Construction general

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Construction general

  1. 1. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC matika CMBUk I..............................................................................6 eRKagsMNg;emkanik .................................................................6 Structural Mechanic .............................................................6 1> karkMNt;bnÞúk .....................................................................6 1>1 RbePTénbnÞúk .................................................................6 1>2 bnÞúk (Service Loads) ..........................................................8 1>3 emKuNbnÞúk ...................................................................9 2> Stress and Strain ................................................................11 2>1 Static Equilibrium .............................................................11 2>2 Unit Stress and Strain ..........................................................12 2>3 Hooke’s Law .................................................................12 2>4 Constant Unit Stress ...........................................................13 2>5 Poisson’s Ratio................................................................14 CMBUkII ³..........................................................................15 dI nig RKwH ........................................................................15 Soil and foundation ............................................................15 1> esckþIepþIm ......................................................................15 1>1 emkanicdI ...................................................................15 1>2 visVkmμRKWH (Foundation Engineering) ...........................................16 2> karsikSaRsavRCavelIkardæanpÞal; (field exploitation) ..................................16 2>1 karsikSaelIÉksar (document Review) .........................................17 2>2 karsikSaRsavRCavépÞeRkamdI (Subsurface Exploration ) ............................18 2>3 sMNakKMrUdI Soil Sampling ....................................................19 Construction General -1-
  2. 2. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 2>4 karBiesaFn_enAnwgkardæan Field testing ..........................................21 3> RKwH Foundation ................................................................23 3>1 RKwHrak; Shallow Foundation ..................................................24 3>2 RKwHeRCA ....................................................................27 4> karCIkdIsMrab;eFVIRKwH Foundation excavation ..........................................28 4>1 karCIkdIsMrab;eCIgtag Footing Excavation .......................................28 4>2 karxYgsMrab; Excavation of Piers ...............................................28 4>3 karCIkdIcMhr open excavation .................................................30 4>4 karCIkdIedaymanCnÞl; braced excavtion .........................................30 5> viFIbegáInsßanPaBRTRTg;dI Improvement methods ......................................30 5/1 karBRgabdI Grading ..........................................................30 5>2 eKalkarN_énkarbgðab; Compaction Foundation ..................................33 CMBUkIII³ ..........................................................................35 eRKagsMNg;ebtugmanq¥wgr)aeEdkBRgwgnig sMPar³ebtug..............................35 Reinforcing bar concrete sturcture and concrete meterial .................35 1> sMParsuIm:g;t_ Cementitious material ................................................35 1>1 RbePTénsMPar³suIm:g;t_ Type of cementitious meterials ............................35 1>2 suIm:g;t_Br½tøg; (Portland Cement) ...............................................36 1>3 suIm:g;t_GaluymIj:Úm Aluminous Cement ........................................37 1>4 suIm:g;t_FmμCati Natural Cements ...............................................38 1>5 kMe)ar Limes ................................................................38 1>6 suIm:g;t_erobdæ Masonry ament ................................................41 1>7 Fly ashes ..................................................................41 2>fμbMEbk Aggregate ...............................................................42 Construction General -2-
  3. 3. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 2>1 fμbMEbkTMgn;Fmμta Normal –weigth aggregates....................................42 2>2 fμbMEbkEdlmanTMgn;F¶n;nig Rsal Heavy weigth and light weigth aggregate ..........43 3> TwkfñaMKImIsMrab;ebtug Admixture for concrete ........................................44 3/1 TwkfñaMKImIBIKImI nig BIEr: Chimical and mineral admixture ............................44 4> kMe)ar)ayGr nig ebtug Mortar and concrete .........................................47 4>1 kMe)ar)ayGr Motar ..........................................................47 4>2 ebtugsuIm:g;t_B½rtøg; Portland cement concrete.....................................48 4>3 ebtugb:UlIEmr Polymer concrete................................................48 5> karcak;ebtug Concrete Placement..................................................49 5>1 karGnuvtþn_d¾l¥ Good Pratice .................................................49 5>2 viFIénkarcak; Methods of Placing ...............................................50 5>3 PaBelIsTwk Excess water ....................................................50 5>4 kareFVIeGayhab; Consolidation ................................................51 5>5 karcak;ebtugeRKOgbgÁúMbBaÄr Concreting vertical element ...........................52 5>6 karcak;ebtugeRKOgbgÁúMedk concreting horizontal element...........................53 5>7 karcak;ebtugkñúgrdUvRtCak; Concreting in cold weather .............................54 5>8 karcak;ebtugGakasFatuekþA Concreting in hot weather...........................55 5>9 karEfrrkSasMeNImebtug Curing concrete .......................................55 5>10 muxtMNrsMrab;ebtug Joint in concrete .........................................56 5>11 karRtYtBinitüBIkarcak;ebtug Inspection of Concrete placement ...................58 6> eRKOgbgÁúMénsMNg;ebtug Members of concrete construction .............................58 6>1 kMral Slab .................................................................58 6>2 Fñwm Beam ..................................................................60 6>3 CBa¢aMg Wall ................................................................60 Construction General -3-
  4. 4. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 6>4 RKwH Foundation .............................................................61 CMBUk IV ..........................................................................64 sMNg;eRKagbgÁúMGMBIEdk.............................................................64 STRUCTURAL STEEL CONSTRUCTION ...............................64 1> karKitbøg;éneRKOgbgÁúM Design of Members ...........................................64 1>1 eKalkarN_sMrab; ASD nig LRFD BASED FOR ASD AND LRFD .....65 1>2 CMnYyénkarKItbøg; nigeyag Design Aids and References........................66 1>3 eRKOgbgÁúMrgnUvkMlaMgTay Tension member ...................................66 1>4 ssr Column ..............................................................67 1>5 Fñwm Beam ................................................................69 1>6 Plaster girders ..............................................................70 2> karksagsMNg;Edk Steel erection .................................................71 2>1 ]bkrN_énkarsagsg; Erection Equipment....................................73 2>2 RbeLaHkñúgkarsagsg;Fñwm Clearance for erecting beams ...........................74 2>3 lMdab;énkarsagsg; Erection sequence .........................................77 2>4 dMeNIrkarpSar Field –Welding .................................................77 CMBUk V ...........................................................................80 eRKOgbgÁMGMBIeQI nigsMPar³.........................................................80 WOOD STRUCTURE AND MATERIAL .................................80 1> sMPar³ Material .................................................................81 1>1 lkçN³mUldæanrbs;eQI Basic Characteristic of Wood .............................81 1>2 lkçN³emkanicéneQI Mechanical Properties of Wood ..........................83 1>3 lkçN³T§iBlRsUbcMhayTwkkñúgxül; Effect of hygroscopic properties ...............84 1>4> lMdab;fñak;éneQI Grade of Wood ..............................................87 Construction General -4-
  5. 5. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 1>5 sarFatubMpøaj nig sarFaturkSakarBar Destroyer and preservative....................90 1>6 kavnig sarFatusMrab;eQI Glues and adhesives for wood ...........................92 1>7 karplitkþakug)øaek nigkþabnÞHepSgeTot Plywood and fabricated wood board..........93 2> karpliteQI timber nigkarksag timber fabrication and erection .......................95 2>1 karpliteRKagbgÁúMeQI Fabrication of structural timber .............................95 2>2 karsagsg;eQI timber erection ................................................97 CMBUkVI³ ........................................................................101 eRKagCBa¢aMgerob¬dæ/ bøúk/ fμ¦ nigsMPar³ ........................................101 Masonry Structure and Material............................................101 1> esckþIepþIm Introduction ........................................................101 1>1 CBa¢aMgerobdæ Masonry Wall ................................................101 1>2 niymn½yénCBa¢aMgerobdæ Masonry Definition .................................101 2> KuNPaBénsMPar³sMrab;CBa¢aMgrabdæ Quality of Material for Masonry ..................105 2>1 tMrUvkarTUeTAsMrab;karKitCalkçN³bTdæan General Requirement of Design Standard ..106 2>2 sMPar³sMrab;sMNg;rabdæ Materials for Masonry Construction ....................107 3> sMNg;rabdæ Construction of masonry............................................107 3>1 sMNg;CBa¢aMgrabdækñúgGakasFatuRtCak; Cold weather construction of masonry walls 110 3>2 cgP¢ab;rvag Wythes sMrab;CBa¢aMgdæ Bond between wythes in Masonry wall .......110 3>3 rabdæeday grout grout masonry .....................................112 3>4 lkç½xN½ÐTMrsMrab;CBa¢aMg Support Conditions for Wall ............................115 3>5 Corbeling ................................................................115 3>6 RbelaHRbehag/ Chases nig rescesses sMrab;CBa¢aMgerobdæ .......................116 3>7 Flashing enAkñúgCBa¢aMgrabdæ ................................................117 4> TMrxagsMrab;CBa¢aMgrabdænig FaturYmpSMepSg² ........................................118 Construction General -5-
  6. 6. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC Lateral support for masonry wall and other elements .................................118 4>1 TMrxagsMrab;CBa¢aMgrabdæ lateral support for masonry wall ........................118 4>2 bMBg;EpSg nigeCIgRkandMedApÞH Chimneys and fireplaces .........................122 4>3 karpþl;nUvTMhMEdlpøas;bþÚr Provision for dimensional changes .....................123 4>4 CYsCulmuxtMNlicTwk Repair of leaky joint ....................................126 4>5 tMrUvkarkMras;CBa¢aMgdæ Masonry Thickness Requirement ..........................127 CMBUk I eRKagsMNg;emkanik Structural Mechanic 3 1> karkMNt;bnÞúk bnÞúk (Load) KWCakMlaMgeRkAEdlmanGMeBIelIeRKOgbgÁúMNamYy. Stress KWCakMlaMgkñúgEdl Tb;Tl;nwgbnÞúk (Loads) . Ep¥kelIlkçN³énbnÞúkEdlRtUveKykmkGnuvtþ vaGaceFVIeGayeRKOgbgÁúMnig smasPaBrbs;vaxUcRTg;RTay. ]TahrN_ ³ kMlaMgTajGaceFVIeGayvtßúmYyyWt kMlMagsgát;GacRc)ac;vtßúbBa©ÚlKña kMlaMgrmYlGac Rt)aj;vtßúmYynig kMlaMgkat;pþac; (Shearing Forces) GacrujEpñkNamYyéneRKOgbgÁúMecjBIKña. 1>1 RbePTénbnÞúk bnÞúkeRkAéneRKOgbgÁúMRtUveKEbgEckeTAtamRbePTepSg²Kña.enAkñúgenaHkarEbgEckmYy RtUveKBinitü eTAelIPaBnwgfál; (Static) nig kMlaMgkat;pþac; (Shearing Forces) GacrujEpñkNamYyén eRKOgbgÁMúecjBIKña. - bnÞúkefr (Static Loads)KWCakMlaMgEdlRtUveKeRbIy:agyWt² ehIybnÞab;mkvaesÞIrEtefr. ]TahrN_ Tm¶n;/ bnÞúkefr rbs;RbB½n§GaKar b¤dMbUl. Construction General -6-
  7. 7. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC - bnÞúkERbRbYl (Dynamic Loads) ³ ERbRbYleTAtameBlevla. varYmbBa©ÚlTaMg Repeat and Impact Loads . - Repeated Loads KWCakMlaMgEdlRtUveKykmkGnuvtþeRcIndgehIyvaGacbNþaleGayTMhM énkMlaMg xagkñúgERbRbYl. ]TahrN_ Off-balance motor - Impact Loads: kMlaMgEdlsgát;eTAelIeRKOgbgÁúMnig smasPaBrbs;vakñúgGMLúg eBlxøImYy. ]TahrN_ karTmøak;vtßúF¶n;mYyeTAelIkMralx½NÐ (Floor) . kMlaMgxageRkARtUveKEbg EckCakMlaMgBRgayesμIr (Distributed Loads) nig kMlaMgcMcMnuc (Concentration Loads) . - Uniformly Distributed Loads: KWCakMlaMgEdlenAkñúgkarGnuvtþCak;EsþgvaRtUv)aneKcat; Tukfa CakMlaMgEdlenAkñúgkarGnuvtþCak;Esþg. ]TahrN_ TMgn; efrénfñwm Edkrag I (Dead Weight of a rolled- Steel I beam is a good example) - Concentrated Loads KWCakMlaMgEdlsgát;eTAelIépÞRTtUcesÞIEtminRtUveKrab;bBa©Úl ebI eRbobeFob eTAnwgépÞTMrTaMgGs;. ]TahrN_ fñwm (Beam) EdlRTedayrt (Girder) RtUv)aneKcat;TukCabnÞúkcMcMnuc (Concentrated Loads) eTAelI Girder . viFIkMNt;énlkçN³bnÞúkd¾smBaØmYyepSgeTotenaHKW karkMNt;kMlaMgxageRkAEdlRtUv)an eKdak; eQμaH Axial ecentric nig Torsional ³ - An axial load ³ KWCakMlaMgrYmmYyEdlsgát;cMG½kS ehIyEkgeTAnwgépÞmuxkat;TTwg. - An ecentric load ³ KWCakMlaMgsgát;EdlEkgeTAnwgépÞénmuxkat; TTwg ehIyvamincMG½kS dUcenH ehIyvaGackac;eCIgTMr. - Torsional load ³ KWCakMlaMgrmYlEdlzitenAmincMG½kSrbs;muxkat;TTwg ehIyvaminman TisedAeTr b¤ kñúgbøg;rbs;muxkat;enaHdUcenHvakac;eCIgTMr. ]TahrN_ - Dead Loads ³ rYmmansMPar³sMNg; sMPar³ eRbIR)as; rWk¾TMgn;epSg²eTotrbs;sMPar³enAkñúgGaKar rYmTaMgTMgn;rbs;GaKarpÞal;EdlzitenAefrCaGcié®nþy_. Construction General -7-
  8. 8. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC - Live Loads ³ rYmbBa©ÚlGñksñak;;enA sMPar³sMNg; sMPar³eRbIR)as; rWTMgn;epSgeTotenAkñúg GaKar ehIyvaTMng nigRtUveKpøas;bþÚrTIkEnøgenAkñúgGMLúgGayukalkMNt;rbs;GaKar. - Impact Loads ³KWCacMENkén Live loads EdlRtUv)aneKeRbIedIm,IrYmbEnßmnUv Stress nig Deflection EdlCalT§plénkareFVIclnarbs; Live loads . - Wind KWCabnÞúkF¶n;Gtibrmarbs;xül;Edlbk;mkelIGaKarkñúgGMLúgeBlNamYyrW vaCakMlaMgmYy EdlbegáIteGayman Stress kñúgGMLúgeBlNamYy rWCakMlaMgmYyEdlbegáIteGayman Stress Rbhak;RbEhl nwgkMlaMgxül;bk;enaH. - Snow Loads KWCakMlaMgGtibrmaEdlmanGMeBIelIGaKaredaykarRbmUlpþúMKñarbs;RBilEdlekIteLIg kñúgGMLúgeBlNamYy. - Seismic Loads KWCakMlaMgTaMgLayNaEdlbegáIteGayman Stresses Gtibrma b¤k¾eFVIeGayGaKar mYyxUcRTg;RTayenAkñúgeBlrBa¢ÜydI. 1>2 bnÞúk (Service Loads) enAkñúgkarKNnaeRKOgbgÁúMrbs;GaKar GñkKNnaKYrEteRbIbnÞúkNak¾edayeGayFMCagbnÞúkxageRkam³ 1> bnÞúkEdlRtUv)anKNnaenAkñúg nigtYrbs;GaKar. 2> kar):an;sμanbnÞúkGtibrma minRtwmEtBwgEp¥kelITItaMglkçx½NÐbc©úb,nñ nig KMnitedIménkareRbIR)as; GaKarb:ueNÑaHeT bu:EnþvaRtUvEtrab;bBa©ÚlnUvehtukarN_EdlGacekIteLIgenAeBlGnaKtpgEdr. bnÞúkEdleK min)andwgGMBITMhM rbs;vac,as;las;ehIyvaRtUveKcat;TukfaCa Statistical Vairables EdlKYrEtRtUveKeRCIserIs eTAtamtMélRbEhlCak;lak;mYyEdlnwgminGacelIs)anenAkñúgGMLúgeBlénGayukalrbs;GaKar b¤ k¾Bwg Ep¥kelIehtukarN_ekIteLIgkñúgry³eBl 50qñaMmþg RtUv)aneKykmkKNna. eTaHCay:agNak¾eday Interval GacRtUveKyk 25qñaMsMrab;GaKarEdlKμanmnusSrs;enA b¤esÞIrEtKμankarb:HBal;dl;GayuCIvit b¤RtUveK yk100qñaM sMrab;GaKarGcié®nþy_EdlpÞúkbnÞúkF¶n;ehIyGacKMramkMEhgdl;GayuCIvitmnusS nigRTBüsm,tþikñúg karNImankardYlrlM. kñúgkrNIEdlKμan Local or State Building Code GñkKNnaGaceRbIbnÞúkEdleKkMNt;c,as;las;enA kñúgKMrUGaKarfñak;Cati (National Building Code) b¤tamBt’manxageRkam³ bnÞúkEdlRtUv)anykmkeRbIkñúgeRKOgbgÁúM rYmmandUcteTA bnÞúkeTal A lone b¤bnÞúkrYmKña (Combination Load) . ]TahrN_ bnÞúkefr (Dead), Live, Impact, Earth Pressure, Hydrostatic Pressure, RBil Construction General -8-
  9. 9. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC (Snow) Twkkk (Ice) ePøóg (Rain) xül; (wind) rW rBa¢ÜydI Constraining Forces EdlmandUcCakMlaMg én Restriction of Thermal karrYmmaD (Shrinkage) b¤ Moisture-Change Movements b¤kMlaMgEdlbNþalmkBI Creep, Plastic Flow, Differential settlement, Or Sidways(drift) 1>3 emKuNbnÞúk eRKOgbgÁúMGaKarRtUvEtKNnaeGaymanlT§PaBRKb;RKan;edIm,I RTRTg;GaKaredayKμankarxUcxat RTg;RTayhYsBIkarkMNt; b¤karxUcxaténkarrYmbBa©ÚlKña rbs;bnÞúkEdlniwgbegáIteGaymanT§iBlminl¥. kar b:HBal;kñúgkrNIEbbenHrYmman Twkdk;elIdMbUl dIEq¥t smuRTdI nig karpøas;bþÚrTMhM. kñúgkarkMNt;lT§PaB RTRTg;rbs;eRKOgbgÁúMmYy emKuNsuvtßiPaBsMPar³sMNg; nigkarKNnaminc,as;las;nuvlT§PaBRTRTg;RtUvEt ykmkKitBicarNaEdr. esovePAGaKarKMrU (Building Codes) GnuBaØatieGayeyIgeRbInUvrebobKNnaBIr Allowable- Stress Design b¤ Load and Resistance factor Design enAkñúgkarsagsg;GaKar. kñúgviFIKNnaedayKuNbnÞúk (Service Loads) nig emKuNsuvtßiPaB. emKuNsuvtßiPaBepSg² RtUv)aneKykeRbICamYynwgbnÞúkedayeyagelIPaBmin BitR)akdkñúgkarKNnabnÞúk. kñúgkarKNna Stress GnuBaØati (Allowable-Stress Design) lT§PaBEdlGacRTRTg;rbs;vaCaFmμta RtUvkMNt;edaybnÞúkEdlnaMeGaymankareRbH b¤kMhUcRTg;RTayrbs;vaCaFmμtaRtUvkMNt;edaybnÞúkefr Live Wind, Seismic, Snow nigbnÞúkepSg²eTot EdlGacekItmaneLIgkñgeBlEtmYyRtUveKbnÞúkrYmEdlRtUveK yk ú mkeRbIkñúgkarKNna Stress GnuBaØati (Allowable- Stress Design) KW 1. D + L + (Lr or S or R) 2. D + L + (W or E/1.4) 3. D + L + W + S/2 4. D + L + S+ W/2 5. D + L + S + E/1.4 6. 0.9 – E/1.4 D ³CabnÞúkefr (Dead Load) L ³ Liveloads ekItmkBIeKalbMNgénkareRbIR)as;rbs;GaKarrYmbBa©ÚlTaMgkarEbgEckCabnþbnÞab; nig karsñak;enA. Lr ³ Roof Liveloads S ³ Snow Loads R ³ Rain Loads Construction General -9-
  10. 10. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC ³ W Wind Load E ³ Seismic Load Building Codes CaFmμtaGnuBaØatieGayeRbIemKuNtUc eBlEdlkar):an;sμanénkarekIteLIg énbnÞúkFM sMebImrYmKñaenHmankMrittUc tYy:agdUcCa³ karrYmbBa©ÚlKñarvag Dead Load Gtibrma Liveload nigGtibrmarbs; kMlaMgxül;bk; rWrBa¢ÜydI. ]TahrN_ CaTUeTAemKuNEdlmantMél 0>75 RtUveKeRbIsMrab;KNnaplbUkbnÞúkrYm kñúgrUbmnþBI ¬2¦ dl;¬6¦ . emKuNRbePTenHGnuBaØatieGayÉkta én Stress GnuBaØati (Allowable Unit Stress) sMrab;eRbIkñúglkçx½NÐbnÞúkenH FMCagkarKNnabnÞúkrYmtamrUbmnþ ¬1¦. Stress GnuBaØatiRtUveKKNnaRTg;RTay hYsBIkarkMNt;EckCamYyemKuNsuvtßiPaBEdlmantMélFMCag 1. enAkñúgkarKNna emKuNbnÞúk nig PaBFn;RbePTbnÞúkepSgKñanimYy² RtUvKuNnwgemKuNbnÞúkrbs;va ehIytMélRtUv)aneKkMNt;eTAtamkat):an;sμanénPaBEdlGacekIteLIgénRbePTbnÞúknimYy²enaH. emKuN bnÞúkRtUveKKitbBa©ÚledIm,IeGayRbB½n§nig eRKOgbgÁúTaMgmUlGacRTRTg; nwgbnÞúkTaMgGs;)an. eRKOgbgÁúM M RtUv)aneKKNnaeGaylT§PaBRTRTg;bnÞúkrbs;vaFMCaglT§PaBRTRTg;bnÞúksrub. TMhMénlT§PaBRTRTg;enH KW RtUvKNnaedayKuN The Ultimate- Load Capacity nigemKuNPaBCab; (Resistance factor) EdltMélrbs;va pþl;eGaynUvkareCOCak;énkar):an;sμanrbs;lT§PaBRTRTg;mYy. lkçN³vinicä½yRtUv)aneKeRbICaTUeTAdUcxageRkam³ 1. 1.4D 2. 1.2D+1.6L+0.5( Lr or S or R) 3. 1.2D+1.6(Lr or S or R)+(0.5L or 0.8W) 4. 1.2D+1.3W+0.5(Lr or S or R) 5. 1.2D+1.0E+(0.5L or 0.2S) 6. 0.9D6 (1.3W or 1.0E) sMrab;yandæankEnøgRbCuMCn nigkEnøgEdl liveloads elIsBI 100 lb/ft emKuNbnÞúkCaFmμta RtUveKyk tMélÉktasMrab; L enAkñúgrUbmnþ 3/4 nig 5. sMrab;dMbUlEdlRBilGackkenAelIemKuNbnÞúkKYrEtmantMél 0>7sMrab; Snowload kñúgrUbmnþ ¬5¦. sMrab;karKNna Stress GnuBaØati (Allowable Stress Design) nig kMlaMg (Strength) eRKOgbgÁMúnig smasPaBrbs;vaKYrEtRtUveKKNnaedIm,ITb;Tl;KYrEtmantMél 0>7 sMrab; Snow Load kñúgrUbmnþ¬5¦. sMrab;karKNna Stress GnuBaØati (Allowable Stress Design) nig kMlaMg (Strength) eRKOgbgÁMúnig smasPaBrbs;vaKYrEtRtUveKKNnaedIm,ITb;Tl;nig kMlaMgBiessEdlekItLIgBIkarrMBa¢ÜydI. a. 1.2 D+0.5L+Em b. 0.9D-Em Construction General - 10 -
  11. 11. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC sMrab;kMralx½NÐenATIRbCuMsaFarN³sMrab; Liveload EdlelIsBI 100psf nigsMrab;bnÞúkéncMNtrfynþ emKuNbnÞúkRtUvmantMél 1>0 sMrab; L Em KWCakMlaMgGtibrma tamTisedk nigQr. 2> Stress and Strain KWCaTMhMmYyEdleRbIkñúgkarvas;lT§PaBRTRTg;ral;skþanuBl Structural Capacity or Ultimate Strength énbnÞúkedayKμaneFVIeGayeRbH rWxUcRTRTg;F¶n;F¶rdl;GaKar. edIm,Icg¥úlbgðajnUvcMnYnkMNt;énbnÞúkGtibrma EdleRKOgbgÁúMGacRTaMRT)an tMrUvé`nkarKNna (Design Specifications) sMrab;eRKOgbgÁMúnana RtUv)aneKbegáIt kñúgenaHmanÉktþa Stresses GnuBaØati (Allowable Unit Stress) rW Design Strengths EdlmanTMhM rbs;vaminGac elIsBIbnÞúkGtibrmaeLIy. RTwsþIéneKOgbgÁúM (Structural Theory) pþl;nUvviFIsa®sþsMrab;KNna Unit Stress nig sMrab;):an;sμanPaBxUcRTg;RTay. viFIsa®sþTaMgenHnwgRtUveKelIkykmkbgðajkñúgEpñkteTAenH. 2>1 Static Equilibrium ebIeRKOgbgÁúMnig smasPaBrbs;vaGacRTRTg;nwgbnÞúk bnÞab;BImankarxUcRTRTg;bnþicbnþÜcekItmaneLIg ehIyKμankarxUcbnþeTot BYkvaRtUvekcat;famantulüPaB (Equilibrium) . eRkamRBwtþikarN_EbbenH kMlaMgkñúg rW Stresses Tb;Tl;y:agBitR)akdeTAnwgbnÞúk. karsnñidænd¾mansar³sMxan;mYycMnYn RtUv)aneKTajecjBIlkçN³én Static equilibrium edayKμankar ERbRbYl plbUkénkMlaMgxageRkATaMgGs;esμIsUnü ehIyedayKμankarvil plbUkénm:Um:g; (Moment) EdlekIt elIgedaykMlaMgxageRkAenARtg;cMnucNamYyesμIsUnü. sMrab;mUlehtudUcKña ebIeyIgykEpñkNamYyéneRKOgbgÁúMehIyeRbIbnÞúkelIva plbUkénkMlaMgeRkA nig kñúgenAelIEpñkmYyenaH KWR)akdCasUnü. plbUkén Moment rbs;kMlaMgTaMgGs;k¾esμIsUnüEdr. CaTUeTAvamanPaBgayRsYlkñúgkarEvkEjkkMlaMg EdlmanGMeBIelIeRKOgbgÁúMeTACasmasPaBkMlaMg tUc² EdlRsbeTAtamG½kSEkKñamYy dUcenHehIyvaeFVIeGaymanPaBgayRsYlkñúgkarKNna. ]TahrN_ sMrab;kMlaMgEdlmanGMeBIelIbøg;mYykrNI EdleKCYbRbTHRsYlbMputenaHKW bMElgkMlaMg TaMgGs;eGayRsbtamG½kSGab;sIus nig G½kSGredaen (Vertical) . sMrab;eRKOgbgÁúMEdlmantulüPaB (Structure in Equilibrium) ebI H tMNageGaykMlaMgtamTwsedk V kMlaMgtamTisQr nig M Ca Moment énkMlaMgEdl sßitenAcMNucNamYyénbøg;/ ΣH = 0 ΣV = 0 nig ΣM = 0 . Construction General - 11 -
  12. 12. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC smIkarTaMgbIxagelIenHRtUv)aneKeRbIedIm,IKNnaGBaØti3 enAkñúg nonconcurrent coplanar force system. 2>2 Unit Stress and Strain edIm,IeFVIeGaydwgBitR)akdfaetI eRKOgbgÁúMmanlT§plGacRTRTg;bnÞúk)an GñkKNnaCaTUeTARtUvEt KNna Maximum Unit Stress EdlekIteLIgedaykarkMNt;bnÞúkkñúgeRKOgbgÁúMsMrab;RbePTkMlaMgkññúg kMlaMg Taj kMlaMgsgát; rWkMlaMgkkit ehIyeRbobeFobfaetInwg Allowable Unit Stress . enAeBlEdlkarbnÞúkdecñH Unit stress KWefrenAelIEpñkNamYyéneRKOgbgÁúMEdleKykmkeRbIelI Stress RtUvKNnaedayEckkMlaMgnwg épÞmuxkat. b:uEnþCaTUeTA Unit stress ERbRbYlBImYyeTAmYy. kñúgkrNIenH Unit stress EdlzitenAcMnucNamYyénmuxkat; KWCatMélkMNt;énpleFobrvagkMlaMgkñúgelIépÞtUcNamYy nig RklaépÞEdlvaRtUveKyktUceTA². CYnkalkñúgkarKNnaeRKOgbgÁúM Unit stress GacminEmnCacMnuccMbgEdleK ykmkKiteT. GñkKNnaGaccab;GarmμN_eTAelITMhMkMNt;mYyénkarxUcRTg;RTay rW Strain . kMhUcRTg;RTayeTAtam TisedANamYy KWCakarpøas;bþÚrTaMgRsugénTMhMrbs;eRKOgbgÁúMtamTisenaH. Unit strain eTAtamTisedANamYy KW karxUcRTg;RTaykñúgÉktþaRbEvgtamTisenaH. enAeBlEdlbnÞúkdak;dUcenH Unit strain KWefr kñugEpñkmYyéneRKOgbgÁúMvaGacRtUveKKNnaedayEck RbEvgénkMhUcRTg;RTayCamYyRbEvgedImrbs;va. b:uEnþCaTUeTA Unitstress ERbRbYlén Unitstress tMNagnUv tMélkMNt;énpleFobmYy. 2>3 Hooke’s Law sMrab;sMPar³sMNg;CaeRcIn Unit strain KWsmamaRteTAnwg Unit stress, Until a certain stress, The proportional limit is exceeded. Hooke’s Law RtUveKsÁal;tamTMnak;TMngEdlGacsesrdUcxageRkam³ rW Edl f = Unit Stress = Unit Strain E= Modulus of elasticity Construction General - 12 -
  13. 13. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC dUecñHenAeBlEdl Unit stress nig Modulus of elasticity RtUveKsÁal; Unit strain RtUv)aneKsÁal;tMél Unit stress GacnwgRtUveKKNna)an. enAeBlEdleRKOgbgÁúMmYyRtUvrgnUvbnÞúk ehIy Unit stress minelIsBI Proportional Limit eRKOgbgÁúMnig RtLb;eTAPaBedImvijenAeBlEdlbnÞúkRtUv)aneKdkecj. The elastic limit KWCa Unit stress FMbMputEdlGac ekItmaneLIgedayKμankMhUcRTg;RTayCaGcié®nþy_bnSl;TukbnÞab;BIdkbnÞúkecj. sMPar³sMNg;xøHman 1 rW2 Yield Pont . TMhMTaMgenaHKWCa Unit stress enAkñúgkEnøgEdlmankarelceLIgnUvkMenInén Strain edayKμankar ekIneLIg b¤fycuHbnþicbnþÜcén Stress . dUcenHsMPar³sMNg;bgðajnUvPaByWtrbs;va. sMrab;sMPar³sMNg; EdlKμankarkMNt; Yield Point c,as;las; The offset yield strength RtUveKeRbICargVas;énPaByWtdMbUg ( The beginning of plastic deformation) . 2>4 Constant Unit Stress krNIEdlsamBaØén Stess nig Strain KWCakrNIEdlkñúgenaH Unitstress nig Strain efr. ]TahrN_³ Stress EdlekIteLIgedaykMlaMgTaj rWsgát; rW Shearing Force rW bnÞúkEdleRbImþgmáal. lkçN³énkardak; bnÞúkTaMgenHRtUveKbgðajenAkñúgrUb Figure 11 . sMrab;kMlaMgTaj nig sgát;cMG½kS eyIgyképÞmuxkat;EdlEkg eTAnwgG½kSkNþal nig EkgeTAnwgkMlaMgsgát;. sMrab; Shearing Load épÞmuxkat;EdlzitenAkñúgbøg;kat;RtUveK ykmkKNna. ehIysMrab; bearing load vaRtUveRCIserIsykbøg;b:HéneRKOgbgÁúMTaMgBIr. Construction General - 13 -
  14. 14. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC rUb1-1 lkNrbs;bnÞk 2>5 Poisson’s Ratio enAkñúg elastic limit enAeBlEdleRKOgbgÁúMmYyrgnUvkMlaMgsgát;cMG½kSvaminRtwmEteFVIeGayxUc RTg;RTaytamépÞbeNþayEtb:ueNÑaHeT EtvaEfmTaMgeFVIeGayxUcRTg;RTaytamépÞTTwgpgEdr. enAeRkam kMlaMgTaj (Tension) épÞénmuxkat;rbs;eRKOgKWfycuH ehIyenAeRkamkMlaMgsgát; (Compression) vaekIneLIg pleFobén Unit Lateral strain nwg Unit longitudinal strain RtUEtehAfa Poisson’s ratio . sMrab;sMPar³sMNg;CaeRcInpleFobenHRtUveKyktMélesμI 0>25. sMrab;eRKOgbgÁúMEdktMélrbs;va RtUveKsnμt yk 0>3 . Construction General - 14 -
  15. 15. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC ]TahrN_ snμtfaEdkBüÜrmYyEdlmanépÞ 2in2 BüÜrTMgn; 40 Kip (40.000-1b) load . The Unit stress KW 40>000¼2 rW 20>000PSI Unit tensil strain KW 20>000¼30>000>000 rW 0>00067 in/ in . edayyk Poisson’s Ration esμI 0>3 Unit lateral strain KW -0>3 x 0>00067 rW a shortening of 0>00020 in/ in . CMBUkII ³ dI nig RKwH Soil and foundation 3 1> esckþIepþIm 1>1 emkanicdI emkanicdI KWRtUveKkMnt;edaykarGnuvtþn_ énc,ab; nigeKalkarN_rbs;emkanic nigTwkenAkñúgkaredaH RsaybBaðaCamYydIEdleKcat;TukCasmÖar³visVkmμ. dImanlkçN³eRcInRbePTepSg²Kña edayEp¥keTAelIkar sikSa. ]TahrN_kñúgekSRtviTüa (agronomy) ¬karGnuvtþn_viC¢adaMdMNaM¦dIKW RtUveKkMNt;faCakMNkénrUbFatuEr: EdlmankMeNItmkBIsMNwkfμ nigrUbFatuxniCEdlRbmUlpþúMKña eRkayBIkarrlYyénrukçCati nigstV. sMrab;Gñk ekSRtviTüa (agronomist) dIKWCasarFatuEdlpþl;GMbilxniCedIm,IciBa©wmkarrIklUtlas;énrukçCati. b:uEnþsMrab; visVkrEpñkdI (geotechnical engineer) dImann½yTUlMTUlayehIyGacrab;bBa©ÚlminRtwmEt agronomic material b:uEnþvarab;bBa©ÚlpgEdrnUv sMNwkfμ epHPñMePøIg dIl,ab; lannin sand glacial material nig sMNl;epSgénkarswk rbs;fμ. tamFmμCativamankarlM)akkñúgkarrkbnÞat;EbgEckmYyrvagfμ nigdI. ]TahrN_sMrab;PUKBðviTU (geologist) sarFatumYyRtUv)aneKdak;cMNat;fñak;eTAtamkMNkMeNIténfμBIeRBaHvasßitenAeRkamsßanPaBPUKBð d¾Cak;lak;mYy b:uEnþsMrab;visVkrdIvaKYrEtRtUveKcat;cUlcMNat;fñak;dI. Construction General - 15 -
  16. 16. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 1>2 visVkmμRKwH (Foundation Engineering) RKwHRtUveKkMNt;faCaEpñkmYyén eRKOgbgÁúMEdlRTRTg;Tm¶n;rbs;eRKOgbgÁúMehIy bBa¢ÚnbnÞúkeTARsTab; dIrW fμenAxageRkam. kñúgvisVkmμRKwH (Foundation Engineering) .emkanicdI emkanicfμ PUmivTüa nigvisμkmμeRKOg bgÁúM tUveKeRbIkñúgkarKNna nigsagsg;RKwHGaKar rWeRKOg bgÁúM. mUldæanRKwHrbs; Foundation Engineering KWkareRCIserIsRbePTénRKwH EdlmandUcCaRbBn½§énRKwHrak; (Shallow Foundation) rWRKwHeRCA (Deep Foundation). mUldæanRKwHmYyeTotén Foundation Engineering KWTak;TgeTAnwgkarKNna Parameter dUcCaliT§PaB RTRTg;rbs;RKwHEdlmandUcCa karkMnt;RbePT nigcenøaHEdksréskñúgeCIgtag. 2> karsikSaRsavRCavelIkardæanpÞal; (field exploitation) eKalbMNgénkarsikSaRsavRCavelIkardæanpÞal; KWedIm,Icg;dwgnUvcMnucxageRkam³ 1> karyl;dwgGMBIsßanPaBPUmisa®sþTUeTAénkardæan edaysarvaCHT§iBleTAelIkarKNna nigsag sg;RKwH. ]TahrN_ sßanPaBrbs;épÞdIPaBs¥itrbs;dI RbPBTwkRtBaMgrbg; rukçCati rock outcrops nigkarGac ecjcUl)anénrfynþdwk smÖar³sMNg;. 2> TItaMgénkEnøgbgáb;]bkrN_eRbIR)as;dUcCa ExSkabGKiÁsnInigTUrs½BÞRbBn§½Twk nigRbBn½§lU. 3> lkçN³TUeTArbs;PUBsa®sþénRkLaépÞ CamYynwgkarkt;sMKal;nUvkarkekIténRsTab;dI nig sRmut dIBIkarviPaKelIRbePTdI rWkrNIepSgeTot. 4> Rbvtþinig kareRbIR)as;kardæanrYmman Bt’manénkarxUcxat b¤)ak;Ebkrbs;sMNg;cas;² EdlbNþal mkelIRKwH. 5> lkçN³BiessepSg²dUcCa PaBGacekIteLIgénkarrBa¢ÜydI rWkarpøas;bþÚrénktþaFmμCatimandUcCa TwkCMnn; karrIkb¤rYmtamrdUvkMnt;nigdIsmñwk. 6> RbPBnigKuNPaBrbs;sMPar³ sMNg;enAkñúgRsukmandUcCaRKYssMrab;eFVIebtugfμsMrab;eFVIGaKar b¤pøÚv nigTwksMrab;karsagsg;. 7> sMrab;sMNg;Tak;Tgnig smuRT b¤TenøBt’manelIkMriteCarnac nigkMBs;Twkel,ÓnéncrnþeCarnac nig crnþTenønigTinñn½y EdlTak;TgeTAnwg Hydrographic nig meteorological. Construction General - 16 -
  17. 17. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 8> karkt;RtaTuky:aglMGiténsßanPaBBIr b¤fμI niglkçN³TwkeRkamdIEdlenAkñúgtMbn;EdlGacman T§iBleTAelIlT§PaBRTRTg;rbs;RKwH nigRbtibtþikarN_énkarsagsg;rW karCIkeRCAénRsTab;dIEdlGacCH T§iBleTAelIkardæankñúgkrNINamYy. 9> lT§iplénkareFVIBiesaFn_elIsMNakdIb¤ fμEdlRtUvnwgkarnwgkarKNna b¤sagsg;. 2>1 karsikSaelIÉksar (document Review) Bt’manEdlRtUvkarcaM)ac;xøH² mandUcCaRbvtþiénkareRbIR)as;kardæanRtUveK)anmkBIkarsikSaelI Éksar.]TahrN_manr)aykarN_cas;² GMBI lanning Edlcg¥úlbgðajfa kardæanGacCakMNk dIRbBn½§bgðÚrTwk s¥úyEdleKe)aHbg;ecalnig GageRcaH GagsþúkTwkkb;kñúgdIelI b¤eRkamEdlGacb:HBal;dl; KMeragGPivDÆn_ fμI². vaGacmanpgEdrnUvBt’manEdlTak;TgeTAnwg kareRbIR)as;elInwgeRkamdIénbMBg;Twk Edl RtUvEtCIkdak; b¤bit KMrbenAkñúgbrievnénkardæan. kñúgkarsikSaelIÉksarenH vamansar³sMxan;Nas;edIm,IBinitüsMPar³KMrU (reference materials) dUcCaEpnTI PUKBðsa®sþ nigEpnTIPUmisa®sþ. EpnTIPUKBðsa®sþvamansar³sMxan;Nas;BIeRBaHvaEtgEtcg¥úl bgðajnUv eRKaHfñak;énPUKBðsa®sþ ¬]TahrN_karxUcdI)ak;¦ nigRbePTénRsTab;dI b¤fμenAelIkardæan. TaMgEpnTIPUmisa®sþcas;nig fIμ Gacpþl;nUvBt’mand¾mantMélGMBIkardæansagsg;. EpnTIPUmisa®sþCa FmμtaRtUveKeRbImaRtdæan ehIybgðajTItaMgénGaKar pøÚv pøÚvCati pøÚvEdk nig kargarepSgeTotEdlTak;TgeTA nwgsMNg;suIvil nigTidæPaBFmμCatiEdlmandUcCa eRCaH Tenø bwg qksmuRTnig eqñrsmuRT. EpnTIPUmisa®sþGacg¥úlbgðajpgEdr nUvkEnøgénGagcg¥ÚrTwks¥úy nigGagsþúkTwk ehIyedayeRbIBN’ nig Rsemalvacg¥úlbgðajnUvkarGPivDÆn_cas; nigfμI. b:uEnþeKalbMNgsMxan;énEpnTIPUmisaRsþKWedIm,I cg¥úlbgðajnUvnIvUdI. Bt’manenHGacRtUveKeRbIsMrab;KNna TidæPaBcMbgénsßanPaBPUmisa®sþ rbs;kardæan nigsMrab;karsikSaBIRsTab;eRkamdI EdlmandUcCaRsTab;dIEdlGaceFVIeGayvakarvaybBa©úHRKwH RbRBitþieTA )an. RbPBd¾sMxan;mYyeToténBt’man KWrUbPaBftBIelIGakas (aerial photographs) EdlRtUveKftBIelI ynþehaHEdlehaHenAkMBs; nigExSbnÞat;EdleKkMNt;mYy. emIlrUbftBIelIGakasBIrCamYynwg CMnYyén Stereoscope vapþl;nUvrUbPaB 3D énsßanPaBépÞdI. rUbPaBenHGacbgðajnUvBt’man sMxan;énPUKBðsa®sþrbs; kardæandUcCavtþmanéndI)ak; RcaMg)ak; RbePTénTMrg;dI ¬]TahrN_pñÚkxSac;¦ (alluvial fans) dIl,ab;kMNk én Twkkk (moraines) nig (eskers) PaBsikricrilRbePTTUeTAnig lkçN³rbs;rukçCati nigKMrUénbNþajbeNþaHTwk Construction General - 17 -
  18. 18. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC . edayeRbobeFobrUbPaBBIelIGakascas; nig fμIPUKBðviTUGacsegátpgEdrnUvkarpøas;bþÚr (drainage patterns) edayFmμCati b¤mnusSEdl)anekIteLIgenAelIkardæan. 2>2 karsikSaRsavRCavépÞeRkamdI (Subsurface Exploration ) edIm,IkMNt;nUvkarkt;RtalMGiténdI nigRsTab;fμ niglkçN³énTwkeRkamdInUvkardæan karsikSaRsavRCav épÞeRkamdI KWCanic©CakalRtUveKelIkykmksikSa. manRbePTepSg² KñaénkarsikSaRsavRCavépÞeRkamdI dUcCa karxYg (borings) reNþABiesaFn_ (test pits) nigkarCIkcg¥ÚrCaedIm. karxYgeFVIeLIgedayeRbIbMBg;ragsuILaMg xYgcUlkñúgdI kñúgeKalbMNgsikSaBIlkçN³rbs;RsTab;dIxag eRkamkarBiesaFn_enAelIkardæanpÞal; nigykdIfμI rWk¾TwkeRkamdIsMrab;eFVIBiesaFn_. reNþAxYgGacRtUveKCIkeday éd¬]TahrN_³ CIkedaycbCIk¦ eTaHbIkñúgkarCIkFmμtaeKRtUveRbI mechanical equipment edIm,ICIkreNþA k¾eday. eRKOgcRkeRcInRbePTRtUveKeRbIedIm,IxYgreNþA. Auger Boring: Mechanical Auger KWCarebobCIkreNþAy:agelOn. reNþARtUveKCIkedayEdkxYgeday eRbIsMBaFbukEdkxYgCYykñúgkarTemøaHdI rWfμ. CaTUeTAmanEdkxYgBIrRbePT KW Flight auger nig bucket augers. CaFmμtaGgát;p©itrbs; flight KW 5cm- 12cm (2in eTA 4ft) ehIyrbs; bucket augers KW 0.3m eTA 2.4m (1ft eTA 8ft) . EdkxYgRtUveKdkecjBIreNþA kñúgry³eBleTogTat;NamYy TnÞwmnigeBlenaHEdr dIEdlsßitenAelI Flight auger rWenAkñúg bucket auger RtUveK ykecj. Casing CaTUeTAKW eKmineRbIsMrab; auger boring eT ehIyreNþAxYgGacRsutkñúgeBldIRtesaH rWdITn; rWxYgRsTab;dIenAeRkamTwk. auger KWCa]bkrN_sMrab;xYgEdlCaTUeTARtUveKeRbIsMrab;xYgdI rWfμ. Hollow-stem flight auger; A hollow-stem flight auger manRbehagragmUlcMkNþalEdkxYgEdl GnuBaØatieGayeyIgyksMNak;dIxageRkam)an. Hollow-stem flight auger KwdUcCaRbGb;sMrab;sMNak;dI RtesaH b¤dITn; b¤enAeBlxYgdIeRkamRsTab;TwkeRkamdI. Wash-type Borings eRbIdMeNIrkarrbs;GgÁFaturav EdlGacnaMykkMeTckMTIdIeGayecjBIreNþA)an. kMeTcdIekItmkBIkarkab; mYl nigbukrbs;EdkxYg (drill bit) EdlkMTicdI b¤fμeTACabMENktUc². Casing RtUveK eRbIedIm,IkuMeGaymankar)ak;RsutreNþAxYg. edaysar drilling fluid ¬GgÁFaturav¦ EdleRbIkñúgeBlxYgvaGaceFVIeGaylM)ak;kñúgkarkMNat;dI nig lM)akkñúgTTYl)an sMNak;EdlminxUcRTg;RTay. Construction General - 18 -
  19. 19. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC Rotary Coring KWCa]bkrN_xYgmYyRbePTEdleKeRbIfamBlrgVilénEdkxYgeGaydUcCaclnarbs; GgÁFaturavedIm,IRbmUlykkMeTcdIecjBIrn§. Percussion Drilling KWCa]bkrN_xYgmYyRbePTEdleKeRbIsMrab;xYgmYyRbePTEdleKeRbIsMrab;xYgTmøúH fμrwgedIm,IEsVgyl;BIRsTab;dIxageRkam b¤edIm,IkarxYgGNþÚg. EdkxYgeFVIkardUcCadgjjÜreLIg ehIycuHedIm,I bMEbknigkMeTcfμ. elIsBIkarxYgenHmanviFIepSgeTot sMrab;karEsVgyl;BIRsTab;dIrYmbBa©ÚlTaMg Test pits nig trenches . Test Pits CaerOy² KWmanragCakaer:kñúgbøg;KMehIjCamYynwgTMhMRbePT 1.2 x 1.2 m (4ft KuNnwg 4ft) . Trenches manragEvg nigceg¥ótCaFmμtakayeday backhoe b¤ bulldozer. tarag 6>4 bgðajBIkareRbIR)as; smtßPaBnig TMhMkMNt;rbs; test pits nig trenches. Test Pit nig trenches pþl;nUvkarRtYtBinitüedayEPñkTeT nUvlkçxNÐénRsTab;dIxageRkam. eKk¾Gac eRbIedIm,ITTYlnUvsMNakKMrU undisturbed éndIpgEdr. dMeNIrenHmanCIkkaydIBIxag b¤)atén Test pit b¤ trench sMNakKMrUdI k¾GacTTYl)anBI Test pit b¤ trenches edaykarduMsgát;bBa©ÚledayédnUvbMBg; shelby, drive suILaMg b¤bMBg;sMNakKMrUepSgeTotcUleTAkñúgdI. Backhoe trenchesKWCaviFId¾snSMsMécénkarGnuvtþn_nUvkarRsavRCavBIRsTab;dIxageRkam. backhoe Gac CIky:agelOnnUv trench EdlGacbnÞab;mkRtUv)aneRbIedIm,IRtYtBinitü nigBiesaFn_dIenAnwgkEnøg. sMrab;kar sikSaRsavRCavRsTab;dIxageRkamCaeRcIn backheo trench RtUv)aneRbIedIm,IvaytMéllkçxNÐ near- surface nig PUmisa®sþ ¬]TahrN_rhUtCMerA 15ft¦ edayreNþAxYgEdl)aneRbIsMrab;GegátlkçxNÐRsTab;dIxageRkameRCA CagenH. 2>3 sMNakKMrUdI Soil Sampling RbePTepSgKñaCaeRcInén KMrUdIGacRtUv)aneRbIedIm,IeFVICasMNakKMrUdI b¤fμEdl)anBIkarxYg. 1> Altered Soil: kñúgGMLúgeBlRbtibtþikarxYg dIGacRtUv)aneFVIeGayxusBIsPaBedImedaysar karlay b¤edaysarkareFVI[kxVk;. ]TahrN_ RbsinebIkarxYgmin)anlagsMGatecjedIm,IeFVIsMNakKMrU enaH sMNakKMrUdI EdlykecjBI)atGNþÚgxYgBitR)akdGacmansarFatukMeTckMTI (cutting) EdlRCuHBIRCugmçagén GNþÚgxYg. kMTickMTIénGNþÚgxYgenH EdlRCuHFøak;eTA)atGNþÚgxYg nigminman vtþmansMrab;lkçxNÐenAnwg kEnøg énsMNakKMrUEdlmanCMerAeRCA. kñúgkrNIepSgeTot sMNakKMrUdIGackøayCakxVk;eday sarGgÁFaturav énkarxYg EdleRbIsMrab; Wash-type boring. sMNakKMrUvdIRbePTenH EdlRtUv)anlay b¤eFVI[kxVk;edaysar Construction General - 19 -
  20. 20. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC dMeNIrkarénkarxYgKYrminRtUv)aneRbIsMrab; karBiesaFn_eTeRBaHvanwgnaMmknUvkarsnñidæan xuscMeBaHlkçxNÐ énRsTab;eRkamdI. dIEdlpøas;bþÚrsMeNImkñúgedaysarGgÁFaturavénkarxYg b¤kMedAénm:asuInePøIgkñúgGMLúgéndMeNIrkar én karxYgk¾KYrRtUv)ancat;cUlkñúglMdab; altered soil. dIEdlRtUv)ansgát;bEnñneday over pushing b¤ over driving KWCasMNakKMrUdIEdl k¾Gacat;Ca altered soil EdredaysarEtdMeNIrkarén over-pushing b¤ over –driving Gac sgát;Twk[ecjBIdI. 2> Disturbed samples: disturbed soil KWCadIEdlRtUvcak;Bum<eLIgvijkñúgGMLúgdMeNIrkareFVI sMNakKMrUdI. ]TahrN_ dIEdlTTYl)anBIsMNakKMrUEdlduMbBa©Úl (driven sampler) dUcCasMNakKMrUEdlbgðÚr edaysøabRBaBIkarBiesaFn_sgát;TMluHCabTdæan (standard penetration test spilt spoon sampler) b¤duMdITaMgmUl² Edlykmkkan;épÞdIenAkñúgRtebotEdkxYg ¬]TahrN_duMsMNakKMrU¦ Gaccat;TukCa disturbed soil. Disturbed soil GacRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;BiesaFn_)aneRcInRbePT. 3> Undisturbed sample: eKTTYlsÁal;faKμansMNakKMrUdINaEdlGacykecjBIdIedaysßan- PaBminxUcRTg;RTaytex©aHenaHeT. eTaHbICay:agNa Bakübec©keTsenHGaceRbIsMrab;sMNakKMrUdIEdlyk edayviFId¾BitR)akd. sMNakKMrUdI Undisturbed sample CaerOy² KWCasMNakKMrUEdlTTYl)anedaykarruj sgát;yWt² bMBg;EdlmanCBa¢aMgy:agesþIg ehIymancugkat;muxRsYc nigelonecjeRkAcUleTAkñúgdI. ):ar:aEm:Rt 2 CaerOy² RtUv)aneRbIedIm,IvaytMélBI disturbance potential énsMNakKMrUepSgKña KWCapleFobRbeLaHxag kñúg nigpleFobépÞRkla. CaTUeTAbMBg;sMNakKMrUsMrab;sMNak undisturbed soil KYrRtUvmanpleFobRbeLaHxagkñúgRbEhl1° nig pleFobRklaépÞRbEhl 10° b¤ticCagenH. karykpleFobRbelaHxagkñúgRbEhl 1° edIm,Ipþl;[ PaBlanecjeRkAxagkMBUlénsMNakKMrUdI nigkat;bnßyPaBkkitrvag dI nig bMBg;sMNakKMrUkñúgGMLúgeBlén dMeNIrkareFVIsMNakKMrU. RsTab;eRbgy:agesþIgGacRtUv)anlabenAelICaymuxkaMbitedIm,Ikat;bnßypgEdr nUvPaB kkiténépÞdI nigbMBg;EdkkñúgGMLúgdMeNIrkareFVIsMNakKMrUBum<. eKalbMNgénkarmanpleFob énépÞ Rklad¾Tab nig cugkaMbitRsYcKWedIm,IrMkilcUleTAkñúgdICamYynwgkarraMgsÞH nigPaBbMlas;TItictYcEdlGacekIt mantictYc cMeBaHdI. bMBg; shelby KWRtUv)anplitedIm,I[RsbeTAtamrsovePAlMGitbec©keTs (specification) nwgRtUv)an eRbIsMrab;sMNakKMrUdI undisturbed soil samplers . Construction General - 20 -
  21. 21. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC ktþaepSgeTot CaeRcInk¾GacbNþaleGaydIRtUv)anraMgsÞ³dUcCa ³ • duMRKYsrwg b¤ cMENksMbkxügenAkñúgdI EdlGacbegáInrn§es<atenAtamxagénbMBg;sMNakKMrUkñúgGMLúg dMeNIrkareFVIsMNakKMrU. • karxUcxatrcnasm<½n§dIEdlbNþalmkBIkarduMjjÜr b¤rujsgát;bMBg;sMNakBum<eTAkñúgRsTab;dI. • cMhayPayén]sμ½nkñúgGMLúgkardkykmkvijnUvbMBg;sMNakKMrU. • kareFVIeGaykeRkIk b¤karb:HTgÁicénbMBg;sMNakKMrU kñúgGMLúgeBldwkCBa¢ÚneTAkan;bnÞb;BiesaFn_. • kardkyksMNakdIedayrdwbrdubBIbMBg;sMNakKMrU. • karkat;tMrwmy:ageFVsRbEhseTAtamTMhMCak;lak;sMrab;karBiesaFan_enAkñúgbnÞb;BiesaFn_. ral;skmμPaBEdl)anerobrab;xagelIGackat;bnßyRbsiT§iPaB Stress karkat;bnßysMrab;PaBs¥itén GnþrRKab; nigkartMerobeLIgvijénRKab;dI. sMNakKMrUdI “undisturbed” nwgGacRtUv)antMerobeLIgvijnUvRKab;dI y:agtictYc nigGacKμankarxUcxatelIkElgEtbNþalmkBI stress relief Edlmankarpøas;bþÚrBIlkçxNÐ stress enAnwgkEnøgeTAlkçxNÐ stress isotropic “sMNakKMrUtex©aH” . sMNakKMrUdI disturbed Gacmanrcnasm<½n§dI EdlxUcRTg;RTayCamYynwg kartMerobRKab;dIesÞIrEtTaMgGs;. enAeBlvas;rkPaBFn;énkMlaMgkat;pþac; (shear strength ) b¤lkçN³xUcxatRTg;RTayéndI lT§plénkarBiesaFn_cMeBaHsMNakKMrUdI undisturbed Edl)anerob rab;xagelI)anbgðajBIlkçN³énsßanPaBenAnwgkEnøg RbesIrCaglT§plBiesaFn_cMeBaHsMNakKMrUdI disturbed ehIyKMrUEdl)anykecjBIrn§GNþÚgxYgKYrrkSaTukenAkñúgbMBg;sMNakKMrU b¤kgsMNakKMrU. bMBg;sMNakKMrUKYr eRsaby:agCitcugrn§Rbehag b¤kgsMNakKMrUKYreRsaby:agsBV enAkñúgRbGb;edIm,IkarBar kar)at;bg;sMeNIm kñúgGMLúgénkardwkCBa¢ÚneTAkan;bnÞb;BiesaFn_. sMNakKMrUvdIKYrRtUv)ankt;cMNaMCamYyÉksar b¤elxKMerag kalbriecäTénkaryksMNakKMrU eQμaHénvisVkr b¤ GñkPUKBðsa®sþEdl)anGnuvtþcMeBaHkaryksMNakKMrU nigcMnYnénkarxYg nigCMerA. 2>4 karBiesaFn_enAnwgkardæan Field testing eKmankarBiesaFn_CaeRcInRbePT EdlGacGnuvtþn_enAeBlxYg. karBiesaFn_enAnwgkardæanbI RbePT FmμtaCageK nwgRtUv)anykmkBiPakSakñúgEpñkenH. karBiesaFn_edaysarkarsgát;TMluHCabTdæan Standard Penetration test (SPT) KWCakarsgát;]bkrN_sMNakKMrUEdlmanCBa¢aMgRkaseTAkñúgRsTab;xSac;. ]bkrN_sMNak SPT SPT RtUvEtmanGgát;p©itxagkñúg (D1) = 3.81cm(1.5in) nigGgát;p©itxageRkA (D ) = 5.08 cm(2in). ]bkrN_sMNak 0 Construction General - 21 -
  22. 22. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC KMrU SPT RtUv)ansgát;cUleTAkñúgdIxSac;edaykarTMlak;duMjjYrTMgn; 63.5kg(1401b) BIkMBs; 0.76m(30in) . ]bkrN_sMNakKMrU SPT RtUv)ansgát;cUlsrubCMerA 45cm (18in) CamYynwgkarTMlak;duMjjÜrCaeRcIndgeday )ankt;Rtaral;CMerAKMlat 15cm (6in) . karvas;]bkrN_ SPT tMél N ¬cMnYnTMlak;ral;kMBs; ft¦ KWCaPaBFn; énkarsgát;TMluHéndIxSac; EdlesμInwgplbUkéncMnYnénkarTMlak;EdltMrUvsgát;]bkrN_sMNakKMrU SPT elICMerA cenøaHBI 15 eTA 45 cm ¬6eTA 18in¦. mUlehtuEdlcMnYnénkarTMlak;duMjjÜrkñúgtMél N KWCaerOy² dMeNIr karénkarxYgeRcIneFVIeGaydIxUcRTg;RTayenAnwg)aténrn§GNþÚgxYg nigRtUv)anGanenACMerA 15 eTA 45cm (6 eTA 18in) RtUv)aneCOCak;fa vatMNagl¥CageKénPaBFn;éndIxSac; enAnwgkEnøg. Tinñn½yBIxageRkamkarCab;Tak;Tg KñaéneBlbc©úb,nñrvagénkarvas;Evg. karvas;Evg SPT tMél N GacRtUv)anCHT§iBledayktþaénkarBiesaFn_ CaeRcInnig lkçxNÐdI. ]TahrN_ TMhMRKab;RKYsbegáInPaBFn;énkarsgát; ¬dUcenHbegáIntMél N¦ edayERb køayPaBs¥itenAkñúg]bkrN_sMNakKMrU SPT. ktþaepSgeTotEdlCHT§iBl dl;karBiesaFn_ SPT tMél N KWTwk enAkñúgdI. vamansar³sMxan;kñúgkarrkSakMritkMBs;TwkenAkñúgrn§GNþÚgxYg [esμI b¤sßitBIelIkMritkMBs;TwkkñúgdI dUc enAnwgkEnøg. eKRtUvkarBarTwkkñúgdIkuMeGayeLIgcUleTAkñúg)aténrn§GNþÚrxYgEdleFVIeGayxSac;RtsuHehIy lT§plénkarrab;tMél N Tab. eRkABIlkçxNÐRKab;RKYs nigTwkkñúgdIEdl)anBiBN’naxagelI enAmanktþa BiesaFn_epSgKñaeTotCaeRcIn EdlGacCHT§iBldl;PaBCak;lak;énkarGan SPT. ]TahrN_ karBiesaFn_ SPT tMél N GacRtUv)anCHT§iBledaysarRbsiT§iPaBénduMjjÜr GRtaénkarTMlak;duMjjÜr Ggát;p©iténrn§ GNþÚgxYg nigRbEvgéndgEdk. Van Shear Test (VST) SPT nig CPT RtUv)aneRbIsMrab;karCab;Tak;TgKñaénPaBFn;énkarsgát;]bkrN_¬tMél N¦ b¤rujsgát; duMekaNCamYynwglkçN³énvisVkmμ ¬dUcCalkçxNÐdg;suIet¦éndI. pÞúymkvij karBiesaFn_ vane test KWmanPaB EbøkKñaBIkarBiesaFn_enAnwgkEnøgenAkardæanBIeRBaHvaRtUv)anvas;edaypÞal;nUvlkçN³BitR)akdéndI PaBFn;én kMlaMgkat;pþac;éndIdæedayKμanbgðÚrTwk. karBiesaFn_ Vane test KWCakars‘kbBa©Úl vane muxsMEb:t 4eTAkñúgrn§GNþÚgxYg rYcbnÞab;mkrujsgát; vane cUleTAkñúgRsTab;dIdæEdlsßitenA)aténrn§GNþÚgxYg. enAeBl vane RtUv)anrujcUleTAkñúgdIdærYcehIy karmYlGtibrmatMrUvsMrab;bgVil Vane nigkarkat;pþac;dIdæRtUv)anrab;. Construction General - 22 -
  23. 23. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC VaneGacRtUv)anpþl;PaBFn;énkarpþac;edayKμankarpþac;edayKμankarbgðÚrTwkx<s;xøaMg RbsinebI Vane RtUv)anbgVily:agelOnxøaMgenaH. karBiesaFn_ vane test pþl;nUvlT§plEdlminGaceCOCak;)an sMrab;RsTab; dIdæ EdlmanRsTab;dIxSac; b¤RsTab; lenses/ varved clay RbsinebIdIdæmanRKab;RKYs b¤bMENksMbkxügb:unduM RKYs. 3> RKwH Foundation EpñkenHniyayBIkareRCIserIsRbePTRKwH. kareRCIserIslkçN³BiessénRbePTRKwHCaerOy² QrelI mUldæanktþaCaeRcIndUcCa³ CMerARKb;RKan;. vaRtUvEtmanCMerARKb;RKan;edIm,IkarBareRKaHfñak;edaykarkkTwkkk. sMrab; RKwHdUcCassrs<an CMerAénRKwHRtUvEtRKb;RKan;edIm,IkarBarnwgkarCIkBIeRkamedaykarduHlag. karbraC½yénlT§PaBRTRTg;. RKwHRtUvEtmansuvtßiPaBRbQmnwg karbraC½yénlT§PaBRT RTg;. karRsut. RKwHminRtUvRsutdac;xatEdlGacbNþal[eRKaHfñak;dl;eRKagbgÁúMTaMgmUl. KuNPaB. RKwHRtUvEtmanKuNPaBRKb;RKan;EdlvaminRbQmnwgPaBkan;Ety:ab;yWneLIg dUcCakarvayRbhareday sulfate énebtugeCIgtag. PaBFn;énkMlaMgRKb;RKan;. RKwHRtUv)anKitCamYynwgPaBFn;énkMlaMgRKb;RKan;Edlvamin Gac)ak; b¤EbkecjBIKñaeRkambnÞúkéneRKagsMNg;xagelIEdlmanGMeBIelIva. vak¾RtUvEtsagsg;edayRtwmRtUv edayGnuelameTAtamkarKiténesovePAlMGitbec©keTs. karpøas;bþÚrdIminl¥.RKwHRtUvEtGacFn;eTAnwgkarpøas;bþÚrdIEdlminl¥yUrGEgVg. ]TahrN_ sMrab;dIEdlrIkmaD ¬dI silt b¤dIdæ¦ EdlGacrIkb¤ rYmmaDnwgeFVIeGayRKwHmanclnaehIy eFVIeGayeRKagsMNg; maneRKaHfñak;. kMlaMgrMBa¢ÜydI. RKwHRtUvEtGacRTeRKagsMNg;kñúgGMLúgeBlrBa¢ÜydIedayKμan clnaRsutcuH xøaMg b¤eTAxag. Construction General - 23 -
  24. 24. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 3>1 RKwHrak; Shallow Foundation RKwHrak;CaerOy² RtUv)aneRCIserIsenAeBlbnÞúkeRKagsMNg; nwgminbeNþayeGayRsTab;dIBIxag eRkammansMrutxøaMg. CaTUeTA RKwHrak;KWmanPaBsnSMsMécCagkarsagsg;CamYyRKwHeRCA. RbePTRKwHrak;Fmμta RtUv)anBiBN’naxageRkam³ rUbTI 2-1 eCIgtag eCIgtag/ RKwHrYm/ RKwHEvg spread footing/ combined footing and strip footing RbePTRKwHrak;TaMgenH KWCaRbePTRKwHsMNg;FmμtaEdleRbIR)as;eRcInCageK. Construction General - 24 -
  25. 25. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC rUbTI2-2 RKwHcak;eBj RKwHcak;eBj Mat Foundation edayQrelImUldæanénkarKitesdækic© RKwHcak;eBjRtUv)ansagsg;sMrab;ehtupldUcxageRkam³ - eCIgtagEdlmanTMhMFM. RKwHcak;eBjCaerOy² RtUv)ansagsg;enAeBlplbUkénRklaépÞeCIgtag TaMgGs;FMCagRbEhlBak;kNþalénRklaépÞRKwHsrub. - RsTab; lenses EdlGacbgðab; b¤xUg. RKwHcak;eBjGacRtUv)aneRbIenAeBlNaEdldMeNIrkarrukrk RsTab;eRkamdI bgðajfanwgmansMrutvismPaBEdlbNþalmkBIRsTab;EdlGacbgðab;)an b¤RkLúkxUgtUc²enA BIxageRkamRKwH. RKwHcak;eBjGacRtUv)ancak;CaElVgeBjBIelIrn§xUgtUc² b¤RsTab; lenses Tn;exSay nigbegáIt lkçxNÐsMrutÉksNæanCag. - sMrutrak;. RKwHcak;eBjGacRtUv)anENnaMenAeBlEdlkarRKbsgát;BIelImansMrutrak;ehIyRKwHcak; eBjRtUv)ankat;bnßysMrut differential. - bnÞúkrayminesμI. sMrab;eRKagsMNg;xøH vaGacmanPaBxusKñaFMsMrab;bnÞúksMNg;EdlmanskmμPaB enAelIépÞepSgKñaénRKwH. karRbRBwtþeTAtamkarRBmeRBogénRKwHeCIgtagGacRtUv)anRbQmeTAnwgsMrut differential EdlFMhYs b:uEnþRKwHcak;bMeBjnwgRtUvBRgaybnÞúkrayminesμI nigkat;bnßysMrut differential . Construction General - 25 -
  26. 26. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC - karedaleLIgeday hydrostatic. enAeBlRKwHnwgRtUvRbQmnwgkarehIbeLIgeday hydrostatic Edl bNþalmkBIépÞénTwkkñúgTwk RKwHcak;eBjGacRtUv)aneRbIedIm,IFn;nwgkMlaMgedaleLIg. Post-tensioned slab-on-grade vaKWCaRbePTRKwHEdlsnSMsMécenAeBlKμankarkkTwkkkkñúgTwk b¤CMerAénkarRCabTwkkkTab. bMerI bMras;FmμtaCageKénkMral Post-tensioned slab-on-grade KWFn;eTAnwgkMlaMgrIkéndI b¤enAeBlRbQmeTAnwg sMrut differential FMCagtMélGnueRKaHsMrab;karRbRBwtþeTAtamkarRBmeRBogénkMral on-grade ¬EdlmanEdk y:agesþIg¦. ]TahrN_kMral post-tensioned slab-on-grade CaerOy²RtUv)anENnaMRbsinebIkarRbQménsMrut differential KWrMBwgfaFMCag 2cm(0.75in) . kMral post-tensioned slab-on-grade KWCaebtugEdlmanbgáb; sésrEdkBYrEdleRsabeday)øasÞiky:agRkas;. eRsam)øasÞikkarBarsésrBYurBIkarb:HBal;CamYynwgebtug nig GnuBaØati[sésrBYGacrGilkñúgebtugEdlkkrwgkñúgeBldMeNIrkarénkarTaj. CaFmμtasésrBYrmancugmçag gab;¬bnÞHTMBk;¦ kñúgbrimaRt¬Cay¦Fñwm nigcugmçageTotEdlTTYl stress enAbrimaRtFñwmQmedIm,IGac[ sésrBYrTTYl stress BIxagcugmçag. RKwHrak;déTeTot shallow foundation afternatives RbsinebIsMrutEdlrMBwgsMrab;RKwHrak;EdlesñImantMélFMeBk enaHbMNgepSgeTotsMrab;TMrRKwH b¤kareFVI [dImanesßrPaBRtUvEtGacvaytMél. lkçN³d¾éTeTotFmμtaxøHEdlGacRtUveRbIRtUv)anerobrab;dUcxageRkam³ -BRgaydI. RbtibtþikarBRgabdI GacRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;ykecjnUvRsTab;dIEdlGachab; nig CMnYs vijedaykarbMeBjrcnasm<½n§. CaFmμtabMNgénkarBRgabdI KWmanlkçN³snSMsMécEtmYyKt;RbsinebI RsTab;dIEdlhab;sßitenAEk,rRsTab;dIEpñkelI nigRsTab;TwkkñúgdIsßitenABIeRkamRsTab;dIEdlGachab; b¤ RsTab; TwkkñúgdIGacRtUv)andak;eGayenAeRkamedIm,IkarsnSMsMéc. -kardak;bnÞúkelIs. RbsinebIkardæanmanRsTab;dIsi¥t EdlGachab;enABIeRkamkardæanGacRtUv)an dak; bnÞúkelIsedayRsTab;cak;bMeBjdak;BIelIépÞdI. karbgðÚrbBaÄr¬dUcCakarbgðÚrdUcRbeqHEdkekH b¤karbgðÚreday xSac;¦ GacRtUv)andak;enAkñúgRsTab;dIEdlGachab;edIm,Ikat;bnßyExSénkarbgðÚr nigbegáIn el,ÓnéndMeNIrkarbgðab;. enAeBlEdlRsTab;dIs¥itGacbgðab;)anRtUv)anTTYlnUvkarbgðab;RKb;RKan;ehIy RsTab;EdlbMeBjelIsbnÞúk RtUv)anykecj nigsMNg;RtUv)ansagsg;. Construction General - 26 -
  27. 27. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC -karbegáIndg;suIet. viFIepSgKñaCaeRcInGacRtUv)aneRbIedIm,IbegáIndg;suIetdIRtsuH b¤Tn;. ]TahrN_ karbgðab; vibro-flotation nig dynamic CaerOy² manRbsiT§iPaBkñúgkarbegáIndg;suIetRsTab;dIxSac;RtsuH. eKalbMNgepSgeTotKWkarbgðab; grouting EdlCakarsgát;BnøicduMm:as grout EdlmankMras;Rkas;Nas;enAkñúg dI EdlTaMgCMnYs nigbgðab;dIRtsuH. -RKwHGENþk. RKwHGENþtKWCaRbePTRKwHeRCABiess EdlTMgn;éneRKagsMNg;RtUv)anføwgedayykecj nUvdI nigsagsg;nUvkMralCan;eRkamdI. 3>2 RKwHeRCA rUbTI 2-3 RbePT pile RbePTénRKwHeRCAFmμtaPaKeRcInKW RKwH pile. Pile GacCaeQI ¬edImeQI¦/ EdkEdlmanmuxkat; H, ebtugcak;rYc/ ebtugcak;enAnwgkEnøg/ ebtugEdlcak;edaysMBaF/ karbMeBjebtugkñúgbMBg; pile RbePTpSMKña. Pile KW)anBIkarsgát;cUlkñúgdIb¤RtUv)antMeLIgenAkñúgrn§EdlxYgmun. Pile Edl)anBIkarsgát;cUlkñúgdI CaTUeTARtUv)ancat;Tukfa CakarykecjTab b¤x<s;GaRs½yeTAnwgbrimaNdIEdl RtUvEt)anrujecjtampøÚvEdl Construction General - 27 -
  28. 28. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC Pile sgát;cUl. ]TahrN_karykecjTabén Pile KWEdkmuxkat;GkSr H nig bMBg; pile EdkEdlmancugcMhr Edlmin)anbegáItFñúkenAxagcugEpñkxagdI. ]TahrN_sMrab; pile ykecjx<s; KW Pile EdlmanlkçN³tan;dUcCa Pile duMeQImUl b¤Pile ebtugcak;eRscmuxkat;kaernig bMBg;Pile EdkEdlman cugbiTCit. Pile Edlcak;enAnwgkEnøgRtUv)anbegáItedayeFVIrn§enAkñúgdI nigbnÞab;mkbMeBjrn§edayebtug. sMrab; Bum<d¾samBaØCageK Pile Edlcak;enAnwgkEnøgmanrn§Edl)ancak;EdlRtUvcak;bMeBjedayebtug. RbsinebIdI GaccUlkñúgrn§enaH Pile RbePT shell GacRtUv)antMeLIg. viFIenHKWCakarsgát; shell Edk b¤RbGb;eTAkñúgdI. RbGb;GacRtUvduMeday mandrel EdlbnÞab;mkRtUvykecjehIy RbGb;RtUv)anbMeBjedayebtug. sMrab;krNI epSgeTotRbGb;GacRtUvduMbBa©ÚleTAkñúgdI nigbnÞab;ykbnþicmþg² RtUv)anykecjBIrn§nig bMeBjedayebtug. 4> karCIkdIsMrab;eFVIRKwH Foundation excavation eKmanRbePTénkarCIkdIepSgKñaCaeRcInEdlGnuvtþkñúgGMLúgkarsagsg;énKMerag. ]TahrN_dIGacRtUv CIkBIreNþA b¤kEnøgnigbnÞab;mkcak;bMeBjvij. ]TahrN_epSgeTotKWkarCIkCalkçN³KnøwHkat;pþac; b¤ buttress EdlnwgRtUveRbIedIm,IeFVIeGayCMerl b¤dIEdlRtUvrGiltamxagmanesßrPaB. ]TahrN_epSgeTotsMrab;karCIk KWdUcxageRkam³ 4>1 karCIkdIsMrab;eCIgtag Footing Excavation esvaRbePTenHCab;Tak;Tgnwg karvas;nUvTMhMénEpñkPUKBðsa®sþ¬dUcCaCMerA nigTMhMéneCIgtag¦ edIm,I eFVIeGayc,as;fa vaGnuelameTAtamtMrUvkarénbøg;sMNg;. esvaenHCaerOy² RtUv)anGnuvtþn_kñúgeBldUcKña nig karRtYtBinitüedIm,IbBa¢ak;BIlkçxNÐRTRTg;. 4>2 karxYgsMrab; Pier Excavation of Piers dUcKñanwgkarCIkdIsMrab;eCIgtag visVkrPUKBðsa®sþRtUv)antMrUvsMrab;bBa¢ak;eGayc,as;BICMerA niglkçxNÐ RTRTg;én Pier. rUbTI2>4 bgðajBICMh‘anFmμtakñúgkarsagsg;énkarxYg pier. Construction General - 28 -
  29. 29. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC Construction General - 29 -
  30. 30. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC rUb 2-4 CMha‘nFmμtakñúgkarsagsg;énkarxYgpier 4>3 karCIkdIcMhr open excavation karCIkdIcMhr KWCakarCIkdIEdlmanCMerlxagmanesßrPaB b¤minRtUv)anTb;Tl;. 4>4 karCIkdIedaymanCnÞl; braced excavtion karCIkdIedaymanCnÞl;KWCakarCIkEdlEpñkxagRtUv)anTb;edayeRKagbgÁúMTb;dI. rUbTI 2-5 bgðajBI RbePTFmμtaénRbBn½§Tb;nwgkarCIkdIedaymanCnÞl; 5> viFIbegáInsßanPaBRTRTg;dI Improvement methods 5/1 karBRgabdI Grading enAeBlkardæansMNg;CaeRcIncab;epþImedaydITeT CMh‘anTI1sMrab;kardæansagsg;eFVIkarFmμtaCab; Tak;Tgnig karBRgabdIénkardæan. karBRgabdIKW CadMeNIrkarEdlmankarCIkkarcak;bMeBj b¤bnSúMénkargar enH. dMeNIrkarénkarBRgabFmμtaGacrYmbBa©ÚlnUvkarerobrab;xøH b¤TaMgGs;³ Construction General - 30 -
  31. 31. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC rUb2-5 RbePTFmμtaénRbBn½§Tb;dI nigkarCIkdIedaymanCnÞl; Eeasement CMha‘ndMbUgéndMeNIrkarBRgabKW kMNt;TItaMgéneRKOgeRbIR)as;enAkardæan nig easement . CaerOy² eRKOgeRbIR)as;enAkardæan nig easement RtUvkarBarcaM)ac;EdlvaminGaceRKaHfñak;kñúgGMLúgeBlRbtibtþikar BRgabdI. sMGat/ e)as/ nig QUsrMelIg/ Clearing, brushing and grubbing sMGat e)as nigQUsrMelIg KWCaskmμPaBykecjnUvedImrukçCati¬dUcCa/ esμA/ éRB kem<at/ edImeQI nigRbePTdMNaMRsedogenH¦ tamn½yemkanic. vamansar³sMxan;EdlkaksMNl;TaMgenHRtUv)anykecjBIkar dæan nigmindak;enAkñúgkarbMeBjCam:assMrab;eRKagsMNg;EdlbgánUveRKaHfñak;. Construction General - 31 -
  32. 32. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC kare)assMGat dMeNIrkarBRgabdIenHKW edaHRsayCamYynwgkarykecjnUvsarFatuEdlminsaksmnwgRTRTg;enAkar dæan dUcCadIl,b;EdlRtsuH b¤manrn§es<at/ collunvium, rukçCatiBuk/ vtßúesμakeRKaK nigkarbMeBjEdlminGac bgðab;)an. karkat;CakaM² ¬tMbn;CMerlPñM¦ Benching (Hillside areas) karkat;CakaM² KWCakarCIkCakaM² EdlmankMritkMBs;bnþbnÞab;eTAkñúgsarFatuEpndIEdlenABIelIfñak;kaM RtUv)anbMeBjedaysarFatubMeBj. canyon subdrain KWCabMBg; b¤RbB½n§bgðÚrTwkEdldak;fμ RKYs b¤sarFatuRsedogKña dak;kñúgcg¥Úr Subdrain canyon b¤ RbLaybgðÚrTwkcas;. bnÞab;BIkardak; subdrainrYcehIy karbMeBjrcnasm<½n§RtUv)andak;BIelIkMBUl subdrain. karP¢Ür nigkarbMhab;vij (scarifying and recompaction) sMrab;tMbn;rabesμIEdlKμankarCIkkat;CakaM² karP¢Ür nigkarbgðab;eLIgvijénépÞdIRtUv)anGnuvtþeday ]bkrN_bgðab;kñúgeKalbMNgedIm,ITTYlnUvPaBs¥itl¥rvagsar FatuenAnigkEnøgnwg sarFatucak;bMeBjfμI. dMeNIrkarBRgabdIrdwbrdubedaykat; nigbMeBj Cut and fill rough grading operation RbtibtþikarBRgabdIrdwbrdubTak;Tgnwgkarkat;sarFatudIBIkEnøgx<s;nig bgðab;sarFatucak;bMeBjkñúg tMbn;Tab kñúgeKalbMNgBRgabdIeGay)anrabesμI. skmμPaBepSgeTotGacRtUv)anGnuvtþkñúgGMLúgRbtibtþikar BRgabdIrdwbrdubdUcCa³ - relIgb¤ )aj;bMEbkduMfμ. bMEbkduMfμFM²GacRtUvykecjBIkardæan b¤dak;enAeRkArgVg;kargar. - PaBpøas;bþÚrKñaénkarkat;nig bMeBj. skmμPaBenHKWsßitenARTnab;sMNg;EdlmçagRtUvkat;cuHeRkam rhUtdl;b:HRsTab;FmμCati b¤fμ enAeBlEdlEpñkmçageTotRtUv)ancak;bMeBj. viFImYysMrab;edaHRsayCamYy nwgkarpøas;bþÚrKñaénkarkat;nig karbMeBjKWCIkEpñkEdlkat;[hYskMritEdlRtUvkat;rYceTIbcak;bMeBjeday sarFatucak;bMeBj. - kareFVIeGayCMerlmanesßrPaB. ]TahrN_sMrab;kareFVIeGayCMerlmanesßrPaBedayeRbIsarFatudI rYmbBa©ÚlTaMgkareFVIeGaymanesßrPaBcak;bMeBj/ buttress fill/ drainage buttress nig KnøwHénkarkat;pþac; (shear key) . ]bkrN_xagelIKYrRtUv)aneRbICamYynwg RbBn§½ backdrain. Construction General - 32 -
  33. 33. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC - karbMeBjCMerl. enAeBlbegáItkarbMeBjCMerl vamankarkarBi)akkñúgkarbgðab;CayxageRkAén m:asbMeBj. BIeRBaHvaKμansMBaFTb;xag dIGaceRClFøak;cuHEdlmin)anbegáIndg;suIet. edIm,IedaHRsay sßanPaBEbbenH CMerlGacRtUv)ansagsg;hYsTMhM ehIybnÞab;mkkat;ykvijmkdl;Kl;Edl )anbgðab;. viFId¾l¥bMputTI2d¾éTeTot KWeRbIdMeNIrkarsagsg;EdlmansarRbeyaCn_dUcCa bec©keTs back-rolling b¤edayeRbI bulldozer edIm,I track walk tamCMerl. - rMlwkeLIgvijBIdMeNIrkarBRgabdI. ral;kargarBRgabdITaMgGs;manPaBEbøkKña nigGacmankarpøas; bþÚrRbtibtþikarBRgabdIedayQrelImUldæanlkçxNÐkardæan. karBRgabdIm:t; Fine Grading enAeBlEdlkarBRgabdIrdwbrdub)ancb;sBVRKb;ehIy karBRgabdIm:t;RtUv)anGnuvtþedIm,ITTYl)annUv kMritkMBs;cugeRkay EdlGnuelameTAtambøg;BRgabdI EdlmanPaBsuRkit. karkarBarCMerl nigRtYtBinitükarhUreRcaH slop protectin and erasion control eTaHbICaFmμtavaminEmnCakarTTYlxusRtUvrbs;Gñkem:AkarBRgabdIk¾eday eRkayBIkarBRgabdIm:t;)an bBa©b; karkarBarCMerl nig]bkrN_RtYtRtakarhUreRcaHCaRbcaMRtUv)antMeLIg. karCIksñamePøaH Trench excavation sñamePøaHéneRKOgeRbIR)as;RtUv)anCIkedIm,ICakartMrg;énesckþIesñIpøÚv nigRsTab;sMNg;sMrab;tMeLIg eRKOgeRbIR)as;enAkardæan. karCIknig karbgðab;énsñamePøaHCaerOy² CaEpñkéndMeNIrkarBRgabdI. enAeBlExSéneRKOgeRbIR)as;RtUv)antMelIg karP¢Ürnig karbgðab;RTnab;RKwHpøÚvRtUv)anGnuvtþnig sarFatu RKwHRtUv)andak;ehIybgðab;. karCIkdIsMrab;eCIgtagnig RKwH Footing and Foundation excavatin eTaHbICaFmμtavaminEmnCaEpñkéndMeNIrkarBRgabdI EpñkRKwHnig eCIgtagRtUv)anCIkCabnþ. 5>2 eKalkarN_énkarbgðab; Compaction Foundation Epñkd¾sMxan;énkarBRgabdIénkardæanCaerOy² rYmbBa©ÚlTaMgkarbgðab;sarFatubMeBj. karbgðab;KWCa karbegáIndg;suIeténGgÁFatubMeBjtamviFIemkanicdMeNIrkarrUbénkareFVIeGaydImansßanPaBhab;enHGacbegáIn PaBFn;énkMlaMgkat;pþac; kat;bnßykarEdlGachab; kat;bnßyPaBRCabTwkéndI. karmanktþaeKal4 Edl b:HBal;dl;karbgðab;³ RbePTdI Soil Type Construction General - 33 -
  34. 34. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC dIminmanlkçN³)øasÞikdUcCaxSac; nigRKYs GacRtUvbgðab;edayRbsiT§iPaBedayeRbIdMeNIrkar bgðab; RbePTrMj½r. dIEdlmanlkçN³)øasÞik¬]TahrN_manPaBs¥it¦ dUcCa sift nigdIdæKWmankarBi)akkñúgkarbgðab; nigtMrUveGaymandMeNIrkarbgðab;RbePTluj b¤buinRbsBV. RbsinebIdImanRKab;FMhYsxñat dUcCaduMRKYsfμFM nig fμ cabble GacnwgeRCotcUlCamYynwgdMeNIrkar bgðab; nigkat;bnßyRbsiT§iPaBénkarbgðab;RKab;dIm:t;Cag. sarFatuEdlmanlMdab;RKab; Meterial Gradation dIEdlmanTMhMRKab;tamlMdab;l¥CaTUeTAGac nwgbgðab;bBa©ÚlkñúgsßanPaBENnCag dIEdlmanlMdab; RKab;minl¥EdlmanTMhMRKab;esÞIrEtesμIKña. Twkxagkñúg Water content Water contentKWCa):ara:Em:RtsMxan;kñúgkarbgðab;dI. TwkGacCaeRKOgrMGilRKab;dIEdlCYyeGayvarGil cUlkñúgkartMerobeGayENn. eTaHCay:agNa TwkeRcIneBk eFVIeGaydIkøayCaEq¥tTwk nigCaerOy² Bi)akkñúg karbgðab;. eKmankMritkMBUlén Water content EdldIGacbgðab;cUlkñúgsßanPaBENnCageK Edlpþl; edayfamBlénkarbgðab;. RbePT Optiimum moisure content (Modified Proctor) sMrab;RbePTdIepSgKñaKW erobrab;xageRkam³ -dIdæEdlmanlkçN³)øasÞikx<s; (CH): Optimum moisture content 18% -dIdæEdlmanlkçN³)øasÞikTab (CL): Optimum moisture content 12% eTA 18% -xSac;manTMhMCalMdab;l¥ (SW): Optimum moisture content 10% -RKYsEdlmanTMhMCalMdab;l¥ (GW): Optimum moisture content 7% RbePTdIxøHGacnwgmanTMnak;TMngedaykMr CamYynwgkarbgðab;eday Water content.]TahrN_ Open-graded gravel nig clean coarse sand KWmansPaBRCabTwkEdlTwkGacbgðÚrecjy:agRsYlBIdI b¤CMrujecjeRkAeday dMeNIrkarénkarbgðab;. dIRbePTenHCaerOy²GacRtUvTukeGaysßitenAkñúgsßanPaBs¶ÜtrYcehIyrMj½reGaycUl tMerobRKab;xSac;eGayENnaM. Construction General - 34 -
  35. 35. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC CMBUkIII³ eRKagsMNg;ebtugmanq¥wgr)aeEdkBRgwgnig sMPar³ebtug Reinforcing bar concrete sturcture and concrete meterial 3 1> sMPar³suIm:g;t_ Cementitious material sMPar³suIm:t_rYmmanplitplCaeRcInEdlRtUv)anrlayCamYynwgTwk b¤sarFaturavd¾éTxøHeTot b¤ TaMgBIr edIm,IbegáIt)anCakMe)areRbg (cementing paste) EdlGacbegáItb¤ eFVIBum<enAeBlvaenACalkçN³)øasiÞk b:uEnþva nwgkøayeTACaTMrg;rwgmaM. enAeBlxSac;RtUv)anbEnßmeTAkñúgkMe)areRbg vabegáIt)anCakMe)ar)ayGr. karcUl pSMénRKYs nigxSac; eTAkñúgkMe)areRbgvakøayeTACaebtug. 1>1 RbePTénsMPar³suIm:g;t_ Type of cementitious meterials eKmansuIm:g;t_CaeRcInRbePT ehIyviFIénkarcat;cMNat;fñak;k¾eRcInEdr. viFIénkarcat;fñak;cMNat;fñak; mYyEdlsamBaØCageKbMput KWkarcat;cMNat;fñak;edaysarFatupSMKImI EdlCaGñkTTYlxusRtUvsMrab;kareFVIkar nigeLIgrwgénsuIm:g;t_. enAelIeKalkrN_enH suIm:g;t_suIlIkat (silicate) nig GaluymINat (aluminate) Edl kñúgenaHPñak;gareFVIkar (setting agent) KWkal;süÚmsuIlIkat (calsium silicate) nigkal;süÚmGaluymINat (calcium aluminate) KWCaRkumEdlsMxan;CageKsMrab;suIm:g;t_TMenIb (modern cement) .rYmbBa©ÚlkñúgRkumenHKW lanning/ aluminous nigsuIm:g;t_FmμCati (natural cement) . fμkMe)ar (lime) EdlkñúgenHPaBeLIgrwg KWbNþalmkBIkarbmøas;énGuIRduksuItkmμeTACa carbonate Edl RtUv)aneRbICadMbUgy:agTUlayCasMPar³suIm:g;t_EtmYyKt; b:uEnþkareFVIkarnig PaBeLIgrwgyWtrbs;vaminRtUvKña nwgtMrUvkarénsuIm:g;t_TMenIb. dUcenHtYnaTICacMbgrbs;vasBVéf¶ KWlkçN³ Plastic én Harsh cement nigbEnßm resilience eTAelI)ayGr b¤stucco. KuNRbeyaCn_énkareRbIR)as;fμkMe)arKWPaBeFVIkaryWtrbs;va)anCMrujnUvkar Büa)al nigkarCYsCulsñameRbHdUcséssk;. Construction General - 35 -
  36. 36. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC cMNat;fñak;énsuIm:g;t_epSgeTotKW )anBIkarpSMénmñagsila calcined nigplitplTak;Tgnwgva. suIm:g;t_ mñagsilaRtUv)aneRbIy:agTUlaysMrab;kMe)arbUkxagkñúg nigsMrab;plit board nig block b:uEnþPaBGacrlay)an énmñagsila)ankarBarxøÜnva BIkareRbIR)as;sMrab;sNg;EdlRbQmnwgGakasFatud¾éT b:uEnþl¥bMputsMrab; M GakasFatuekþA. suIm:g;t_G‘uksuItkørIt KWCacMNat;fñak;énsuIm:g;t_BiessEdlmanlkçN³xusFmμta. tMélrbs;va)an hamXat; kareRbIR)as;TUeTAebIeFobCamYynwgsuIm:g;t_EdlefakCag b:uEnþþsMrab;kareRbIR)as;CalkçN³Biess dUcCaplitplkMralkarBarePøIg (sparkproof floor) eKminGacRbdUc)aneT. suIm:g;t_sMrab;rabdæ b¤suIm:g;t_)ayGrRtUv)aneRbIy:agTUlMTUlayedaysarEt PaBgayRsYlrbs;va. CaTUeTAenAeBlvaRtUv)anlayedaysuIm:g;t_mYyRbePTkñúgcMeNamsuIm:g;t_Edl)anerobrab;xagelICamYynwgTwk fñaMKImIxøH vasmnwgTTYlnUvkarcab;GarmμN_BiessedaysarPaBsnSMsMécrbs;va. sMPar³suIm:g;t_epSgeTotdUcCa polymer/ fly ash nig silica fume GacRtUveRbIsuIm:g;t_CMnYssMrab;ebtug. Plomer KWCa Plastic EdlmanRcvak;mU:elKulEvg. ebtugEdllayedaysuIm:gt;RbePTenHman KuNPaB x<as;CagebtugedaysIum:g;t_Fmμta. Silica fume EdlRtUv)ansÁal;Ca microsilica EdrenaHKWplitplsMNl;BIkardutedayLFñÚrGKÁisnI (electric- arc funaces) . silica manRbtikmμCamYynwgfμkMe)arbegáIt)anCasMPar³suIm:g;t_enAkñúgebtug. bMENk énfume manGgát;p©itEt 1° énbMENkGgát;p©itsuIm:g;t_. 1>2 suIm:g;t_Br½ELn (Portland Cement) smasFatusMxan;mYy ¬fμkMe)ar (Cao), Edk(Fe o ), silica (Sio ) nig alumina (Al O ) ¦ nigsmasFatu 2 3 2 2 3 bnÞab;bnSM2eTot ¬mñagsila (CaSO -2H 0) nig magnesia (MgO) ¦ KWCavtßúFatuedIm. RbePTsarFatu 4 2 calcareous (CaO) )anmkBIfμkMe)ar (limestone), calcite, mail b¤fμPaCn_ (shale) nigxSac; (sand) . sarFatu argillaceous( SiO nig Al2O3) )anmkBIkarTajykBIdIdæ ¬Clay¦/ fμPaCn_¬Shale¦ nigxüac; (Sand) . 2 sarFatuEdleRbIsMrab;plitRbePTsuIm:g;t_Cak;lak;my KWGaRs½yeTAnwgTItaMgeragcRkplit nigPaBEdl Y Gacrk)annUvvtßúFatuedI. suIm:g;t_B½rELnGacplitBIplitpl ]sSahkmμCaeRcInRbePT. kñúgkarplitsuIm:g;t_dMbUgvtßúFatuedIm RtUv)anykecjBIEr:rYcehIykineGayeTACaem:SAmunnwglayRcbUkCamYynwgsmasFatuEdlerobcMCamuneRsc. karlayRcbUkKW eFVIeLIgedayLdutkMedAEdlvilenAEpñkxagcugx<s;CageK edaykMedABI2600 eTA 3000 F º Construction General - 36 -
  37. 37. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC EdldutedayeRbg ]sμ½n b¤famBlFüÚgfμ. edaysarkarplitsuIm:g;t_KWCa dMeNIrkarplitEdlRtUvkarfamBl d¾sMebIm ]bkrN_kMedA nigbMerIbMras;d¾éTeToteRkABI RbPBn§n³ dUcCaC½rekAs‘Ucas;² RtUv)aneRbIedIm,Ikat;bnßyéfø n§n³. ¬kardutekAs‘Ukg;pþl;kMedAedIm,Iplit Clinker nigdutExSRkv:at; Edkpþl;[FatupSMénEdk¦. kareFVI[ sItuNðPaBeLIgx<s;KW edIm,IFatuKImIénvtßúFatuedIm rlaycUlKña begáIt)anCaduMtUc²rwgEdleKehAfa clinker. bnÞab;BITukeGayRtCak; duMtUc² clinker RtUv)andak;eGayqøgkat; ball mill nigkinbMEbkeTACaPaKl¥itepH Edl PaKl¥itTaMgenHnwgRtUvErgqøgkat;kERBa¢gelx 200 (75µm) CaBiess. kñúgGMLúgeBlenHkarkinbMEbk sarFatumñagsilaRtUv)anbEnßmkñúgbrimaNd¾tictYcedIm,IRtYtRtanUv sItuNðPaBnig Fanadl;kareFVIkarénsuIm:g;t_ eTogTat;. sMPar³EdlRtUvqøgkat; ball mill KWCasIum:g;t_ lanning. CaFmμtavaRtUv)an lk;CakBa©b;suIm:gt_ EdlmanTMgn; 941b. ebtugEdlFmμtaCageKeRbIsMrab;suIm:g;t_ lanning KWCasMPar³saMjauMEdlmanrYm suIm:g;t_ lanning RKYs xSac; Twk nigTwkfñaMKImI nig Er:epSgeTotEdlGacrk)an. kareRbIR)as;suIm:g;t_ lanning EtÉgKWkMrNas;EdleRbI sMrab;dUcCa)ayGrsuIm:g;t_sMrab;bMeBj Wellhole b¤bMeBj fine grout . dUcenH vamansarsMxan;Nas;kñúgkar RtYtBinitüTMnak;TMngrvaglkçN³epSg² énsIum:g;t_ lanning nigT§iBld¾manskþanuBlrbs;vaeTAelIebtugcug bBa©b;. CaTUeTAebtugsIum:gt;B½rELnRtUv)aneRCIserIssMrab;kargarsMNg;eRKagBIeRBaH edaysarPaBFn;én kMlaMg nigPaBeRbIR)as;)anyUrGEgVgrbs;va. PaBFn;énkMlaMgKWGacvas;)any:aggay nigGaceRbIsMrab;Ca smasPaBcg¥úlbgðajeday pÞal;CalkçN³TUeTAénPaBeRbIR)as;)anyUréneRKagTaMgRsug. PaBeRbIR)as;)an yUrGEgVgCak;lak;minGacvas; )anedaygayeT b:uEnþvaGacbBa¢ak;y:agc,as;edaykarRtYtRta énlkçN³KImI énsuIm:g;t_niglkçN³fμbMEbk. 1>3 suIm:g;t_GaluymIj:Úm Aluminous Cement l,ayénvtßúFatu aluminous nig calcareous ¬CaTUeTA bauxite nigkMe)ar ¦ RtUv)anerobcMedaykarrMlay cUlKñanig karkinbMEbkénplitplpÁÜb edIm,IeGay)anCaemSAm:t;. suIm:g;t_enHRtUv)ankMNt;lkçN³edaylkçN³ énkarqab;rwgqab; nwgPaBFn;énkMlaMgeLIgx<s;enAeBl EdlvaGayux©IenAeLIy. enAeBlEdlbrimaNkMedAeRcInRtUvedaHElgy:agelOnedaysuIm:g;t_ aluminous kñúgGMLúgeBl GuIRdatkmμ GñkKYrRbytñ½kuMeRbIsuIm:g;t_dak;bBa©ÚlkñúgeBlEdlkMedAminGacrsay. CaTUeTA eKminR)afñadak; Construction General - 37 -
  38. 38. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC ebtugsuIm:gt¾ aluminous eTAkñúg lift Edlx<s;Ca 12Guin ebIeTaHbICasItuNðPaBekIneLIgvaGacbNþaleGay ebtugcuHexSayPaBFn;CaxøaMg. suIm:g;t_ aluminous manPaBFn;eTAnwgskmμPaBénTwks‘ulpatxøaMgCagsuIm:g;t_ lanning. vaemIlBIxag eRkAeTAdUcCamanPaBFn;nwgkarvayRbharedayTwkEdl mansarFatuQøanBan carbon dioxide b¤GasuItEr: exSayxøaMgCasuIm:g;t_suIlIkat. eKalkarN_énkareRbIR)as;vaenAkñúgebtug KWenAeBlEdlPaBFn;énkMlaMg x<s;qab;CaGtßRbeyaCn_ b¤edayPaBFn;éns‘ulpatrbs;va nigenAeBlEdl tMélbEnßménsuIm:g;t_ minEmnCa ktþa sMxan;. bMerIbMras;epSgeToténsuIm:g; aluminous KWrYmpSMCamYynwg firebrick edIm,IbegáItCaebtugFn;nwgkMedA (refractory concrete) . enAeBlEdlsItuNðPaBekIneLIg karykFatuTwkecjBIplitplGuIRdatkmμGacekIt eLIg. TIbMput smasFatuenHbegáItCa ceramic bond CamYynwgfμbMEbk. 1>4 suIm:g;t_FmμCati Natural Cements sIum:g;t_FmμCatiRtUv)anbegáIt edaykarduteGayeTACapHedayFmμCatinUvl,ayEdl)anekItBIsarFatu calcareous nig argillaceous enAsItuNðPaBeRkamGVIEdl sintering ykmkeRbIkar. enAeBlEdlsuIm:g;t_FmμCati RtUv)andkecjBIvtßúFatuEdlekIteLIgedayFmμCatinig KμankarxMRbwgNamYyRtUv)aneFVIeGayEktMrUvsmasPaB TaMgsmasPaB niglkçN³ERbRbYllμmy:agTUlMTUlay. suIm:gt_FmμCatixøH GaclkçN³esÞIrEtdUcKñanwg suIm:g;t_ lanning suIm:g;t_FmμCatiepSgeTotmanPaBexSayxøaMgCag. suIm:g;t_FmμCatiRtUv)aneRbICaTUeTAenAkñúg kMe)ar)ayGr (masonry mortar) nigeRbICaTwkfñaMKImIenAkñúgebtugsuIm:g;t_ lanning. 1>5 kMe)ar Limes kMe)arenHRtUv)anbegáItCaTUeTAedaykal;süÚmG‘uksuIt (CaO) EdlkekIteLIgCaFmμCatienAkñúgfμkM)ar (limestone) / fμm:ab (marble), chalk, coral nigsMbkxüg (Shell) .sMrab;eKalbMNgsMNg;GaKar vaRtUveRbICa hiefly enAkñúgkMe)ar)ayGr. Hydaulic lime kMe)arenHbegáItBIkarduteGayeTACaepHénfμkMe)arEdlmansarFatu silica nig aluminia enAsItuNðPaB d¾xøI énkarrMlaybBa©ÚlKñaEdleTIbnwgcab;maneLIg EdlbegáItCa kMe)aresrIRKb;RKan; edIm,IGnuBaØatidl; GuIRdatkmμ nigkñúgeBlCamYyKñabeBa©jnUvkal;süÚmsuIlIkatRKb;RKan;EdlmineFVIGuIRdatkmμedIm,I[Ca em:SAs¶Üt lkçN³ hydraulic rbs;va. Construction General - 38 -
  39. 39. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC edaysarEtkarpSMy:agTabénsuIlIkat nigkMe)ary:agx<s; kMe)ar hydraulic manTMnak;TMngy:agexSay. eKrkeXIjkareRbIR)as;CaeKalkarN_enAkñúgkMe)ar)ayGr. kMe)arGuIRdUlItmansuIlIkateRcInCag10° nwg kkenAeRkamTwk. Quicklime enAeBlEdlfñkMe)arRtUvdutkMedAenAsItuNðPaBhYsBI 17008F sarFatu]sμ½nkabUnDIGuksuItnwgRtUv )andkecj nigplitplrwgEdlenAsl;KW Quicklime. CaBiessvaman]sμ½nkal;süÚmGuksuIt nigm:aej:süÚm GuksuItbUknwgsarFatuminsuT§dUcCasuIlIkatGuksuItEdkGuksuIt nig GaluymIjÚ:mGuksuIt. CaFmμta sarFatu minsuT§RtUv)ankMNt;eGayticCag5°. RbsinebIeRcInCag 10°plitplenHGackøayCakMe)ar hydraulic. QuicklimeRtUv)aneKsÁal;fa vaman2cMNat;fñak; KWkal;süÚmx<s; (high-calcium) nig dolomitic. Quicklime Edlmankal;süÚmx<s;CaFmμtamanm:aejsüÚmG‘uksuItticCag5°. dolomitic quicklime CaFmμta manm:aejsüÚmBI35° eTA 40°. Quick tictYcEdlmaneKrkeXIjfa ma nm:aej:süÚmG‘uksuItBI 5°eTA35° EdleKehAfa magnesian lime. lkçN³d¾RbesIrén quicklime KWsmtßPaBénkarlayCamYyTwk. enAeBl quick lime RtUv)anlay 2 eTA 3 dgénbrimaNTwkeFobCamYynwgTMgn;rbs;va RbtikmμKImIcab;epþImekItman. kal;süÚmGuksuItpSMCamYyTwkbegáIt)anCakal;süÚmGuIRduksuIt ehIykMedARKb;RKan;RtUv)anbegáItCalMdab; edIm,IeFVI eGaym:asTaMgGs;RtUvBuH. CalT§plplitplénkarbMEbkFatu kal;süÚmGuIRduksIuty:agesþIg RtUv)anGENþtkñúg elIépÞTwk ¬nigm:aej:süÚmGuksuIt b¤GuIRduksuIt RbsinebI dolomitic RtUv)aneRbIR)as;va¦. enAeBlRtCak; GgÁFatum:as;Bak;kNþalrav (semifluide) rwgeTACadIElgRbkdedaysgÁt;PaB RtUv)ancUkeLIg edayEb:l b¤ekIb dak;Fug. dIElg Quicklime layTwkenH enAeBlRtCak;ehIyeKcUlcitþykeTAErg EdlCasMPar³EdlRtUveRbIR)as;sMrab;sMNg;. Quicklime KYrEtgEtRtUv)andak;layTwkeGaysBV. TinñpléndIElgvaERbRbYl GaRs½yelIRbePTén Quicklime kMritdWeRkénkardutkMedA niglkçN³énkar layTwk nigCaFmμtaTTYl)an 70 eTA 100 ft KIbéndIElgelI quickliem 1 ton. eKalkarN_énkareRbIR)as; dIElgKWenAkñúgkMe)ar)ayGr enAkEnøgEdlvamantMéléRkElg edaysarEtkMrit)øasÞikrbs;vax<s; b¤PaBgay RsYleFVIkarrbs;vacUlrYmenAkñúg)ayGr. vak¾RtUv)aneRbIkñúgeBldUcCaTwkfñaMKImIenAkñúgebtugEdr edIm,IbegáIt PaBgayRsYleFVIkar. vak¾RtUv)aneRbIenAkEnøgxøHdUcCa RsTab;kMe)arbUkbegðIyEdr EdlKuNsm,tþid¾l¥rbs;va )anmkBIkMrit)øasÞikd¾x<s;rbs;va. Mson’s hydrated lime Construction General - 39 -
  40. 40. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC hydrated lime RtUv)anerobcMBI quicklime edaykarbEnßmnUvbrimaNkMNt; énTwkeTAlIva. bnÞab;BI GuIRdatkmμbBaÄb;edIm,IvivtþkMedA plitplCalT§plKWCa emSAm:t;s¶Üt. bnÞab;mkvaRtUv)ancMnat;fñak;edayvIFI aiz-classification edIm,IykecjnUvTMhMRKab;l¥itEdleKminR)afñacg;)anehIy manTMhMFMCagxñat ehIyRckkñúg fg;EdlmanTMgn; 50lb. vaEtgEtCaplitplEdlplitedayeragcRk EdlcMENkÉdIElg quicklime PaKeRcInEtg EtCaplitplEdl)anBIkarlayenAnwgkEnøgkargar. Mason’s hydrated lime KWCa hydrated lime EdlsmRsbeRbICamYykMe)ar)ayGr kMe)arbUkRsTab; base-coat nigebtug. vacaM)ac;GnuvtþtamsmasPaBén Quicklime. hydrated lime Edlmankal;süÚmx<s;RtUv )anpSMeLIgCadMbUgedaykal;süÚmGuIRduksIut. hydrated lime dolomitic FmμtaRtUv)anpSMeLIgedaykal;süÚm GuIRdúksuItbUknwg m:aej:süÚmGuIRduksuIt. lkçN³)øasÞikénkMe)ar)ayGrEdleFVIBI mason’s hydrated lime Fmμta ¬RbePT N¦ KWmanlkçN³mFüm. vamanlkççN³l¥RbesIrCagkarlayedaysuIm:g;t_PaKeRcIn b:uEnþvaminman lkçN³x<s;esμInwgkMe)ar)ayGr EdllayedaybrimaNesμIKña éndIElglayTwkeT. dMeNIrkarFmμtaén GuIRdatkmμ énQuicklime enAsMBaFbriyakaspþl;nUvGuIRdatkmμénkal;süÚmGuksuItnwgbMElgeTACam:aejsüÚm GuIRdUsuIt. lT§plenHRtUv)aneGayeQμaHy:agdUcenHfa special hydrated ¬RbePT S ¦EdlminEmnmanEtsarFatu sMxan; magnesia cUlrYmGuIRdatkmμsBVeT b:uEnþvamankMrit)øasÞikx<s;Pøam² enAeBlvaesImedayTwk. kMe)ar)ay GrEdllayBIRbePT S gayRsYleFVIkarCag)ayGrlayCamYyRbePT N. tamBit hydrated lime RbePT S gayRsYleFVIkaresÞIrEtdUc)ayGrlayCamYydIElg Quicklime Edr ehIydUcenHGñkeRbIR)as; Hydrated lime RbePTenHmanPaBgayRsYledaysarplitplenHRckkñúgkBa©b; nig mankMriténkargayRsYleFVIkarx<s;edayKμaneRKaHfñak; EdlGacekItmandUc Quick lime layTwkeT. Finishing hydrated lime Finishing Hydrated lime saksmübMputsMrab;eRbIR)as;enAkñúgkMe)arbUkRsTab;begðIy. vaRtUv)an kMNt;lkçN³edaykMritBN’sx<s; nigkMrit)aøsÞikx<s;. RKb; Finishing Hydrated lime RtUv)anplit CaBiessenAkñúg Rsuk Toledo énekaH Ohio BIfμkMe)ar Dolomitic. kMe)ar Hydrate FmμtapSMeLIgeday kal;süÚmGuIRduksuIt nig m:aej:süÚmGuksuIt. enAeBlvaesImdMbUg vamanlkçN³)øasÞikmanxøaMgdUc mason’s hydrated lime RbePT NeT. eTaHbICay:agNa vamanPaBxusKñaenAeBleRkay EdleRkayBIkarRtaMTwk Construction General - 40 -
  41. 41. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC eBjmYyyb; Finishing hydrated lime begáInnUvkMrit)øasÞikrbs;vax<s;Nas;Edl mason’s hydarted Lime bgðajnUvTMnak;TMngénPaBlUt las;énlkçN³)øasÞiky:agtictYcenAeBlRtaMTwk. 1>6 suIm:g;t_erobdæ Masonry ament suIm:g;t_erobdæ (masonry cement) b¤CYnkaleKcUlcitþehAehAsuIm:g;t_kMe)ar)ayGr (motar cement) EdlRtUv)anlayCamYynwgxSac; nigeRbIsMrab;begáItCaCBa¢aMgdædUcCa dæ kar:U nigfμ. vaGacCaRbePTmYyén suIm:g;t_GuIRdUlIkEdl)anbriyayrYcehIy b¤karlayrbs;vaenAkñúgsmamaRtNamYy. suIm:g;t_erobdætamEbbBaNiC¢kmμxøHRtUv)anlaybBa©ÚlKñaedaysuIm:g;t_ lanning nigkMTicepHpg;fμ kMe)ar (limestone) CaerOy² mansmamaRtfμkMe)areRcIn 50° b¤60°. enAeBlEdlKμankarkMNt;BIsarFatu KImInig tMrUvkarlkçN³rUb lkçN³bBa¢ak;y:agc,as;BIsuIm:g;t_erobdæ KWmanlkçN³esrICamFüm. plitkrxøH )anERbRbYlnUvsmasFatuy:agTUlMTUlayGaRs½yeTAnwgkarRbkYtRbECg lkçxNÐGakasFatu b¤vtßúFatuesIm EdlGacrk)an. lT§plénkMe)ar)ayGrGacmanlkçN³ERbRbYly:agxøaMg. 1>7 Fly ashes Pozzolans FmμCatiRtUv)anykecjBI diatomaceous earth/ opaline ehets nig fμPaCn_ (shales) nig sarFatuepSgeTot. Fly ashes RtUv)anplitecjBIcMehHFüÚgfμCaTUeTA enAkñúgsßanIym:asuInGKÁisnI (electrical generating station) . kMeTcepHEdlCaFmμta RtUv)anykecjtamry³bMBg;EpSgEdlykecjtamviFICaeRcIndUcCa electrostatic precipitators. Fly ash GacRtUvmanTMhMeTAtamkardwkCBa¢Úntamk):al;rbs;GñkpÁt;pÁg;ebtug. Fly ahses TaMgGs;manlkçN³ Pozzolan EdlGacmanlT§PaBcUlrYmRbtikmμCamYynwg kal;süÚmGuIRduksuItenAsItuNðPaBFmμtaedImbegáItCasmasPaBCamYynwglkçN³suIm:g;t_. enAeBlEdlsuIm:g;t_RtUv)anlayCamYynwgTwk RbtikmμKImI ¬GuIRdatkmμ¦ nigekIteLIg. lT§plén RbtikmμenH KW calcium silicate hydrated (CSH) nigkal;süÚmGuIRduksuIt [Ca(OH) ] . Fly ashes manPaKryén 2 suIlIkUnDIGuksuIt (SiO ) x<s;. enAeBlEdlmanvtþmanCamYynwgsMeNIm Ca(OH) eFVIRbtikmμCamYynwg SiO 2 2 2 edIm,ITTYl)an CSH epSgeTot. Fly ashes RbePT F )anBIlT§plénkardutFüÚgfμexμAPøW (anthracite) rWFüÚgfñ ekAs‘Ub‘ÍTIm (bituminous) nwgmansarFatu Pozzolan. vaRtUv)anbgðajedaykarRsavRCavnig GnuvtþedIm,Ipþl; nUv PaBrIkcMerInCaTUeTAénPaBFn;nwg sulfate nigedIm,Ikat;bnßynUvPaBrIkraldalénfμ alkali. Fly ahses RbePT Construction General - 41 -
  42. 42. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC C )anBIlT§plénkardutFüÚgfμ lignite rWFüÚgfμ subbituminous. edaysarEtlkçN³KImIénFüÚgfμ fly ashes RbePTC manlkçN³suIm:g;t_edaybEnßmeTAkñúgsarFatu Pozzolon. Fly ash RbePT C Gackat;bnßyPaByUr GEgVgénebtug EdlvacUlrYmlaybBa©ÚlKña. 2> fμbMEbk Aggregate fμbMEbkKWCadak;bBa©ÚlKñanUvsarFatuCaeRcIndUcCafμ boulder, fμ cobble, fμkinbMEbk (crushed stone) fμ gravel, fμ aircooled blast furnace slage, xSac;FmμCati b¤xSac;sib,nimiμtþ nigRKYssib,nimiμtþ nig RKYsFmμCati Rsal. fμbMEbkGacRtUv)anBN’naeTAtamTMhMCaeRcIneTot. μ 2>1 fμbMEbkTMgn;Fmμta Normal –weigth aggregates fμbMEbkRbePTenHmandg;suIetxniC (specific gravity) enAcenøaH 2>0 nig 3>0. CaTUeTAvaRtUv)anEck eTAtamTMhMxageRkam³ fμ Bounder manTMhMFMCag 6in fμ Cobble mancenøaH 3in eTA 6in RKYs (coarse aggregate) manTMhMcenøaHkERBa©g Nº 4 eTA 3in xSac; (fine aggregate) manTMhMcenøaHkERBa©g Nº 200 eTA Nº 4 sarFatum:t;epHpg; (miniral filler material) qøgkat;kERBa©gelx Nº200 fμbMEbkTMgn;Fmμta EdleRbIenAkñúgsMNg;ebtugPaKeRcIn KW)anBIkarbUmBI)atTenø b¤CIkykBIkñúgdI nig )anBIkarbMEbkvtßúFatuepSg². ebtugEdlman)anBIkarlayCamYynwgRKYs nigxSac;TMgn;FmμtaCaTUeTAman TMgn;RbEhl 144 lb/ . 1ft 3 fμ Bounder nigfμ Cobble CaTUeTAmin)aneRbItamTMhMEdl)anEdl)anCIkBIkñúgdIeT b:uEnþRtUv)ankinbMEbk edIm,IeGaymanTMhMepSg²CaRKYs (coarse aggreagate) xSac;sib,kmμ (manufactured –sand) nigkMeTcepHpg; (mineral filler) . RKYs gravel nigxSac;EdlekIteLIgedayFmμCatiRtUv)anekIteLIgedayskmμPaBénTwknig karpøas;bþÚrrdUvkal nigkarnaMykdImkcak;kñúg)atTenø. sarFatuTaMgenHmanragmUl épÞrelag nigkarEbgEck TMhMénRKab;edaydMeNIrkary:agtictYc. sarFatuTaMgenHGacpÁt;pÁg;tamTMhMCaRKYsnig xSac;. Construction General - 42 -
  43. 43. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC xSac;KWCasarFatuEdlqøgkat;kERBa©gTMhM 3¼8 in 100%. RKYsmanvtßúFatuEdlmanTMhMeTIelIkERBa©g elx 4. fμbMEbkmanbrimaNmaDKitCaPaKryeRcInCageK enAkñúgebtugsuIm:g;t_ lanning kMe)ar)ayGr b¤ asphaltic concrete . enAkñúgkarlayCaebtugsuIm:g;t_ lanning RKYsnwgxSac;cUlrYmRbEhlBI 65 eTA 70° én maDrbs;l,aysarub. sMrab; asphaltic concrete fμbMEbkcUlrYm 75 eTA 85°énmaDrbs;l,ay. CalT§pl fμμbMEbk KWCasarFatubMeBjminkMerIk. lkçN³fμbMEbkGacbgðajBIT§iBleTAelIRbBn½§CIvit nigPaByUr GEgVg énebtugEdlRKYsfμbMEbkRtUv)aneRbIdUcCasuIm:g;t_ lanning , asphaltic concrete, kMe)ar)ayGr b¤fμRkal RKwHfñl; (aggregate base) . karGnuBaØati[eRbIR)as;RKYs b¤xSac;sMrab;layenAkñúgebtug b¤kMe)ar)ayGr KWvinicä½yedaylkçN³Ca eRcInrYmmandUcCa karErgkMNt;TMhMRKab; (gradation) brimaNxSac;qøgkat;kERBa©g Nº 200, PaBrwg (hardness) , soudness, TMrg;RKab;/ PaBlMnwgénmaD (volume stability) RbtikmμeTAnwg alkili y:agskþanuBl (potential alkali reactivity) PaBFn;eTAnwgkarkkCaTwkkk nigkarrlayénTwkkk (resistance to freezing and thawing) nig sarFatuxniCminsuT§. 2>2 fμbMEbkEdlmanTMgn;F¶n;nig Rsal Heavy weigth and light weigth aggregate fμbMEbkTMgn;F¶n;rYmman magnitite Edlmandg;suIetxniC (specific gravity) 4>3 barite mandg;suIet xniC 4>2 limonit mandg;suIetxniC 3>8 EdkpUsV½rmandg;suIetxniC 6>3 nigkMeTcEdkmandg;suIetxniC 7>4. fμbMEbkTMgn;F¶n;xagelIGaceRbICMnYsfμ gravel b¤fμkinbMEbkedIm,IbegáItCaebtugd¾ENntan;. fμbMEbkTMgn;Rsal light weigth aggregate vaGacEbgEckCaBIrRbePTKW eRKagsMNg; (structural) nigminEmneRKagsMNg; (nonstructural) . va)an BIkarplit ¬eFVIBIdIdæ/ fμPaCn_ b¤silaqñÜn (slate) b¤kMeTcGamn_ EdkpÞúHecjBIL (blast furnace slage) b¤eday FmμCati (scoria nig pumice) . fμbMEbkenHGacbegáItCaebtugEdlmanPaBFn; nwgkMlaMgTUeTAenAcenøaHBI 3000 eTA 4000 psi PaBFn;énkMlaMgx<s;CagenHk¾GaceFVI)an. TMgn;Éktaxül;s¶Üt (air-dry unit weigth) én PaBFn;énkMlaMgx<s;CagenHk¾GaceFVI)an. TMgn;Éktaxül;s¶Üt (aiz-dry unit weght) énPaBFn;énkMlaMgFmμta énebtugTMgn;Rsal ¬ticCag 5000psi¦ enAcenøaHBI100 eTA 115 pcf . PaBFn;Edlx<s;énebtugTMgn;Rsal manTMgn;Ékta (unitweight) kñúgcenøaH 120pcf. Construction General - 43 -
  44. 44. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC fμbMEbkTMgn;RsalminEmneRKagsMNg;FmμtaKW vermiculite nig perlite sUm,IEt scoria nig pumice k¾GacRtUv)aneRbIEdr. sMPar³TaMgenHRtUv)aneRbIenAkñúgebtugEdlmankMralxNнGuIsULg; karBarsMelg nig kMralminEmneRKagxagelIeK. fμbMEbkTMgn;RsalbegáItebtugEdlmankarcMlgkMedATab Edlmankar karBarePøIg)anl¥esμIKña. enAeBlebtugenHRbQmnwgkMedAxøaMg bMputsMeNImEdlmanenAkñúgebtug)anERbkøay y:agqab;BIPaBrav eTACacMhayEdlmanmaDrhUtdl;15dgFMCagmun. cMnYnrn§es<atd¾eRcIn nigmanTMhMFMenA cenøaHfμbMEbkTMgn;Rsal)anbegáIttMbn;sMBaFFUrRsal (pressure relief region) . 3> TwkfñaMKImIsMrab;ebtug Admixture for concrete TwkfñaMKImIKWCasarFatuepSgeTotBI suIm:g;t_ lanning Twk nigfμbMEbkEdlRtUv)anbEnßmeTAkñúgebtug edIm,IEkERblkçN³rbs;ebtug. rYmbBa©ÚleTAkñúgGtßn½yenHvaKWTwkfñaMKImI TwkfñaMEr: dUcCa fly ash nig silica fume sarFatukarBareRcH/ sarFatuEfmBN’ sarFatusésrsURt nigepSg² ¬CMnYykarbUm/ karBarsMeNIm/ bgá]sμ½n/ Pñak;garkat;bnßykarRCab¦. 3/1 TwkfñaMKImIBIKImI nig BIEr: Chimical and mineral admixture TwkfñaMKImIRtUv)aneRbICaTUeTAenAkñúgebtugCaGgÁFatuCYykat;bnßybrimaNTwk GgÁFatuBenøÓn nigBnüWt eBlkk b¤CaGgÁFaturYmpSM. A GgÁFatubnßybrimaNTwk B GgÁFatuBnüWteBlkkrwg C GgÁFatuBenøÓneBlkkrwg D GgÁFatubnßybrimaNTwk nigBnüWteBlkkrwg E GgÁFatubnßybrimaNTwk nigBnøÓneBlkkrwg F GgÁFatubnßybrimaNTwk kMritx<s; G GgÁFatubnßybrimaNTwk kMritx<s;nigBnüWteBlkkrwg TwkfñaMKImIkMritx<s;kat;bnßybrimaNTwk EdlcaM)ac;cUlrYmbegáItCaebtugCaBiessedayminpøas;bþÚr 12° b¤eRcInCagenH. TwkfñaMKImIkat;bnßybrimaNTwk Water-reducing admixture Construction General - 44 -
  45. 45. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC TwkfñaMenH)ankat;bnßytMrUvkarTwksMrab;layebtugedayeFVIRbtikmμKImICamYynwg plitplGuIRdakmμ )anqab;eLIgedIm,IbegáItRsTab;TwkfñaMKImI m:UNUm:UelKulenATwksuIm:g;t_. RsTab;enH)anEjkRKab;suIm:g;t_ nig kat;bnßytMrUvkarfamBledIm,IeFVIeGayl,ayenH)anhUr. dUcenHl,ayenHKW “lubricated” nwgCMrujeGayRKab; suIm:g;t_cUlrYmGuIRdatkmμ. TwkfñaMKImIkat;bnßybrimaNTwkCaFmμtaplitBIGasuIt Lignosulfnic nig GMbilrbs;va GasuItkabUksuIlicGuIRduksuIt nigGMbilrbs;va b¤ polymer Edl)anBI melamine b¤ naphthalene rWGuIRdUkabUns‘ul pUNat. bnSMénTwkfñaMKImIEdleRbIenAkñúgl,ayebtugKYrEtRtUvRtYtBinitü nigeFVIBiesaFy:agRbugRbytñ½ edIm,I Fanafa lkçN³EdleKcg;)anRtUv)anTTYl. ]TahrN_GaRs½yeday kMritlay (dosage) énTwkfñaMKImI nig lkçN³KImIénsuIm:g;t_ vaGacmanlT§PaBeFVIeGayTwkfñaMKImIBnüWtkarkk nigBenøÓnkarkkrwgénebtug. vak¾ bgðaj nUvkarkt;sMKal;fa TwkfñaMKImIEdlCMrujkarkkrwgFmμta nigBnüWtkarkkRbsinebIkMritlayman brimaNelIs. elIsBIenHeTot edaysarEtPaBxusKñaenAkñúgPaKry énduMsUlItrvagplitpl )anBI Rkumh‘unepSgeTotvaEtg EtminmanTMnak;TMngKñaedaypÞal;rvagTwkfñaMKImIEdlmancMNat;fñak;dUcKña. dUcenH vamansar³sMxan;kñúgkarkMNt;smasPaBKImIy:agRbugRbytñ½ enAeBlRtYtBinitükarRbkYtRbECgénTwkfñaMKImI. TwkfñaMKImIEdlbegáItBBuHxül; Air-Entraining Admixture TwkfñaMenH)anbegáItBBuHxül;d¾EsntUcbMputCaeRcInEdlmanenAkñúgebtug edIm,IkarBarebtugBIeGanPaB bNþalmkBIskmμPaBRcMEdlénkarkk nigkarrlayénTwkkk b¤karEsþgénkarQøanBanénsarFatuKImI. sMrab;ebtug EdlRbQmnwgkarkk énkarrlayRcMdEdl enaHBBuHxül;pþl;nUvbnÞb;sMrab;rIkdalénTwk xageRkA nigxagkñúgEdleTaHCay:agNavaGacbNþaleGayeRKaHfñak;dl;ebtug. enAeBlEdlebtugEdlman BBuHxül;RCabecjmanvisalPaBtictYcCag ebtugKμanBBuHxül;enaHvanigekItmansésqμatictYcbnøayBIsñÚl énebtugdl;épÞxageRkA. dUecñHsésqμad¾tictYcenHCapøÚvcUlénkarQøanBanénsarFatuKImIeTAkñúgebtug. TwkfñaMKImIBenøÓnkarkk Set-accelerating admixture vaRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;kat;bnßyeBlevlaBIcab;epþImlayTwkeTAkñúgsuIm:g;t_ dMbUgénkarcab;dMeNIrkar nig begáInGaRtaénPaBFn;énkMlaMgEdlTTYl)anedayebtug. TwkfñaMKImIBenøÓnkarkkEdlRtUv)aneRbICaFmμta eRcInCageK KWkal;süÚmkørIt. eTaHCay:agNa kareRbIR)as;rbs;va KWRbqaMgkñúgkrNIEdlEdkBRgwgnig Edk prestressing manvtþman. mUlehturbs;va KWfavamanlT§PaBfa GgÁFatuBenøÓnnigbBa©Úly:agesrInUvEdkkørIt Construction General - 45 -
  46. 46. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC eTAkñúgebtug dUecñHvanwgbgáeGaymaneRcHsuIEdk. PaBEbøkKñaénkareRbIR)as;Twk fñaMKImImYykñúgcMeNamTwkfñaM KImIEdlminmansarFatukørIt RtUv)aneRbI. TwkfñaMKImIBnüWtkarkk Retarding Admixture sMrab;visalPaBxøH TwkfñaMKImIkat;bnßybrimaNTwkFmμtaTaMgGs;BnüWtkarkkdMbUgénebtug. TwkfñaMKImIsarFatuEr: Mineral Admixture Fly ashes, pozzolans nig microsilicates RtUv)anbBa©ÚleTAnwgcMNat;fñak;fñaMTwkfñaMKImIsarFatuEr:. eBl xøHsuIm:g;t_FmμtaGaceRbICaTwkfñaMKImI. karkarBareRcHsuI Corrosion inhibitor CaTUeTAEdkBRgwgenAkñúgebtugRtUv)ankarBarRbqaMgnwgeRcHsuIedaysarFatu alkalinity y:agx<s;énebtug Edl begáItnUvRsTab;GskmμenABIelIépÞEdk. RsTab;enHmansmasFatuEdkGuksuIt (ferric oxide) EdlCasarFatulMnwg. eTaHCay:agNa enAkñúg b¤enABIelIépÞénEdkGuksuIt (ferric oxid) KWCasmasFatuEdkGuksuIt (ferrous oxid compound) EdlmanRbtikmμy:agxøaMg. enAeBlEdlsmasFatu EdkGuksuItcUleTATak;TgCamYynwg sarFatuQøanBan dUcCa chloride oxide vaeFVIRbtikmμCamYyGuksuIEsn edIm,IbegáItCaduMsUlIt plitpleRcHEdk GuksuIt (iron-oxide corrosion product) . lT§plenH)anbegáIn TMhMmaDrbs;va4dg nigbegáItkMlaMgrIkFak;kan; EtFMCagPaBFn;énkMlaMgTajpþac;énebtug. lT§plenHkan;Et eFVIeGayebtugmanlkçN³y:ab;yWnEfmeTot. enAeBlEdleRcHsuIcab;epþImkekIt vtþmanrbs; chloride enAcenøaHBI1 eTA 1>5lb/yd . ]TahrN_ 3 RbsinebIGacmanlT§PaB chloride GacRCabcUlBIxageRkAsñÚlebtug edayykTwkkkecjBIGMbil ebtugGac RtUv)ankarBaredaypleFobTwk nigsuIm:g;t_kan;EtTabeLIg² b¤begáInbrimaNRKb;dNþb;elIEdkBRgwg b¤BBuH xül;mankñúgebtug b¤bEnßmTwkfñaMKImIEdlmansarFatukal;süÚmnIRtat rWbEnßmTwkfñaMKImIr)aMgxagkñúg (internal- barrier) b¤karBarkartUt (cathodic protection) b¤CabnSMénvIFITaMgenH. edIm,IkarBareRcHsuI TwkfñaMKImI kal;süÚmnIRtatRtUv)anbEnßmeTAkñúgebtugkñúgeBlkMBuglaymþgeTot (batching) .vamin)anbegáItr)aMglkçN³rUbeTAnwgpøÚvcUlénEdkkørIkeT. va)anpøas;bþÚrlkçN³KImIénebtugEk,r KYrsmépÞEdk. vtþmanénG‘uksuItEdknIRTIt )anbMElg ferrous oxid eTACa ferric oxide. sarFatunIRTItk¾RtUv)anRsUbykenAÉépÞénsrésEdkehIy begáInkMlaMgdl;RsTab;Gskmμ ferric oxide. Construction General - 46 -
  47. 47. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC sMrab;TwkfñaMKImI kal;süÚm nIRTItEdlRtUv)anykmkeRbI kMriteRbIR)as; (desoage) KYrRtUv)anEktMrUv edaysMrbCamYynwglkçxNÐRbQmrbs;ebtugeTAnwgPñak;gareRcHsuI. épÞRbQmkan;EtFMkMriteRbIR)as;KYrEt FMEdr. kMriteRbIR)as;d¾RtwmRtUvGacRtUv)ankMNt;eTAelIKMeragmYyeTA KMeragmYyedayQrelImUldæanCamYy nwgTinñn½ysMrab;esckþIesñIsuMTwkfñaMKImICak;lak;. TwkfñaMKImIr)aMgxagkñúg (internal –barrier) manBIrRkum. RkumTI mYymansmasFatukarBarRCabTwk nigkarBarRCabsMeNIm. RkumTIBIrmanPñak;garEdlbegáItRsTab;sarFatu xniCCuMvijEdkBRgwg bEnßmBIelIRsTab;Gskmμ. TwkfñaMKImIRbePTenH)anCMrujsMrab;bEnßmBIelIGRtaEdl)an kMNt;edayKμanKitBIkarRbQmnwgsarFatukørItdayKitfanwgekIteLIg. TwkfñaMKImIBN’ Coloring admixture sarFatuBN’RtUv)anbEnßmeTAelIebtugsMrab;ehtuplsßabtükmμ. vaGacCaG‘uksuItEr: b¤RKab;fñaMBN’ sib,kmμ. sarFatukabUneqABN’exμA RtUv)aneRbICaTUeTAsMrab;sarFatuBN¥exμAEdl)ankat;bnßybrimaNBBuH xül;EdlekItmanenAkñúgl,ayy:ageRcIn. dUcenHRbsinebIebtugBN’exμARtUv)aneKcg;)ansMrab;ebtugEdltMrUv eGaymanBBuHxül; ¬sMrab;ebtugEdlRbQmnwgPaBkk b¤rlayénTwkkk b¤karQøanBanénsarFatuKImI¦ enaH kabUnexμA (carbon black) KYrRtUvEkERbeTACaBBuHxül; b¤eTACaPñak;garbEnßmkekItBBuHxül;EdlGacrYm bBa©ÚleTAkñúgl,ay. karKitBIl,ay (mix design) KYrRtUv)aneFVIBiesaFn_eRkamlkçxNÐCak;Esþgénkardæan edIm,IeRbIR)as;enAkñúgsMNg;kardæan. kareRbIR)as;nUvtMrUvkarBN’edayRbugRbytñ½RtYtBinitüsMPar³ ]bkrN_ nigkarbEnßmbrimaNTwkedIm,IrkSanUvPaBminpøas;bþÚrenAÉkardæan. 4> kMe)ar)ayGr nig ebtug Mortar and concrete 4>1 kMe)ar)ayGr Motar )ayGrRtUv)anpSMeLIgedaysarFatusuIm:g;t_ RKYsfμl¥it xSac;nig Twk. vaRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;eFVIkMraldl; kargarrabdæ sMrab;bUk nig stucooes nig laybEnßmCamYyRKYsfμFM² køayeTACaebtug. karKitenATIenH RtUv )aneGayCadMbUgeTA)ayGrenaHEdlRtUveRbIR)as;sMrab;kagarrabdæ nigbUkkMe)ar. lkçN³rbs;)ayGrERbRbYly:agxøaMg GaRs½yeTAnwglkçN³énsarFatusuIm:g;t_EdlykmkeRbIpl eFobénsuIm:g;t_ nigxSac; lkçN³ nigkMritcMNat;fñak;xSac; nigpleFobTwknigsarFatusUlIt. Construction General - 47 -
  48. 48. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 4>2 ebtugsuIm:g;t_B½rEln Portland cement concrete ebtugsuIm:g;B½rElnCal,ayénsuIm:g;t_ lanning Twk RKYsFM nigxSac; nigsmamaRt énTwkfñaMKImIedIm,I begáItCam:as)øasÞikEdlmanlT§PaBGaccak; dak; nigbBa©ÚleTAkñúgBum<EdlvanwgrwgeTACam:assUlIt. lkçN³ EdleKcg;)anénebtug)øasÞikenH KWPaBGaceFVIkarrbs;vaPaBGacdak; nigminbMEbksmasFaturYmpSM nigEdlva GackkeTAtameBlevlaEdleKcg;)an. ebtugEdlrwgKYrpþl;nUvlkçN³esvaEdleKcg;)an³ 1> PaBFn;énkMlaMg ¬sgát; nig flexural¦ 2> PaByUrGEgVg ¬ minmansñameRbH Fn;eTAnwgkarkk nigkarrlayénTwkkk nigkarvaylukén sarFatuKIm/ Fn;eTAnwgPaBrMj½r nigbrimaNxül;Edlman¦ 3> rUbragemIlBIxageRkA ¬BN’/ épÞmanPaBminRKb;lkçN³¦ lkçN³nimYy² CHT§iBldl;tMélcugeRkayénkarKitl,ay (mixdesign) nigtMélénkarcak;ebtugenA nwgkEnøg. lkçN³TaMgenHGacTTYl)anBIebtugTMgn;Fmμta TMgn;Rsal nigTMgn;F¶n;. 4>3 ebtugb:UlIEmr Polymer concrete lkçN³)øasÞikrbs;ebtugCamYynwg Rcv:ak;mU:elKuld¾EvgRtUv)aneKehAfa ebtugb:UlIEmrRtUv)aneKeRbI R)as;kñúgviFICaeRcInedIm,IbegáInnUvlkçN³rbs;ebtug karCMnYsnUvsuIm:g;t_ lanning EdlcUlrYmpSMCamYynwgl,ay dUcCaTwkfñaMKImI nigeFVIeGayebtugnwgs‘b;. ebtugb:UlIEmr dUcCa methyl methacrylate nig polyyester EdlminEq¥tTwk EdlenAkñúgenaHb:UlIEmr CMnYssum:g;t_ lanning GacmanPaBFn;énkMlaMg nigmU:DuleGLasÞic (modulus of elasticity) FMCagebtugsuIm:g;t_ lanning 2dg. CamYynwgebtugb:UlIEmr creep RtUv)anbnßynig PaBFn;énvdþénkarkk nwgkarrlayénTwkkk eLIgx<s;. ]TahrN_bnÞab;BIkarEfrTaMTwksMrab;ry³eBld¾xøIbMput eBjmYyyb;kñúgsituNðPaBbnÞb; ebtugb:UlIEmr )aneRtomxøÜnCaeRscsMrab;eRbIkar EdlpÞúyBIebtugFmμtaEdlRtUvTTYlkarEfrTaMsMeNIm RbEhlmYys)aþh_ munnwgTTYlbnÞúkBIxageRkA. m:UNUEmr nigb:UlIEmrGacRtUveRbICaTwkfñaMKImIsMrab;eFVIeGaydUcedImvij nigeFVIeGayépÞénebtugEdlman PaBy:ab;yWnmanPaBdUcedImeLIgvij. latexe én methyl methacrylate, polyester, styrene, epoxy-styrene, furan, styrence-butacliene nig vinylindene chloride RtUv)aneRbIsMrab;eKalbMNgTaMgenH. lT§plénkarkkrwg énebtugmansPaBelOnCagebtugFmμta. TwkfñaMKImIb:UlIEmrk¾GacnwgRtUv)aneRbIedIm,IbegáInlkçN³PaBs¥it én suIm:g;t_ Lanning. kardak;laybBa©Úlkñúgl,ayCaTwkfñaMKImIlayTwk sMrab;eKalbMNgenH TwkfñaMKImI)anpþl; Construction General - 48 -

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