnaM[ykdæEdlrabbMBg;EpSgmkeRbIvijeT eRBaHduMdæTaMgenaHs‘b;eTAedayCatieRbg b¤ERmgePøIg. karKitnUvsMNg;dæ load-bearing KYrQrelIeKalkarN_ rational engineering analysis CMnYs[tMrUvkar EdlsMGagelIkarBiesaFn_sMrab;CBa¢aMgEdlmankMras;Gb,brma nigmankMBs;GtibrmaEdlmankñúgkUdsMNg;. CaTUeTAtMrUvkarTaMgenaHykmkeRbIR)as;y:agx¢Hx¢aysMrab;eFVIsMNg; bearing wall sMrab;GaKarEdlmankMBs; x<s;Cag3 eTA 5Can; nigelIkTwkcitþeGayeRbIR)as;nUvvIFIénepSgeTot ¬Edkb¤ebtugeRKamq¥wg¦. cab;taMgBIqñaM 1965 sMNg;dævisVkmμkMBs; 10Can; b¤x<s;CagenH)anKitedayQrelIeKalkarN_ Rational Structural analysis RtUv)ansagsg;enAshrdæGaemric. sMNg;enHRtUv)anykKMrUtamsMNg; Load-bearing brick CaeRcIn EdlmankMBs;eRcInCag 10Can;Edl)ansagsg;kñúgGMLúg 2TsvtSn_munenAGwr:ub. 2>1 tMrUvkarTUeTAsMrab;karKitCalkçN³bTdæan General Requirement of Design Standard kñúgkarRtYtBinitükargarb¤sñaéd sßabtükr b¤visVkrRtUvkarbTdæansMrab;BinitübBa¢ak;. CaTUeTARbsinebI sMNg; b¤kargarsñaédenHmanP¢ab;mkCamYynUvkic©snüa nigesovePAlMGitkargar. karRtYtBinitüCajwkjab; RtUv )aneFVIeLIgedayGñkRtYtBinitü EdlGacRtYtBinitüCaeRcIndMNak;kalénsMNg; nigRtYtBinitüemIlkar Gnuvtþn_ kargarRbRBwtþeTA)anRtwmRtUv. enAeBlEdlkarRtYtBinitüedayvisVkr b¤sßabtükrminRtUv)anpþl;eGayenaH bTdæanRtUv)ankat;bnßy nUv allowable stresses niglT§PaBRTRTg;bnÞúk (capacities for load) . CBa¢aMg Engineer brick bearing- wall min tMrUv[manbec©keTsfμIsMrab;viPaK nigKiteTb:uEnþRKan;Et GnuvtþnUveKalkarN_visVkmμedayRKan;EteRbIkarviPaK nigkarKitRbB½n§eRKagd¾éT. viFIénkarviPaKKW GaRs½yeTAnwgPaBsaMjauMénsMNg; rYmman kMBs; RTg;RTay TItaMg CBa¢aMg nigrn§RbelaHkñúgCBa¢aMg. eTaHCay:agNak¾edaykarGPirkSkarsnμt (conservation assumption) xøHRtUv )anykmkeRbIR)as;y:aglMGitRtwmRtUvedIm,IKaMRTnUvkarviPaK nigkarKitenaHGacpþl;lT§plnUvdMeNaHRsay y:aggayRsYl nigCaTIKab;citþrbs;sMNg; Bearing-wall PaKeRcInrhUtdl;kMBs;12Can;. karviPaKrwtEt hμt;ct;sMrab;eRKag bearing-wall sMrab;kMBs;xagelIenHGacRtUv)antMrUv[rkSTuknUvkarsnSMsMécsMrab;RbePT sMNg;enH. Construction General - 106 -
  • 107. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 2>2 sMPar³sMrab;sMNg;rabdæ Materials for Masonry Construction PaBFn;énkMlaMg¬sgát;/ kat;pþac; nigkat;TTwg¦ énsMNg;dæRtUv)anCHT§iBledaylkçN³éndæ nig )ayGrEdleKykmkrab. duMdæmanPaBFn;énkMlaMgsgát;FMCag. sUm,IEt)ayGrk¾manPaBFn;énkMlaMgsgát; FMEdr sMrab;sMNg;rabdævamanPaBFn;FMeTAnwgkMlaMgpþac; nigkMlaMgTTwg. sMrab;sMNgrabdævamanPaBFn;FM eTAnwgkMlaMgkat;pþac; nigkMlaMgTTwg. sMrab;mUlehtuenH vamantMrUvkarsMrab;karKity:agCak;lak;nig minman EdnkMNt;sMrab;sMPar³EdleRbIR)s;kñúgsMNg;visVkmμdæ. 3> sMNg;rabdæ Construction of masonry PaBFn;énkMlaMgsgát;sMrab;sMNg;rabdæKW GaRs½yeTAnwgPaBbuinRbsBVd¾eqñIménsñaédnig PaBeBjelj kñúgkarrabduMdænimYy². PaBFn;énkMlaMgTajKWCatYnaTIénPaBs¥itrbs;)ayGrénduMnimYy² nigépÞénPaBs¥it ¬kMriténPaBeBjeljénkarbMeBjmuxtMN¦. dUcenHsMrab;bBa¢ak;kargarrabdæ vamansar³sMxan;kñúgkar rabdæ[eBj duMdænimYy²RtUvduMsgát;eGay)anl¥ nigRKb;muxtMNRtUvbMeBjeday)ayGreGay)ansBVedIm,I kat;bnßykarRCabTwkcUlénTwkeTAkñúgCBa¢aMgdæ. CaBiesskñúgkarbMeBjmuxtMN head joint eKRtUvdak;)ayGr[)anRkas;BIelIxagcugmçagénduMdæ nigduM nImYy²KYrRtUvrujcuHeTAmuxtMN)at EdleFVIdUcenHedIm,I[)ayGrRbecotecjtamxagelI nigtamxagénmux tMN head joint .)ayGrKYrRKbBIxagelI RKab;xagTaMgGs;énduMdæmunnwgvaRtUv)andak;Ca header. karRbwg ERbgkñúgkarbMeBjmuxtMN Head joint edayCHcak;)ayGrEdlsMbUredayTwk b¤edaybgðÚrTwkkMe)arminTTYl )aneCaKC½ykñúgkareFVI[muxtMNminRCabTwk. karbMeBjmuxtMNedayEpñk edaykar):atb¤ dak;RbLak; “Buttering” b¤ “Spotting” elICaybBaÄrénduMdæeday)ayGEdl)anBIkarkat;ecjnUv)ayGrEdllayecj BIxagmuxtMNr)atKWvamin)anpþl;lT§pleT nigKYrRtUvhamXat;. sMrab;kEnøgNaEdltMrUv[karbiT (Closure) rn§RbelaHKYrRtUv)anbMeBjeday)ayGr eFVIdUecñHedIm,IeGaykarsUkbBa©Úl closure edaymanlanecjnUvkMe)ar )ayGrTaMgxag nigbBaÄr. CaTUeTAmuxtMN)ayGrRtUvmanlMdab;kMritBI 1¼4 eTA 3¼4 GuIn. Construction General - 107 -
  • 108. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC rUb 6-2 RbePTénmuxtMNdæ ]bkrN_sMrab;bMeBjmuxtMN KWGacCYydl;karFn;nwgRCabTwk RbsinebIdMeNIrRbRBwtþeTA)anRtwmRtUv. b:uEnþ vaminEmnCavtßúsMrab;bMeBjmuxtMNreGaymuxtMNreGay)aneBjelj b¤CameFüa)aysMrab;edaHRsay sMrab;karbMeBjmuxtMNEdlmineBjelj. Concave Joint RtUv)anENnaM[eRbI. eRbInUv raked b¤muxtMNrepSgeTotEdlpþl;nUvépÞTwkedkKYrRtUvecosvag. kMe)ar)ayGrKYrminRtUvrwgeBkeT kñúgeBleRbIR)as; ]bkrN_enH b¤karbgðab;k¾RtUvmanTaMgminRtUvmansPaBraveBk b¤duMdæGackMerIk nigduMnimYy²minRtUvkMerIkbnÞab; BIkardak;CYbKñadMbUgCamYy)ayGr. RbsinebIduMdæecjxusCYrvaKYrRtUverIecj )ayGrk¾RtUvcUkecjehIy)ayGr ravfμIRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;karerobeLIgvij. épÞxñgsMrab; Wythes xageRkAKYrRtUvbUk b¤ parged munnwgduMdæ backup RtUv)anrab. RbsinebI backup erobmunenaH backup xagmuxKYrRtUv parged .)ayGrKYrdUcKñanwg)ayGrEdleRbI sMrab;rabdæ nigKYrmankMras;BI ¼ eTA ⅜ GuIn. GaRtaénkarbWtRsUbTwkedayduMdænimYy² enAeBlEdlkMBugrab KWmansarsMxan;Nas;kñúgkarkMNt; PaBFn; nwgkMlaMgnig PaBFn;nwgkarRCabTwkénmuxtMN)ayGr. GRtaenHGacRtUv)ankat;bnßyedaykarepSIm duMdæmunnwgmkrab. duMdæEdlmankarbWt TwkCamFümGaccaM)ac;RtUvRtaMkñúgTwkRKb;eBl. sMrab;duMdæEdl mankarbWtTwkx<s;GactMrUvTwkTaMgRsug sMrab; eBlxøHmunnwgduMenaH :karbWtTwk : (Suction) RtUv)ankat;bnßy dl;kMritTabEdleKRtUvkar. sMrab;CBa¢aMgdæEdl Fn;nwgkarRCabTwk (Water-resistant masonry) GRtaénkarbWt TwkminKYreGayelIsBI 0>35/ 0>5 nig 0>7 oz erog KñasMrab;sMNg;CBa¢aMgdæTaMgGs; b¤épÞmuxFmμtaEdlman kMras; 4/8 nig 12 GuIn. brimaNsMeNImEdldæRtUvkarsMrab;RtYtRtaGRtaénkarbWtTwkRtwmRtUv enAeBlerobdæKYrRtUvdwg b¤ kMNt;edaykarvas;EvgEdleFVIeLIgmunnwgdæRtUv)anykmkrabCaCBa¢aMg. sMrab;dæEdlmankarbWtTwkCa mFümGactMrUv[epSImTwkCajwkjab;enAkñúgKMnr sMrab;dæepSgeTotGacRtUvkarBnøwckñúgTwkTaMgRsugry³eBl mYyem:agb¤eRcInCagenH. enAeBlEdlviFIBnøickñúgTwkcMNayGs;eRcInCagkar)aj;TwkelIKMnr b:uEnþvaFanaRKb; Construction General - 108 -
  • 109. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC dæTaMgGs;Eq¥tTwkl¥CagenAeBlykvaecjBIkñúgTwk. ry³eBld¾éTeTotqøas;KñaxøI² GacRtUvkarmunnwgdæRtUv )anrab b:uEnþeBlxøHdæRtUvmanenABIelI CnÞa kñúglkçx½NÐsmRsbsMrab;rab. dæenABIelICnÞaKYrRtUvRtYtBinitü nigEqklkç½x½NÐsMeNImCaeRcIndgkñúgmYy éf¶. CaTUeTAviFIénkarvaynPaBrbs;dæminmanCHT§iBl GVIF¶n;F¶r dl;PaB minRCabTwkénCBa¢aMgeT. xSac;Edl rsat;RtUve)asecj b¤mü:ageTotRtUverIecjBIduMdæEdlmanxSac; ENnhab;. )ayGrEdlykmkeRbIsMrab;kMritx<s; (above-grade) xagmuxdæEdlFn;nwgTwk nigRKb;CBa¢aMgdæTaMgGs; KYrEtesImEdlGacykmkeRbI)anedayCagkMe)ar. brimaNTwkenAkñúg)ayGrmin RtUveGayticCag 75° nig Edll¥bMput 80°b¤elIsBIenH. sMrab;karrabdæEdlmanbrimaN bWtTwk y:ageRcInenH )ayGrEdlman brimaNbWtTwky:ageRcInenaH )ayGrEdlmanbrimaNTwk 80° b¤eRcInCagenH GacRtUveRbIedayKμankarhUr TwkkMe)ar “Bleeding” y:ageRcInenAmuxtMN nigGaceFVIeGaydæGENþt “floating” eT. )ayGrEdll¥tex©aHGacRtUv)anedaykarlayCamYysuIm:g;Br½ELn nigkMe)arGuIRdatkmμ (hydrated line) layedaymansmamaRt 1³1³6 KwtCamaDedaymansuIm:gt_/ kMe)ar nigxSac;RtsuHesImerogKña. kMe)ar GuIRdatkmμKYrmanlkçN³)øasÞicx<s;. taMgBIkarRCabénsMeNImtam)atuPUt Capillary tamry³ebtugnig kMe)arKWCasar³sMxan;dUctUcmk Ca BiesssMrab;CBa¢aMg above-grade kMe)ar)ayGrminRtUvmankarminRCabTwkTaMgRsugeT. eTaHbICay:agNak¾ eday RbsinebIcaM)ac; kMe)ar)ayGrminRCabTwk GacRtUveRbIy:agsMxan;enAkñúgkargarxøHenAExSkMrit (grade line) edIm,Ikat;bnßykarekIneLIgén)atuPUt capillary énsMeNImBIdIcUleTAkñúgCBa¢aMgdæ. )ayGrKYrEtCaRbePTEdl minRtUvrwgelOneBkenAelIkþaRkal elIkElgEtkar)at;sMeNImedaykarhYt. )ayGrKYrRtUveFVIkarRcbUkCaerOy² RbsinebIcaM)ac;edIm,IrkSaPaBesImminpøas;bþÚrdUcEdlGaceFVIeTA )ansMrab;CagkMe)arykeTAeRbIR)as;. enAeBlEdlsItuNðPaBxüs;TabCag 808 F )ayGrKYreRbIR)as; b¤ e)aHecal kñúgrvag 3em:agknøH bnÞab;BIlayrYc sMrab;sItuNðPaBxül;esμIx<s;Ca 808 F kMe)ar)ayGrEdlmin )anebIKYrRtUvcak;ecalbnÞab;BI 2em:agknøH. Construction General - 109 -
  • 110. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 3>1 sMNg;CBa¢aMgrabdækñúgGakasFatuRtCak; Cold weather construction of masonry walls CBa¢aMgrabdæKYrRtUv)ankarBarTb;Tl; nwgeRKaHfñak;edaykarkkTwkkk. xageRkamenHKWkarRbugRby½tñ BiessEdlKYrykcitþTukdak;³ sMPar³EdlRtUveRbIKYrrkSa[s¶Üt. kMBUlénCBa¢aMgTaMgGs;EdlKμanGVIB½T§CuMvij b¤ KμanGVIbiT)aMgKYrRtUvRKbenAeBlQb;eFVIkar. kMraleRKabkarBarKYrbnøaycuHeRkamy:agtic 2ft. sMPar³EdlkkRtUveFVIeGayvarlaysinmunnwgykmkeRbI. duMdæRtUvkMedAy:agtic 408F . sItuNðPaB rbs;)ayGrKYrsißtenAcenøaH 40 eTA 120F ehIykMe)arminRtUvdak;enAkEnøgEdlkkeT. RbsinebIcaM)ac; CBa¢aMgKYrRtUvkarBaredaykMedAnigedaykMral)aMgxül; (windbreak) y:agtic48em:ageRbIkMe)ar)ayGr Edllay eday suIm:gt_ Edlqab;Fn;nwgkMlaMgy:agx<s; (high-early strength cement) GacnwgmanRbeyaCn_ y:agxøaMgsMrab;sMNg;dækñúg GakasFatuRtCak;. 3>2 cgP¢ab;rvag Wythes sMrab;CBa¢aMgdæ Bond between wythes in Masonry wall enAeBlEdl header RtUv)aneRbIsMrab;P¢ab;xagmux nigxagxñgsMrab;CBa¢aMgrabdæsUlItnig faced wall dUcbgðajkñúgrUb 6-3 mi nRtUeGaytUcCag 4°énépÞCBa¢aMgénmuxnimYy²énCBa¢aMgEdlpSMeday header EdlKYr RtUvBnøany:agtic 4GuIn eTAkñúgEpñkxagxñg. Header TaMgenHminRtUvsßitenAq¶ayBIKñaelIsBI 24GuIn eTTaMgtam TisedAedk nigTisedAQr ¬rUb 6-3¬a¦ ¬b¦¦. sMrab;CBa¢aMgEdlman bonder EtmYymin)anBnøantamCBa¢aMg eT. Header tamRCugQmKñaenaHKYrRCYsmuxKña 4GuIn b¤KYrRtUvRKbeday bonder epSgeTotEdlKgmuxKñaCamYy header xageRkamy:agtic 4GuIn. RbsinebIEdkcMNg¬rUb6-3 e nig 6-4¦ RtUv)aneRbIkargarcgP¢ab;vaKYrEtFn;nwgeRcHsuI.. sMrab;cgP¢ab;xagmux nigxagxñgénCBa¢aMgdæsUlIt nig faced wall vaKYrEtRtUv)andak;Edk cMNg1sMrab;ral;épÞ CBa¢aMg 4 ft knøH. EdkcMNgKYrdak;tamrebobd¾éTeTotqøas;Kña cMgayGtibrmaénEdknimYy²tam TisedAQr 2 minRtUv[elIsBI 18GuIn nigtamTisedAedkminRtUv[elIsBI 36GuIneT. sMrab;CBa¢aMgEdlpÁúMeday dæRbehag kMras;BIr b¤eRcIn Stretcher courses KYrRtUvcgP¢ab;edayviFImYykñúgcMeNamviFIxageRkam³ sMrab;cenøaH kMBs;QreRcInCag 34GuIn KYrmankarrabRCYsmuxKñaduMxageRkmay:agtic4Guin ¬rUb 6-3c¦. b¤sMrab;cenøaH kMBs;FMCag 17GuIn KYrRtUvrabRCYsmuxduMxageRkamy:agtic kMras; 50° ¬rUb 6-3d¦. b¤y:agticRtUvP¢ab; eday cMNg1 ral;épÞCBa¢aMg 4ft ½. EdkRtUvdak;tamrebobqøas;Kña cMgayGtibrmasMrab;EdknimYy² tamTisedA 2 Construction General - 110 -
  • 111. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC QrKYrEtmantMél 18GuIn nigtamTisedAedkmantMél 36GuIn. karRKbeday)ayGreBjKYrRtUvpþl;[TaMg muxtMNedknigQr enAxagcugnigCayépÞ shell énduMdæRbehag. sMrab; ashlar masonry karP¢ab;fμKYrRtUvBRgayCaÉksNæanBIépÞCBa¢aMgTaMgmUlnig begáIty:agtic10° énépÞRklaénépÞrab. rUb6-3 RbePTénsMNg;rabdæduM rUb 6-4 RbePTEdkcMNgsMrab;CBa¢aMgerobdæ Construction General - 111 -
  • 112. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC sMrab; rubble stone masonry EdlmankMras;rhUtdl; 24GuIn karrabP¢ab;fμKYrEtmanKMlatGtibrma 3ft TaMgTisedAQr nigTisedAedk. sMrab;CBa¢aMgRkas;CagenH KYrEtmankarrabfμmYyy:agticral;épÞCBa¢aM 6ft 2 TaMgsgxag. sMrab;biTP¢ab;Epñkxagmux ashlar PaKryénkarbiTP©ab;fμRtUv)anKitBIépÞRklaénCBa¢aMgEdlRtUv expose. y:agtic10°énépÞRklaenHKYrpÁúMedaykarBRgayy:agÉksNæanénkarbiTP¢ab;fμ edaybEnßm 4GuIn b¤ eRcIneTAkñúg backup . RKb;karbiTP¢ab;fμ nigenAeBlrabqøas;KñaminRtUv)aneday bond courses RKb;fμTaMgGs;KYr RtUv)anf<k;y:agCab;eTAnwg back upCamYynwgTMBk;EdkeRcHGt;suI. TaMgenHRtUvmanépÞmuxkat;Gb,brma 3¼13 31 GuIn. vaRtUvmanTMBk;mYysMrab;fμmYynigy:agticTMBk; BIrsMrab;fμEdlmanRbEvgEvgCag 2ft b¤manépÞRklaFMCag 2ft b¤manépÞRklaFMCag 3 ft . fμEdlmanmuxFM²KYr 2 many:agticEdkTMBk;mYysMrab;épÞRkla 4ft b:uEnþminRtUvmanTMBk;ticCag2eT. Cavity-wall wythes KYrRtUvbiT 2 P¢ab;KñaCamYynwgEdkEdlmanGgát;p©it 3¼16GuIn b¤EdkcMNgEdlmanlkçN³rwgdUcmun bgáb;enAkñúgtMNedk. vaKYrmanEdkcMNgy:agticmYysMrab;ral;CBa¢aMgEdlmanépÞRkla 4ft knøH. EdkcMNgKYrRtUvdak;kñúglkçN³ 2 qøas; cMgayGtibrmarvagEdknimYy² minRtUvelIBI 18GuIn sMrab;TisedAQr nig 36GuIn sMrab;TisedAedk Edl bt;CaragctuekaN KYrRtUveRbICamYy nigduMdæRbehagedayrabkñúgTisedAQ. sMrab;CBa¢aMgd¾éTeTot cugénEdk KYrRtUvbt;eGay)anmuM 90 edIm,Ipþl;nUvTMBk;y:agticRbEvg 2GuIn. karbEnßmcMnYnEdkcMNgKYrRtUv)anpþl;[enA º RKbRbehagTaMgGs;. EdkTaMgenaHKYrmanKMlatBIKñamin[elIsBI 3ft BT½§CuMvijbrimaRtnig cMgay12GuInBIrn§ Rbehag. enAeBlEdlCBa¢aMg bearing wall BIrkat;ExVgKña ehIy course RtUvrabeLIgtMNalKñakEnøgExVgKñaRtUvcg P¢ab;edayrabCa true bond y:agtic50°énduMénkEnøgExVgKña. enAeBlEdl course RtUvrabeLIgedaydac;eday ELkBIKña CBa¢aMgEdlRtUvExVgKYrrabTukCaKnøak; b¤Cabøúky:ageTotTat;edayXøatecj (off set) Gtibrma 8GuIn. muxtMNKYrRtUvdak;EdkTMBk;Edlmanmuxkat;Gb,brimaBI ¼eTA1 in ½ Edlmancugbt;y:agtic2GuIn b¤RtUvdak; cross pin edIm,IbegáItCaTMBk;. EdkTMBk;TaMgenaHRtUvmanRbEvgy:agtic 2ft nigmanKMlatBIKñamin[elIsBI4ft . 3>3 rabdæeday grout grout masonry sMNg;énCBa¢aMgRtUvkar Wythes Cadæb¤ bøúkebtugsUlItBIr b¤eRcInRsedogKñaeTAnwgCBa¢aMgEdl)an bgðajkñúgrUb 6-3a EdlGacBenøÓnkargar)anedaykarcak; grout cenøaH wythes sgxagedIm,IbMeBjmuxtMN xagkñúg. sMrab; wythes CaTUeTAkUdsMNg;GaKartMrUv[srsrGkSr M b¤ S sMrab;bgðaj)ayGrEdlmanlay Construction General - 112 -
  • 113. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC suIm:gt_B½rELn kMe)ar nigFμbMEbk. dUcKñaenaeBlrabdæ eKtMrUv[duMdæeFVIBIdIdædut nigduMxSac;kMe)ar (sand-line unit) KYrmanGRtabWtTwk minRtUvelIsBI 0.025 oz /in ral;ry³eBl 1mn sMrab;karBiesaFn_bTdæanénbMNWt. 2 RKb;duMEdlrabCa Wythes TaMgsgxagRtUvrabedaymanmuxtMNeBjeljk,al nig)at (head and bed joint) . Low-lift Grouting KMlatbBaÄrrvag Wythes EdlRtUvbMeBjeday grout RtUvmanTTwgy:agtic ¾ in masonry header min KYrRbeyaleTAkñúgTIlMhreT. Wythes xageRkAmYyRtUverob[)ankMBs;18 GuIn grout RtUv)ancak;bMeBj. Wythes xageRkAmçageTotRtUv)ankMNt;eGaymankMBs;rhUtdl;6dgénKMlat grout b:uEnþminRtUvelIs 8GuIn munnwg grout cak;bBa©Úl. dUcenHsMrab;RbePTsMNg;enH grout RtUv)ancak;CacMnYnelIk (lift) EdlminelIsBI 8GuIn.GroutKYrRtUv)aneFVI[eTACaPk;CamYynwgdMbggrout Pøam² bnÞab;BIvaRtUv)ancak;bBa©Úl. RbsinebIkargar RtUvbBaÄb;sMrab;ry³eBl1em:ag b¤eRcInCagenH sMNg;muxtMNedkKYrRtUv)anbegáItedaytMeLIg RKb; Wythes [mankMritkMBs;esμIKña nigcak; grout edayTuk1GuInBIeRkamkMBUl. Grout smRsbsMrab;RbePTsMNg;enHpSM eLIgedaymansuIm:g;t_Br½ELnmYyPaK 0>1PaKénkMe)arGuIRdatkmμ (hydrated lime) b¤emSAkMe)ar (lime putty) nig 2¼ eTA3PaKénxSac;. High-lift Grouting CaerOy² RbePTsMNg;enHRtUveRbIsMrab;kEnøgEdlmandak;EdkBRgwgenAcenøaHKMlatbBaÄrén Wythes ]TahrN_sMrab;TIRbehagénCBa¢aMgdUckñúgrUb 6-3e. Grout RtUv)ancak;CabnþbnÞab;sMrab; lift EdlmankMBs;rhUt dl; 6ft nigbeNþayrhUtdl; 30ft kñúgKMlatbBaÄr. ¬r)aMgbBaÄrb¤TMnb; eFVIBIdæsUlItGacRtUvrabenAkñúgKMlat Grout edIm,IRtYtBinitükarhUrtamTisedAedkrbs; Grout ¦. kUdsMNg; GactMrUv[ral; lift RtUvEtbMeBjcb;sBV RKb;kñúgGMLúgeBl1éf¶. Grout RtUv)anbMENnedayeFVI[eTACaPk; b¤rMBa½remkanic enAeBlEdlcarcak;va nig RtUvbMENneLIgvijenAeBlEdlsMeNImelIslb;RtUv)anRsUbbWtb:uE nþmunnwg Plasticity RtUv)an)at;bg;. Grout smRsbsMrab;TIlMhrEdlmanTTwg 2GuIn b¤FMCagenH pSMeLIgeday suIm:g;t_Br½ELnmYyPaK kMe)arGuIRdatkmμ b¤em:SAkMe)ar 0>1 PaK xSac; 2eTA3PaK nigRKYsminRtUvelIsBI 2PaK KitCamaD. Construction General - 113 -
  • 114. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC rUb 6-5 CBa¢aMgdæEdlcak; Grout sMrab;sMNg;CBa¢aMg Wyth KYrRtUvrkSakMritkMBs;eGayesμIKña. minRtUvrab Wyth eGaymankMBs;xusKña eRcInCag 16GuIneT. CBa¢aMgdæKYrRtUvEfTaMTwkry³eBly:agtic 3éf¶edIm,ITTYlPaBFn;énkMlaMg munnwgcak; Grout bBa©Úl. KMlat grout RtUvmanTTwgy:agtic2GuIn RbsinebIEdkBRgwgedkRtUv)anykmkdak;eRbIR)as;enaH vaKYrmanTTwgRKb;RKan;sMrab;pþl;[EdkenAkñúgTIlMhr (Clearance) ¼ GuIn b:uEnþminRtUvmanTTwgtUcCag3GuIneT. Construction General - 114 -
  • 115. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC karsMGatRtUveFVIeLIgerogral;eBlcak;. kareFVIenHedayminrab;bBa©ÚlRKb;duMdæén course sMrab;)atCBa¢aMg EdlRtUvcak;eT. munnwg Grout RtUv)ancak; KMlatkMe)ar)ayGrEdlelIs )ayGrm:t; nigsMPar³déTepSgeTot KYrRtUvykecjBIcenøaHKMlat grout enaH. TwkEdl)aj;edaysMBaF x<s;GacRtUv eRbIsMrab;eKalbMNgenH. bnÞab;BIkarRtYtBinitü b:uEnþmunnwgcak; Grout bBa©Úlrn§RbehagEdlsMGatRtUvbiTcukedayduMdærYcKYrRtUv Tl;Tb; nwgsMBaFén Grout .EdllYsKYrRtUvs‘kenAkñúgmuxtMNr)ayGr cenøaH course nig span kat;KMlat grout nImYy²edImI,cgP¢ab; Wythes ¬rUb 6-5¦. EdlKYrRtUvpÁúMCaragctuekaNEdlman TTwg4GuIn nigbeNþay2GuIn tUcCagcMgayrvagépÞxageRkATaMgsgxagén Wythes EdlRtUvcgP¢ab;. TMhMEdk lYs KYrkuM[tUcCagelx N 9. KMlaténEdkcMNgKYrminRtUvelIsBI 24GuIn kñúgTisedAedk. sMrab;CBa¢aMgrab o dætamrebob running-bond ¬rUb 6-3g¦ KMlatTwsedAbBaÄrminRtUvelIsBI 16GuIneT nigsMrab;rebob stack bond ¬rUb 6-3 K¦ minRtUvelIsBI 12 GuIn. 3>4 lkç½xN½ÐTMrsMrab;CBa¢aMg Support Conditions for Wall TMrRtUv)aneFVIsMrab;EcknUvbnÞúkcMcMnucy:agsuvtßiPaBeTAelICBa¢aMrabdæ b¤ piers .eRKOgbgÁúMEdlrgnUv bnÞúky:agF¶n;RtUvmanbnÞHTMrEdk enABIeRkamxagcugénTMr edIm,IEckbnÞúkeTAeGayCBa¢aMrabdæeGayman allowable bearing stresses. TMrEdkKYrmanRbEvgy:attic3GuIg. sMrab;bgÁúMEdlrgnUvbnÞúkRsalKYrRTeday pÞal;eTAnwgCBa¢aMgRbsinebI bearing stress sMrab;CBa¢aMgrabdæ sßitenAkñúgEdnkMNt;EdlGnueRKaH nigRbEvgén TMrKW 3GuIgb¤FMCagenH. CBa¢aMgrabdæKYrminRtUv)anRTedaysMNg;eQIeT. 3>5 Corbeling kEnøgEdlCBa¢aMgerobdæsUlItkMras; 12 GuIg b¤Rkas;CagenHRtUvkarbegáInkMras;BIxagelIkMritkMBs; Edl)anbgðaj karbegáInkMras;KYreFVIeLIgCabeNþIredaymanEkgRt. sMrab;viFIenH course RtUv)anRbeyalecj BIépÞCBa¢aMgCabnþbnÞab;Kña dUcmanbgðajkñúgrUb 6-3f. karRbeyal corbel tamTisedaedkGtibrmaecjBIépÞénCBa¢aMg KYrEtkuMeGayelIs ⅓ énkMras;CBa¢aMg eRKagbgÁMTMr. kñúgkrNIxøH karRbeyal course xøHénCBa¢aMgrabdæKYrminelIsBI 1GuIn. CaTUeTAbMBg;EpSgKYrkuM eFVI Corbel [FMCag 6GuIn vas;BIépÞénCBa¢aMg. eTaHCay:agNak¾eday enACan;TI2énGaKarsñak;enAEdlman2 Can; corbeling énbMBg;EpSgenAkñúgCBa¢aMgbiTCitxageRkAGacesμInwgkMras;CBa¢aMg. Construction General - 115 -
  • 116. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 3>6 RbelaHRbehag/ Chases nig rescesses sMrab;CBa¢aMgerobdæ CBa¢aMgerobdæEdlsßitenABIxagelIRbelaHRbehagKYrRtUv)anRTeday Arches b¤LaMgtU (lintel) Edl manEdk b¤bgÁMdæEdlmandak;EdkBRgwg Edlcugsgxagrbs;vaRtUvRTedayCBa¢aMgy:agtic4 GuIg. fμb¤ sMNg; LaMgtUKμanEdkminRtUv)an[eRbIeT elIkElgEtmankarbEnßmbRgÁb;enAxagkñúgénCBa¢aMedayLaMgtUceRKagEdk sMNg; arches smRsb b¤LaMgtUBRgwgedayEdrsMrab;RTnUvsMNg; masonry backing . LaMgtU (lintel) KYrEtrwg RKb;RKan;edIm,IRTnUvbnÞúkEdlsgát;elIedaymanPaBdab deflection tUcCag 1¼72 énRbEvgElVgva (Clear Span) .sMrab;CBa¢aMebtugrabesμI EdkBRgwgEdltMerobRsbKña eTAnwgkMras;énCBa¢aMgKYrEtdak;kuM[tUcCag 1GIun BIelI nig 2GuInBIxageRkamRbelaHRbehag. vaRtUvbnøayy:agtic 24GuInBIxageRkamRbelaHRbehag. vaRtUv bnøayy:agtic 24GuInéncugmçag²énRbehag b¤smmUleTAnwgkarbegáItedayTMBk;. TMhMEdlKYrykmkeRbIKW eRbIelx No: 5 sMrab;CBa¢aMgEdlmankMras; 6GuIn. sMrab;sMNg;epSgeTotEdlCalMenAdæanTab² CBa¢aMgdæmin KYrman chases b¤ recesses eRCACag ⅓ énkMras;CBa¢aMg b¤EvgCag 4ft tamTisedAedkb¤k¾RbeyaltamTisedk. Chases nig Recesses énCBa¢aMgdæxagxñgKYrmanRbEvgy:agtic 8GuIn nigcenøaH Chases b¤ Recesses EdlenACit KñanigeménRbehag. Chases nig Recesses KYrminRtUvkat;sMrab;CBa¢aMgduMdæRbehag (Wall of hollow masonry unit) b¤CBa¢aMgRbehag (hollow wall) b:uEnþGacRtUv)ansagsg;. vaminKYrGnuBaØatiCamYynwgtMrUvkarépÞRklaTaMg mUlénmuxCBa¢aMgsMrab;Can;xøH. sMrab;lMenAdæanEdlmankMBs;minx<s;Cag2Can; chases bBaÄrGacsg;kñúgTMhM 8GuIn sMrab;CBa¢aMgRbsin ebI chase manCMeraminFMCag 4Gin nigmanépÞtUcCa 4 ft épÞRklaCBa¢aMg. eTaHCay:agNa recesses enABIeRkam u 2 bg¥ÜcGacbnøayBIkMralxNн eTAdl; sill nigGacTTWgénRbehagBIxagelI. CBa¢aMgrabdæBIxagelI chases b¤ recesses EdlmanTMhMTTwgFMCag 12 GuIgKYrRtUvRTedayLaMgtU. Recesses GacRtUv left eTAkñúgCBa¢aMgsMrab;pøÚvCeNþIrnig CeNþIrynþb:uEnþCBa¢aMgKYrminRtUvkat;bnßykMras; eGaytUcCag 12GuIn elIkElgEtEdkBRgwgRtUv)anyl;RBmedayviFIxøH. Recesses sMrab;eFñIrdak;esovePA nig eKalbMNgRsedogKñaenHGacmanCBa¢aMgdæenAxagxñgy:agtic 8GuIn. vaRtUvmanTTwgticCa 18GuIn nigKYrman arched enABIelI b¤maneRbILaMgtUdak;KgBIelI. RbsinebIPaBFn;énkMlaMgénCBa¢aMmin)ancuHexSay bMBg;Twk b¤bMBg;lUGacRtUvdak;eGayqøgtamTisedA edk b¤bBaÄrtamry³ sleeve enAkñúgCBa¢aMg. Ety:agNak¾eday Sleeve KYrminRtUvdak;[CitCag3Ggát;p©itBI GkS½eTA GkS½. Construction General - 116 -
  • 117. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 3>7 Flashing enAkñúgCBa¢aMgrabdæ Flashing KYrRtUveRbIedIm,IbEgVrTwkEdlRCabcUleTAkñúgépÞxagkñúgénCBa¢aMgeGaymkxageRkAsMNg;vij. GaRs½yehtuenH Flashing KYrRtUvtMeLIgenAxagkñúgCBa¢aMgedayépÞedk dUcCadMbUl/ parapet nigkMralxN½Ð GaRs½yeTAnwgRbePTénsMNg;. enAnwgmuMéneFñI RbehagdUcCa TVar nigbg¥Üc ¬rUb 6-6 a nig b ¦nigeCIgén CBa¢aMgBIelIRKwHbnþic ¬rUb 6-6 c nig e¦ flashing KYrbnøaytammuxtMNrdæeTAmuxxageRkAénCBa¢aMgCakEnøg EdlvaRtUvbt;cuHedIm,IbegáItCa drip . rUb6-6 Flashing sMrab;CBa¢aMgrabdæ eTaHCay:agNa flashing enAkñúgmuxtMNrCBa¢aMgdæKYrbeBa©ósTwkEdlxøHmann½yfapþl;nUvkarbgðÚr TwkecjmkxageRkA. edayehtuenH flashing KYrRtUveRbIsMrab;P¢ab;KñaCamYy Weep Holes EdlKYrRtUvbegáItenA kñúg hede joint Pøam² BIelI flashing ¬rUb 6-6d¦ enAeBlEdl Weep hole RtUv)aneFVI[Rbehag KMlatKYreGay elIsBI 24GuIn GkS½eTAelIGkS½. RbsinebIRbeqHénsURtEkv b¤ExSnILúg ExSkUtug b¤sMPar³RsedogKñaenH RtUv )andak;cUleTAkñúgrn§Rbehag KMlatKYrkuMeGayelIsBI 16 GuIn BIGkS½eTAGkS½. sMPar³eRbICa flashing rYmman bnÞHTg;Edg sMBt;b‘ÍTIm )øasÞic b¤CabnSMénsMPar³d¾éTeTot. bnSMénsMPar³TaMgenHrYmmandUcCa cold- formed steel nig)øasÞic b¤labfñaMb‘ÍTIm Gacplit)anCa flashing EdlmantMélTab. Construction General - 117 -
  • 118. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 4> TMrxagsMrab;CBa¢aMgrabdænig FaturYmpSMepSg² Lateral support for masonry wall and other elements 4>1 TMrxagsMrab;CBa¢aMgrabdæ lateral support for masonry wall sMrab; Unreinforced solid b¤ Grout masonry bearing wall pleFobénkMBs; unsupported nigkMras;Edl tUcbMput b¤pleFobénRbEvg unsupported nigkMras;EdltUcbMputminRtUveGayelIsBI20. sMrab; hollow wall b¤ Wall of hllow masonry unite pleFobKYrmantMél 18 b¤ticCagenH. sMrab; cavity stole wall pleFobmin RtUvelIs 14. kñúgkarKNnapleFobénRbEvg unsupported nigkMras;sMrab; cavity wall GñkGacykkMras;CBa¢aMgBI plbUkénkMras;tUcbMputén Wythes xagkñúgnigxageRkA. sMrab;CBa¢aMgEdlpÁúMBIRbePTepSgKña b¤duMdæepSgKña b¤ )ayGr pleFobKYrminRtUvelIBItMélEdlGnueRKaHdl;bnSMEdlexSayCageK. Veneers minRtUv)anKitCaEpñk CBa¢aMgkñúgkarKitkMras;EdlFn; nigkMlaMgb¤PaBmanlMnwgeT. sMrab; nonbearing, unreinfored exterior wall pl eFobkMras;KYrkuMeGayelIsBI20. sMrab; unreinforec partition pleFobKYrmantMél36 b¤ticCagenH. cantiliver wall nigCBa¢aMgdæ enAkEnøgEdlmankMlaMgxül;xøagminKYrsg;kñúgkMBs;x<s;Cag10dg énkMras;rbs; M vaeT elIkElgEtmanCnÞl;RKb;RKan; b¤karKitEdlmankaryl;Rsb BIeKalkarN_visVkmμ. karcak;bMeBjvij KYrkuMcak;b:HnwgRKwHCBa¢aMg elIkElgEtvaRtUv)anTl;edIm,ITb;Tl;nwgsMBaFtamTisedAEdk. kñúgkarkMNt;RbEvg unsupported énCBa¢aMg/ CBa¢aMgExVgKñamanRsab; pier b¤ buttresses GacRtUv)anKitCaTMrxagRbsinebIbgÁMTaMgenH rabs¥it)anl¥ b¤f<k;eTAnwgCBa¢aMg nigmanP¢ab;edayExSkabbMElgkMlaMgEkgeTAnwgbøg;énCBa¢aMg b¤eTAkñúgdI. kñúgkarkMNt;kMBs; unsupported kMralxNн dMbUlGaccat;TukCaTMrxag RbsinebIvaGacRTaMRT eTAnwgkMlaMgxag y:agtic 2001b/ ehIyvaGacbMElgkMlaMgxagenHeTAdI. cugénrnUtkMral b¤FñwmTMrBICBa¢aMgdæ GacP¢ab;eTA 1 in ft nwgCBa¢aMgedaysuvtßiPaB ¬rUb 6-7¦. cugrnUtf<k;xagkñúgKYrRtUvdak;KgKñanwg e)aHP¢ab;edayEdkeKalFM² smmUl edIm,IbegáItCacMNgbnþbnÞab;kat;sMNg;. enAeBlEdlTMrxagRtUv)anpþl;[rnUtRsbnwgCBa¢aMg TMBk; RtUv)andak;mineGayelIsBI 6ft BIKñanigpÁúMy:agticrnUt 3 EdlRtUv)anTajqøgy:agtwgenATMBk;. Construction General - 118 -
  • 119. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC rUb 6-7 kardak;TMBk;rnUteTAnwg bearing wall kMBs; unsupported én pier KYrkuMeGayelIsBI10dg énTMhMtUcCageK. eTaHCay:agNak¾edayenAeBl EdlsMNg;ek,Ogdæ b¤duMebtugRbehagRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;EjkecjBI pier edIm,IRTFñwm b¤rt kMBs; unsupported minKYrmantMélelIs 4dg énTMhMEdlmantMéltUcCageK elIkElgEt lMhrénRbehagRtUv)anbMeBjy:ag ENnedayebtug b¤)ayGr. TMBk;sMrab; Masonry facing Anchors for masonry facing TMrEkgeTAnwgbøg;xøÜnvaGacRtUvpþl;[eday Wythes CBa¢aMgdæxageRkAeRBaHvaCa veneer (non-load- beaing) b¤CBa¢aMgRbehagén Wythes xageRkAedayf<k;vaeTAnwgsMNg;EdlGacpþl;nUvtMrUvkarTMrxag. eday ehtuenH masonry veneer GacRtUvcgP¢ab; masonry bonder b¤EdkcMNgeTAnwg back up masonry wall Edlva pþl;nUvTMrxag b¤ Veneer GacRtUvf<k;edaypÞal;eTAnwgeRKagsMNg;. kareRbIR)as;TMBk;P¢ab;CBa¢aMgdæeTA nwgeRKag sMNg;mandUcxageRkam. Construction General - 119 -
  • 120. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC rUb 6-8 TMBk;sMrab;eRbIenAcenøaHCBa¢aMgdæ nigeRKagsMNg; TMBk;eRcInRbePT)anbgðajkñúgrUb 6-8. vaKYrEtFn;nwgeRcHsuI. dUcKñavaKYrEtGacFn;nwgkMlaMgTajnig sgát;EdlbegáItedaykMlaMgEkgeTAnwgCBa¢aMg. TMBk;KYrenAEtmanPaBbt;EbnRKb;RKan;edIm,If<k;rvagCBa¢aMg nig eRKag. vaKYrEtGaceFVIclnatamTisedAedk nigQredaymanPaBepSgKñad¾tUc RsbeTAnwgbøg;énCBa¢aMg. TMBk; KYrRtUvbgáb;cugmçageTAkñúg)ayGrénmuxtMN xag)atnigbnøayrhUtesÞIEtdl;épÞxagmuxénCBa¢aMg. cugmçageTot KYrRtUvP¢ab;y:agsuvtßiPaB eTAnwgeRKagedaypþl;[TMrxag. kareRCIserIsRbePTTMBk;ykmkeRbIGaRs½ynwg sMNg;EdlCBa¢aMgRtUveRbITMBk;. rUb6-8a bgðajnUvEdkcMNgGgáaj;sMrab;P¢ab;CBa¢aMgdæeTAelIemeQI (stud) . EdkcMNgxagelIKYrRtUve)aHP¢ab;eTAnwgemIeQI(stud) edayEdkeKaleRcHGt;suI EdlduMbBa©ÚleTAkñúgkMraleday Bnøicy:agtic 1 ½in eTAkñúg Stud. Construction General - 120 -
  • 121. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC rUb6-9 kardak;TMBk;Cab;nWgeRKag EdkcMNgKYrmankMras;y:agtic 22ga TTwg ⅞ in nigmanRbEvg 6 in .TMBk;Edl)anbgðajkñúgrUb6-8b nig c GacRtUveRbIsMrab;P¢ab;CBa¢aMgdæCamYynigEdkssr (metal stud) .TMhMEdkénTMBk;y:agtic 9ga. TMBk; EdlbgðajkñúgrUb 6-8d KWsmRsbsMrab;cgP¢ab;rvagCBa¢aMgdæeTAnwgeRKagEdk dUcbgðajkñúgrUb 6-9b .kar dak;TMBk; devetail sMrab;f<k;CBa¢aMgdæcUleTAkñúgrgVH devetail éneRKagebtu)anbgðajkñúgrUb 6-8 e nig f . kar Gnuvtþn_énRbePTTMBk;bgðajkñúgrUb 6-8 e )anbgðajkñúgrUb 6-9c nig d. TMhMlYssMrab;TMBk;enHKYrmanTMhMtUc bMput 6ga nigKYrRkalkñúgTTwgy:agtUc4 GuIn sMrab;bgáb;y:agtic 2GuIn cUleTAkñúgmuxtMN)atsMrab;CBa¢aMg. RbePTEdksMEb:t¬rUb6-8f ¦ KYrmankMras;Gb,brima 16ga nigTTwg 7/8GuIn. cugmçagEdlbgáb;kñúgmuxtMNr)at KYrbt;eLIgelIy:agtic ¼ GuIn. Construction General - 121 -
  • 122. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 4>2 bMBg;EpSg nigeCIgRkandMedApÞH Chimneys and fireplaces tMrUvkarGb,brimasMrab;bMBg;EpSgGacnwgTTYlBIkUdsMNg;kñúgtMbn; (local building code) b¤kUdKMrUsMNg; (model building code) xøH. Casegçb bMBg;EpSgKYrBnøÚty:agtic 3ft BIelIcMnucx<s;bMput kEnøgEdlvaqøgkat; dMbUlénsMNg; nigy:agtic 3ft x<s;CagkMBUldMbUlEdlmankMBs; 10 ft. ¬sMrab;bMBg;EpSgsMrab;eRKOgbrikça RbePTeragcRk EdlbeBa©ajnUvsItuNðPaBcenøaH 1400 nig 2008F kMBs;Gb,brimaBIelIdMbUlebIk b¤EpñkxøH énsMNg;EdlmankMBs; 25ft KYrmankMBs; 10ft . sMrab;beBa©jnUvsItuNðPaBx<s;Cag 20008 F kMBs;Gb,brima BIelIEpñkxøHénsMNg;KYrEtmankMBs; 20ft. bMBg;EpSgKYrRtUv)anksagTIduMdæsUlIt b¤ebtugGaem nigRtUvdwk eday firebrick b¤ fire-clay tile. sMrab;sMNg;lMenAdæankMras;CBa¢aMgbMBg;epSgRbEhl 4 in. sMrab;sMNg; epSgeTot kMras;énbMBg;EpSgsMrab;eRKOgbrikçadMedAy:agticman kMras; 8GuIn sMrab;CBa¢aMgdæTaMgGs;. kMras; rubble stone mantMélGb,brima 12GuIn. rn§Rbehage)assMGat EdlbMBak;edayTVarEdk KYrRtUvpþl;[ sMrab;)aténbMBg;EpSgnimYy². enAeBlEdlbMBg;EpSgrYmbBa©ÚlKñaeday bMBg;BIr b¤eRcInenaHvaKYr RtUv)an sg;CBa¢aMgxNнEdlmankMras;y:agtic4GuIn. kñúgtMbn;EdlmanrMBa¢ÜydIkEnøg EdleRKaHfñak; GacekIteLIg bMBg;EpSgKYrCasMNg;rabdæBRgwgedayEdk (reinforced masonry) . vaKYrRtUvf<k; eTAnwgkMral nigBidanFMCag 6ft BIxagelIdI (grade) nigeTAdMbUl. eCIgRkankMedApÞHKYrmanxñgnig xagénCBa¢aMgdæsUlIt b¤ebtuGaem minRtUvmankMras;ticCag8GuIn. RTnab;xagkñúgeCIgRkankMedApÞHKYrmankMras;y:agtic2GuIn b¤sMPar³Edlyl;RBmepSgeTot KYrRtUv)anpþl;[ elIkElgEtkMras;12 GuIn. eCIgRkanxagelIKYrBRgIky:agtic 20GuIn BIxageRkA chimney breast nigminRtUvtUc Cag12GuIn énxagnImYy²énRbehageCIgRkankMedApÞHtambeNþayrvagbBg;EpSg CamYyrnUtFñwmb¤rt nig sMPar³EdlGacduteqHKYrRtUvbBaÄb;kareqHedaybMeBjCamYysMPar³minGacduteqH. kréneCIgRkankMedApÞHKYrkuMeGaytUcCag 4GuIn nigRbesIrbMput 8GuIn BIelIkMBUlénrn§RbehageCIgRkan kMedApÞH. snÞHbiTebIkxül;eFVIBIEdk ¬12ga b¤Rkas;CagenH¦ BRgIkeBjTMhwgénRbelaHeCIgcRgáankMedApÞHKYrdak; enAkñúgkreCIgRkan.bMBg;EpSgKYrmanépÞRklaRbsiT§PaBesμInwg 112 eTA 1¼10 énépÞRklaRbelaH eCIgRkan. Construction General - 122 -
  • 123. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 4>3 karpþl;nUvTMhMEdlpøas;bþÚr Provision for dimensional changes kñúgkarKit nigkarsagsg;CBa¢aMgerobdæ karGnueRKaHKYrRtUv)aneFVIsMrab;TMnak;TMngclnaénCBa¢aMgdæ nig sMNg;Cab;Kña (contiguous construction) .RbsinebIkargarenHmin)aneFVIeT enaHsñameRbHEdlminKYr eGayemIl b¤EdlKYr[xül; b¤sMNg;)ak;EbkKWCalT§pl. enAGtItkal eRKaHfñak;xagelI)anekIteLIgenA elICBa¢aMgrabdæedaysar³ 1> Restraint pþl;eGayeday contiguous construction edIm,IbþÚrTMhMenAkñúgCBa¢aMgdæ. karpøas;bþÚrenaH GacbegáItedaykarpøas;bþÚrsItuNðPaB b¤edaykarbWtTwkBICBa¢aMgdæbnÞab;BIsagsg;. 2> Restraint pþl;[edayclnaénCBa¢aMgdæ b¤bþÚrTMhMenAkñúg contiguous b¤ bonded construction dUcCa eRKagebtug b¤ backup wall .karpøas;bþÚrenHGacbegáItedaykarrYjedaykars¶Üt elastic deformation ¬karxUc RTRTayedaykaryWt¦ eRkambnÞúkb¤ creep énebtugbnÞab;BIkarsagsg;. edIm,IecosvagnUvral; Restrait enHeKcaM)ac;RtUvEtTukRbelaH Expansion joint CamYynwgRbelaH d¾RtwmRtUv enAcenøaHd¾smrmü nigbMEbk bond cenøaHCBa¢aMgnigsMNg;EdlRtUv Restrain EdlTak;Tgnwgclna ¬rUb 6-10¦. Construction General - 123 -
  • 124. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC rUb 6-10 muxkat;bgajBItMNrmuxrIk Vertical expansion joint KYrRtUvtMeLIgenAkñúgCBa¢aMgdæedIm,IGnuBaØatidl;clnatamTisedAedkénCBa¢aMg rabdæ nig horizontal expansion joint edIm,IGnuBaØatidl;clnatamTisedAQr. edaymanGvtþmanénBt’man bBa¢ak;BIkMedAniglkçN³ bWtTwkTMhMPaBlUt (Unit Strain) Gacsnμtyk 0007in/in sMrab;CBa¢aMgdæenAeBl EdlclnaRtUv)andak;kMNt; ]TahrN_edayP¢ab;eTAnwgRKwHebtug. dUcenHsMrab;KMlatén expansion joint rbs; CBa¢aMgdæRtg;RbEvg 60ft eKtMrUv[muxtMNrmanTTwg 2 x 60 x 12 x 0.0007 b¤RbEhl1GuIn. CaTUeTA KMlat vertical expansion joint KYrsßitenAcenøaH 50ft nig 100ft nigmuxtMNKYrRtUvdak;kuMeGayelIsBI 30ft BI kEnøgkat;KñaénCBa¢aMg. TTwgtMrUvsMrab; expansion joint k¾GaRs½yeTAnwgkarGnueRKaHPaBlUtGtibrmaén sealant eRbIsMrab;karkñúgRbelaHenaH. RbsinebITMhMénmuxtMN RtUv)anRtYtRtaedaylkçN³ elastic én sealant KMlaténmuxtMNKYrRtUv)anEktMrUvedIm,IkMNt;TMhMmuxtMNedIm,Idak;nUv elasticity én sealant . Sealant KYrRtUvdak; Construction General - 124 -
  • 125. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC enAxagmuxCBa¢aMgxageRkAedays‘kcUlkñúgmuxtMNkñúgCMerAy:agtic ⅛ GuIn b:uEnþminRtUveRCACag 1½ énTTwgmux tMN. CMerAenHGacRtUvRtYtBinitüedaysMPar³ backup Edls‘kcUlkñúgmuxtMNrmunnwg sealant RtUv)ans‘k nig Edlvamins¥itCab;CamYy Sealant. sMrab;Epñkxagmuxdæ horizontal expansion joint KYrRtUv)ans‘kedaypÞal;BI eRkamLaMgtU edkEdlRTedayeRKagebtug ¬rUb6-10g¦. muxtMNRtUv)anKitTMhMedayykkarrIkedaysnμt énCBa¢aMgdæBIeRkam LaMgtUbUknwg karrYmedaysnμténeRKagebtugedaybegáIteLIgeday drying shrinkage bnÞúksgát; nig creep. edayGvtþmanénBt’manbBa¢ak;BIlkçN³énsMPar³EdlRtUvykmkeRbI Tak;Tgnwgclna bBaÄr (vertical movement) EdleKsnμt 0.0014in/in .dUcenHkEnøgEdldælMGrmuxEdlRTedayeFñIEdk (stell shelf angle) ]TahrN_ KMlat 15 ft bBaÄrBIKñaRtUvmanRbelaH 15. x 12 x 3 x 0.0014 b¤RbEhl ¼ GuIn. dUcsMrab;muxtMNrbBaÄr sealant nigsMPar³ backup KYrRtUvdak;sMrab; horizontal expansion joint . Slip joint KYRtUvpþl;[sMrab;kEnøgEdlmankarpøas;bþÚrPøam² sMrab;CBa¢aMg. ]TahrN_TMhMekIteLIgenAkarbiTP¢ab; Panel b¤rYmbBa©ÚlrvagRbehagénCBa¢aMgdæ dUcCa RbelaHbg¥Üc nigTVa. Bond KYrRtUvkarBaredaykars‘kbnÞH EdkRkdassMNg; (Building Paper) b¤sMPar³epSgeTotEdlGnuBaØati[rGilenAeBlEdlclnakMedAekIteLIg. dUcKñaedIm,IGnuBaØtidl;clntamTisedAedk slip plane RtUv)aneKdak;enAeBlkMBugcak;ebtug (Cast-in- place) enAcenøaHkMralx½NÐebtug b¤tMbUlCamYynwg masonry bearing wall EdlRTva ¬rUb6-5a ¦. TMBk;Edl Gacbt;Ebn)anEdlGnuBaØatidl;rGil GacRtUvtMeLIgenAcenøaHkMral nigCBa¢aMgedIm,IRbkarnUv uplift .eTaHCa y:agNa TMBk;TaMgenHminKYrRtUvtMeLIgenACitRCugénkMral EdlmanRbEvg 1¼10énRbEvgkMral. mUlehtuKW RKb;RCugTaMgenaHnwgekageLIgelIenAeBlEdl)atuPUtrYmmaD (Shrinkage) ekIteLIg kñúgkrNIenHkardak;TMBk; Gacpþl;[CBa¢aMgnUvkMlaMgTaj nigsñameRbH. GñkKYreFVIkarRbugRbyt½ñCaBiess kñúgkarpþl;clnaTMnak;TMng (Relative movement) enAeBlEdlCBa¢aMgpÁúMedaysMPar³epSgKña. CakarRbesIreKKYrbMEbkvay:agtic ½ GuIn nigdak;muxtMNredayEdkcMNg flexible ¬rUb6-10b nig d ¦. CaBiesssarPaBxusKñaénclnakMedA (termal movement) rbs;sMPar³ bond KYrRtUv)anRbkarenAcenøaHCBa¢aMgdæ nigRKwHCBa¢aMgebtugCab;Kña BIxageRkamGVI EdlRbQmnwgGakasFatu ¬rUb 6-5b¦. TMBk;EdlGacbt;Ebn)an (flexible anchor) KYrRtUv)andak;enAcenøaH CBa¢aMgnigRKwH edIm,IGnuBaØatinUvkarrGiltamTisedAedk edayminTan;RbkarnUv uplift .dUcKñaeCIgtamKYrRtUv)an eFVIeGaymanPaBrwgmaMRKb;RKan;edIm,IRbkarnUvPaBdundab (deflection) EdlGaceFVIeGayCBa¢aMgxagelIvaeRbH. elIsBIenH sMrab;eKalbMNgdUcKña CBa¢aMgGacRtUv)anKitCaFñwmeRCA b¤ Vierendeel masonry trusses. (Vierendeel truss minmanbgÁúMrUbsNæanragRtIekaNEtÉgdUcCa truss FmμtaeT dUcenHehIybgÁMenaHKW RbQm Construction General - 125 -
  • 126. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC nwgbnSMrvagkMlaMgtamGkS½ axial force and bending moment . Truss TaMgenHRtUv)anbegáItedayCBa¢aMgman RbehagsMrab;bg¥ÜcnigTVar. ) . enAeBlEdl bearing –wall construction RtUv)aneRbIsMrab;sMNg;enaH clna differential énTMrenACit KñaénbgÁMeRKagedkKYrrkSa eGaymanKMlattUc. sMrab;mUlehtuenH bearing wall énsMPar³mindUcKñaKYrminRtUv )aneRbIbgÁMsMNg;EtmYyeT edaysarEtmanlkçN³rUbmindUcKñaEdlbgánUvkarxUcRTg;RTayk¾mindUcKña. ]TahrN_ CBa¢aMg load-bearing brick b¤CBa¢aMgebtugKYrRtUv)aneRbIenAkñgeRKagsMNg;EtTaMgBIrminGnuBaØtieT. ú 4>4 CYsCulmuxtMNlicTwk Repair of leaky joint karlicedaysarTwkePøógsac (Wind-driven rain) cUltammuxtMNénCBa¢aMgdæRCabTwkenaHeyIgGac bBaÄb;)aneday Repointing b¤ Grouting muxtMNr. CaTUeTAeKRtUveFVIkarCYsCulRKb;muxtMNTaMgGs; TaMgedk nigbBaÄr sMrab;xagmuxCBa¢aMg. dMeNIrkar “tuckpointing” EdlmanEtmuxtMNrEdlmankMhusCak;Esþgbnþic GacnwgminRKb;RKan;nig mankarFanafamuxtMNEdlCYsCulrYc nwgminlicTwkeT. Repointing KWCakardab;ecj nigdak;cUlvij nUv)ayGreTARKb;muxtMNeGay)anCMerARbEhl 5/8in. bnÞab;BI)ayGrcas;RtUv)anerIecj FUlI nigsarFatukxVk;KYRtUvlagecjBICBa¢aMgehIyduMdæKYrRtUvepSImedayTwkrhUtdl;CitEq¥tTwk. enAeBlEdlCBa¢aMgdæenAEtmanCatisMeNImEtminmaneXIjTwksBVsac;lμmedIm,IGac[kardak;cUl kEnøgmansPaBENnhab;l¥ ehIyeyIgKYrTukeGayvaecal 1 b¤BIrem:ag edIm,IeGayvaeFVIRbtikmμGuIRtakmμmun munnwgykeTAeRbI. kareFVIRbtikmμmun (Pre-hydration) )ann½yfa rkSalMnwgén plasticity nigPaBRsYleFVIkargarrbs;kMe)ar )ayGr nigkat;bnßynUvPaBrYmmaD (Shrinkage) én)ayGrbnÞab;BIykvaeTAbiTmuxtMN. bnÞab;BI Repointing )ayGrKYrRtUvrkSadusCUtedayRsTab;y:agesþIgén Grout BIelImuxtMNkñúgCBa¢aMg dæ. Grout rYmmansarFatupSMEdlmanmaDesμIKña rvagsuIm:g;t_Br½ELnnigxSac;m:t;EdlErgqøgkat;kéRBa©gelx N 30. CBa¢aMgdæKYrsßitkñúgsßanPaBesImenAeBlEdleKbiT Grout . Grout KYrEtCaERkmxab;nigEtKYrlab o cUleTAkñúgtMNedayCk;eramnwg CaBiesseTAkñúgkEnøgCYbKñaénduMdænigkMe)ar)ayGr. TMhMTTwgmuxtMNEdl eyIgemIleXIj emIleTAdUcCarIkFMCagmunbnþic edaykarRblak; Grout eTAelIduMdæenaHenAkEnøgeGb:ugesIm munnwg grout eLIgrwg. GñkKYRbugRby½tñkuMCUtsMGat Grout BIcenøaHCayénduMdænigmuxtMN)ayGr. Construction General - 126 -
  • 127. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC RbsinebIduMdæenaH mann½yPaBKeRKIm enaHkarRbLak;RtUv)anRtYtRtaedaykareRbIbnÞHEdlesþIg (template) b¤edaykarbiTduMdæ CamYynwgbg;s¥itbiT. PaBs¥itén Grout eTAnwgmuxtMNsMrab;muxtMNr “cut” b¤ “flush” mankarRbesIrCagsMrab;muxtMNEdl eFVIeday]bkrN_. RbsinebImuxtMNenHRtUveFVIeday]bkrN_dUcenHykl¥eKkuMTan;Gal grout varhUtTal;Et bnÞat;BIhalxül;RKb;RKan;edIm,IsMGatecjnUvsñamsuIm:g;t_épÞmuxtMNredayeRbIxSac;RKYs. karCYsCulmuxtMNredaylab grout RtUv)ansakl,g enAkEnøgkagaredIm,I emIlnUvRbsiT§PaBrbs;vaBI CBa¢aMg dælicTwk. karCYsCulrebob grout minmanGayudUckar CYsCuleday Repointing eTb:uEnþvacMNayluy Gs;ticCa Reporting EmnETn. tMélkñúgkarCYsCulTaMg Grouting b¤ Reporting sMrab;CBa¢aMgdæRbEhl CaelIseRcInCag tMélbEnßmsMrab;kmμkrnigemkarRtuvkarkñúg karksagCBa¢aMgminRCabTwk. 4>5 tMrUvkarkMras;CBa¢aMgdæ Masonry Thickness Requirement kMras;CBa¢aMgenAcenøaHTMrxagKYrkuMERbRbYl. enAeBlEdleKcaM)ac;pøas;bþÚrkMras;cenøaH kMritkMBs;kMral x½NÐ edIm,I)antMrUvkarkMras;Gb,brima kMras;Rkas;CagKYrRTnUvkMritkMBs;kMralbnÞab;. enAeBlEdlCBa¢aMg Masonry hollow unit b¤ Bonded hollow )ankat;bnßykMras; course éndæsUlIt KYrEtdak;[cMkNþalCBa¢aMgBI xageRkam nigCBa¢aMgEdlEsþgCagBIxagelI b¤k¾duMdæBIess b¤sMNg;BiessKYrRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;bMElgbnÞúkrvag CB¢aMgEdlmankMras;epSgKña. elIkElgEtCBa¢aMgEdleFVIedaymanEdkBRgwgEdlKittameKalkarN_visVkmμ TMhMCBa¢aMgdæRtUvRtYt BinitütamkarkMNt;xageRkam³ - Bearing Wall: KYrEtmankMras;y:agtic 12 in sMrab;kMBs; 35ft. kMras;RtUv)anbegáIneLIg 4in ral;kar kMBs;bnþKña 35ft mþgb¤ fraction éncMgayEdlvas;BIcugkMBUlénCBa¢aMgcuHeRkam. CBa¢aMg rough b¤ random b¤ coursed rubble stone wall KYrmankMras;Rkas;CagenH 4in b:uEnþKμankrNINatUcCag 16in eT. eTaHCay:agNa sMrab;CBa¢aMgepSgBI rubble stone krNIelIkElgxageRkamenHRtUv)aneRbIsMrab; Masonry bearing wall. - Stiffened Wall: enAeBl Solid masonry bearing wall RtUv)anP¢ab;eTAnwg masonry cross wall b¤ reinforced- concrete floor kñúgcMgayminFMCag 12ft vaGacRtUv)ansagsg;kñúgkMras; 12in sMrab;kMBs; 70ft b:uEnþ KYrEtBRgIk 4in sMrab;ral;karbnþ 70ft b¤ fraction éncMgayenH. Construction General - 127 -
  • 128. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC - Top-story wall: Top-story bearing wall énsMNg;GaKarEdlmankMBs;minx<s;Cag 35ft eKKYrsg;vakñúg kMras; 8in . b:uEnþCBa¢aMgenHKYrkuM[mankMBs;x<s;Cag 12ft nigminKYrrgnUvkarbukecjxagBIsMNg;tMbUleT. - Residential wall: enAkñúgsMNg;lMenAdæanEdlmankMBs;rhUtdl; 3Can; CBa¢aMgKYrmankMras;8GuIn ¬RbsinebIkMBs;minx<s;Cag 35ft ¦ RbsinminrgnUvkarcak;ecjxagBIsMNg;tMbUl. CBa¢aMgxagelIsMrab;pÞH1Can; b¤yanþdæanÉkCn1Can; GacmankMras;6GuInRbsinebIkMBs; 9ft b¤TabCagenH b¤RbsinebIkMBs;BIkMBUlehagCag minelIsBI 15ft. - Penthouses nig Roof Structure: masonry wall EdlmankMBs;rhUtdl; 12ft BIxagelIkMritkMBs;dMbUl CeNþIrnigbgáan;édEdlbiTCit bnÞb;ma:suIn Shaft b¤ Penthouse GacmankMras;8GuIn. eKmincaM)ac;rab;bBa©ÚlTaMg karkMNt;kMBs;sMrab;karCYbKñaéntMrUvkarkMras;sMrab;CBa¢aMgBIxageRkam. - Plain Concrete nig Grouted Brick Wall: kMras;CBa¢aMgTaMgenHGacmankMras; 2GuIntUcCagkMras; Gb,brmasMRrab;tMrUvkarmUldæan. b:uEnþCaTUeTAkMras;rbs;vaminRtUvtUcCag8 GuIn ehIyminRtUvtUcCag 6GuIn sMrab;sMNg;lMenAdæan1Can; b¤yanþdæan. - Hollow wall: Cavity b¤ masonry bonded hollow wall minRtUvmankMBs;x<s;Cag 35ft eT. CaTUeTA Cavity wall EdlmankMras; 10in RtUv)ankMNt;[mankMBs;Et 25ft b:ueNÑaHBIelITMr. xagmuxnigxagxñg én Cavity Wall RtUvmankMras;y:agtic 4GuIn nig cavity minRtUvmanTTwgtUcCag 2GuIn b¤eRcInCag3GuIneT. - Faced Wall: TaMgkMBs;én faced ¬smasFatu¦ Wall TaMgcMgaycenøaHTMrxagminRtUvelIBIGVIEdlerob rab;BIxagedImsMrab;RbePT masonry EdlbegáItxagmuxnig xagxñg. kMras;Cak;Esþg ¬minEmnFmμta¦ énsMPar³ EdleRbIsMrab;épÞxagmux minRtUvtUcCag2GuIn nigKμankrNItUcCag ⅛ énkMBs;rbs;va. - Non bearing Wall: CaTUeTA Parapet Wall KYrmankMras;y;agtic 8GuIn nigkMBs;minRtUvelIs3dgén kMras;. eTaHCay:agNa kMras;GactUcCa8GuIn RbsinebI parapet enHmanEdkBRgwgedIm,IRTaMRTnUv)atuPUtrBa¢Üy EpndI nigkMlaMgxül;y:agmanRbsiT§iPaB. Non bearing masonry xageRkAGacmankMras; 4GuIn tUcCagkMras; Gb,brimaén bearing wall. eTaHCay:agNa kMras;rbs;vaminRtUvtUcCag8GuInEtelIkElgEtkEnøgNaEdl GnuBaØati[eRbI bearing wall kMras; 6in non bearing wall k¾GaceRbI)anEdr. Non bearing masonry partition RtUv)anRTxagenAcMgaymin[FMCag 36dgkMras;Cak;Esþgén partition rYmbBa©ÚlTaMgkMras;kMe)arbUk. RbsinebITMrxagGaRs½ynigBidan kMralxN½Ð b¤dMbUl kMBUlén partition KYrmanTMBk;RKb;RKan;sMrab; bMElgbnÞúk. karf<k;enHGacTTYl)aneCaKC½yedayTMBk;Edk b¤edaykardak;KnøWHenAkMBUlén partition eTAnwg Construction General - 128 -
  • 129. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC kargarputk,al.BidanBüÜrGaccat;TukCaTMrxag)anRbsinebIBIdan nigTMBk;manlT§PaBnwgkMlaMgedk énCBa¢aMg )an 2001b/in. ft. Construction General - 129 -

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