1.types of structures and loads

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1.types of structures and loads

  1. 1. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC !> RbePTrcnasm<½n§ nigbnÞúk Types of Structures and Loads CMBUkenHerobrab;BIcMnucbzménkarviPaKeRKOgbgÁúM. dMbUg CMhanénkarGnuvtþcaM)ac;edIm,IbegáIt rcnasm<½n§RtUv)anerobrab; nigbnþedaykarENnaMBIRbePTmUldæanéneRKOgbgÁúM FatupSM nigTMrrbs;va. cug eRkay mankarBnül;y:agsegçbBIRbePTepSg²rbs;bnÞúkEdlRtUv)anBicarNasMrab;karsikSaviPaK nig karsikSaKNna. !>!> esckþIepþIm (Introduction) rcnasm<½n§ b¤eRKOgbgÁúM (structure) sMedAeTAelIRbB½n§énGgát;EdltP¢ab;Kña ehIyRtUv)aneRbI edIm,IRTbnÞúk. ]TahrN_Cak;EsþgEdlTak;TgeTAnwgvisVkmμsMNg;sIuvilrYmman GaKar s<an ehIyenAkñúg visVkmμdéTeTotrYmman eRKagk):al; nigynþehaH/ GagsþúksarFaturav nig]sμ½n/ RbB½n§emkanic nig rcna sm<½n§RTRbB½n§bBa¢ÚnGKÁisnI. enAeBlsikSaKNnarcnasm<½n§edIm,IbMerIeGaykareRbIR)as;CasaFarN³ visVkrRtUvKitnUvsuvtßi- PaB esaPN½ÐPaB nig serviceability bEnßmBIelIkarKitEpñkesdækic© niglkçN³brisßan. CaerOy² eK RtUvkarkarsikSadab;edayELkBIKñaCaeRcInEdlpþl;nUvdMeNaHRsayepSg²Kña munnwgQaneTAdl;kar sMercyknUvTMrg;eRKOgbgÁúMEdlmanlkçN³smRsbCageK. rebobénkarsikSaKNnaKWmanlkçN³écñ RbDit nigbec©keTs ehIyTamTarnUvcMeNHdwgBIlkçN³sMPar³CamUldæan CamYynwgc,ab;emkanicEdl QaneTAdl;kareRCIserIssMPar³. enAeBlkarsikSaKNnaeRKOgbgÁúMbzmRtUv)anesñIeLIg eK)anviPaK eRKOgbgÁúMedIm,IFanafavamanlT§PaBRTRTg; nigPaBrwgmaMRKb;RKan;. edIm,IviPaKrcnasm<½n§eGay)anRtwm RtUveK RtUveFVIkarKiteGay)anRtwmRtUvBIrebobEdlFaturbs;eRKOgbgÁúMRtUv)anRT nigtP¢ab;rvagKña. bnÞúk (load) tUv)ankMNt;BI code nig local specification ehIyeKrkkMlaMgenAkñúgGgát; nigbM;las;TI (dis- placement) edayeRbIRTWsþIénkarviPaKeRKOgbgÁúMEdlCaRbFanbTénemeronenH. bnÞab;mkeKeRbIlT§pl énkarsikSa viPaKenHedIm,IsikSaKNnaeRKOgbgÁúMeLIgvij edayKitnUvkarkMNt;TMgn;rbs;Ggát; nigTMhM kan;EtCak;lak;. dUcenH karsikSaKNnaeRKOgbgÁúMRtUvkarkarKNnaRbhak;RbEhlCaeRcInCMhan Edl kñúgenaHTamTarnUvkarsikSaviPaKeRKOgbgÁúM. enAkñúgesovePAenH karviPaKeRKOgbgÁúMRtUv)anGnuvtþsMrab; eRKOgbgÁúMvisVkmμ sMNg;sIuvil b:uEnþeKGaceRbIviFIénkarviPaKEdl)anerobrab;sMrab;eRKOgbgÁúMEdlTak;Tg eTAnwgEpñkepSgeToténvisVkmμ. RbePTrcnasm<½n§ nigbnÞúk T.Chhay -1
  2. 2. mhaviTüal½ysMNg;sIuvil viTüasßanCatiBhubec©keTskm<úCa !>@> cMNat;fñak;eRKOgbgÁúM (Classification of Structures) vaCakarsMxan;Nas;sMrab;visVkreRKOgbgÁúM (structural engineer) dwgnUvRbePTepSg²rbs;Fatu (element) EdlpSMCaeRKOgbgÁúM nigGaccat;cMNat;fñak;eRKOgbgÁúMeTAtamTMrg; nigtYnaTIrbs;va. eyIgnwg ENnaMcMnucxøHrbs;vaenATIenH nigcMnucxøHeTotenAkñúgemeronxagmux. FatueRKOgbgÁúM (structural elements) eRKOgbgÁúMpSMeLIgBIFatuTUeTAxøHdUcmanerobrab;xageRkam³ Ggát;cMNg (tie rods) Ggát;eRKOgbgÁúM (structural member) EdlrgnUvkMlaMgTaj (tensile force) CaerOy²RtUv)aneKsMedAeTAelI tie rods b¤ bracing struts. edaysarFmμCatiénbnÞúk enH Ggát;TaMgenHmanlkçN³Evg b¤Rsav (slender) ehIyCaTUeTABYkvaeRcInCaEdkmUl (rod) EdkRCug (bar) EdkEkg (angle) b¤EdkmanragGkSr C (channel) ¬rUbTI 1-1¦. Fñwm (beam): CaTUeTAFñwmCaGgát;Rtg;EdlRtUv)aneKeRbICabzmedIm,IRTbnÞúkbBaÄr. CaerOy² eKcat;cMNat;fñak;rbs;FñwmeTAtamviFIEdlvaRtUv)anRT dUcbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 1-2. CaBiess enAeBlEdlmuxkat;rbs;FñwmERbRbYl FñwmenaHRtUv)aneKeGayeQμaHfa tapered beam b¤ haunched beam. muxkat;rbs;FñwmGac built up edaybEnßmEdkbnÞH (plates) eTAelIEpñkxag elI nigEpñkxageRkamrbs;Fñwm. CaTUeTA eKsikSaKNnaFñwmedayeGayvaTb;Tl;nwgm:Um:g;Bt; (bending moment) b:uEnþ RbsinebIvaxøI nigRTbnÞúkEdlmanbrimaNFM kMlaMgkat;GacnwgmantMélFM ehIyeKnwgykkMlaMg enHmkeFVIkarsikSaKNna. enAeBlEdlFñwmeFVIBIsMPar³elah³dUcCaEdk b¤GaluymIj:Úm mux kat;EdlmanRbsiT§PaBCageK enAeBlEdlvamanragdUcbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 1-3. kMlaMgEdl ekItmanenAkñúgsøab (flange) xagelI nigsøabxageRkamrbs;FñwmbegáItCakMlaMgm:Um:g; couple caM)ac;EdleRbIsMrab;Tb;Tl;nwgm:Um:g;Gnuvtþn_ M cMENkÉRTnug (web) manRbsiT§PaBkñúgkarTb; Types of Structures and Loads T.Chhay -2
  3. 3. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC Tl;nwgkMlaMgkat; (shear) V . CaTUeTA muxkat;enHRtUv)aneKehAfa wide flange ehIyRbEvg rbs;vaRtUv)aneKpliteLIgrhUtdl; 23m. RbsinebIeKRtUvkarRbEvgxøICagenH eBlxøHeKeRCIs erIsmuxkat;Edlman tapered flange. RbsinebIeKRtUvkarFñwmEdlmanElVgEvg ehIyRTbnÞúkFM eKeRCIserIsmuxkat;FñwmkñúgTMrg; plate girder. Ggát;enHRtuv)anpliteLIgedayeRbIbnÞHEdkFM² CaRTnug nigsøab ehIIybnÞHTaMgenaHRtUv)anP¢ab;KñaedaykarTwkbnSar b¤edayb‘ULúg. CaerOy² girder RtUv)andwkCBa¢ÚneTAkardæanCakMNat;² ehIyeKsikSaKNnakartP¢ab;kMNat;TaMgenaHRtg; cMnucEdl girder rgm:Um:g;Bt;xagkñúgtUc. CaTUeTA Fñwmebtugmanmuxkat;ragctuekaNEkg EdlrUbragEbbenHgayRsYlkñúgkarsag sg;enAkardæan. BIeRBaHebtugmanlkçN³exSaykñúgkarTb;Tl;kugRtaMgTaj Edk (reinforcing rods) RtUv)aneKdMeLIgkñúgFñwmRtg;tMbn;NaEdlmuxkat;rgkugRtaMgTaj. Fñwm b¤r:tebtugcak;Rsab; RtUv)aneKplitenAeragsib,kmμkñúgrebobdUcKña ehIybnÞab;mkeKdwkCBa¢ÚnvaeTA kan;kardæan. eQIEdleKykmkeFVICaFñwmCaRbePTdMueQItan; b¤ laminated. Laminated beam RtUv )anplitBImuxkat;eQItan;EdlbiTP¢ab;KñaedaykaversIusþg;x<s;. ssr (column): Ggát;EdlCaTUeTAQrRtg; nigTb;Tl;bnÞúksgát;tamG½kS (axial compressive load) RtUv)aneKehAfassr ¬rUbTI 1-4¦. CaerOy² eKeRcIneRbImuxkat; tube nig wide RbePTrcnasm<½n§ nigbnÞúk T.Chhay -3
  4. 4. mhaviTüal½ysMNg;sIuvil viTüasßanCatiBhubec©keTskm<úCa sMrab;ssrEdk ehIymuxkat;mUl b¤kaer:sMrab;ssrEdleFVIebtugEdlBRgwgedayEdk flange srés. eBlxøH ssrrgnUvkMlaMgtamG½kS nigm:Um:g;Bt;dUceXIjkñúgrUb. Ggát;EbbenHRtUv)aneK eGayeQμaHfa beam-column. RbePTeRKOgbgÁúM (Types of structures): bnSMénFaturbs;eRKOgbgÁúM nigsMPar³EdlvapSM eLIg RtUv)aneKsMedAelIRbB½n§eRKOgbgÁúM (structural system). RbB½n§nImYy²RtUv)anpliteLIgBIRb- ePTmUldæanmYy b¤eRcInCagmYyénRbePTmUldæanbYnrbs;eRKOgbgÁúM. RbB½n§eRKOgbgÁúMmandUc xageRkam edayerobtamlMdab;énkMritsμúKsμajkñúgkarviPaKkMlaMg rbs;va. Trusses: enAeBlEdleKRtUvkarRbEvgElVgEvg ehIykMBs;rbs;vaminEmnCalkçN³ sMxan;kñúg karsikSaKNna eKeRcIneRCIserIs truss. Truss pSMeLIgBIGgát;EdlmanRbEvgEvg ehIyRtUv )antMerobkñúgTMrg;RtIekaN. Planar truss RtUv)anpÁúMeLIgedayGgát;Edl sßitenAkñúgbøg;EtmYy ehIyTUeTAvaRtUv)aneKeRbIsMrab;s<an nigdMbUl cMEnkÉ space truss, Ggát;rbs;valatsn§wgkñúg lMh b¤TMhMbI (three dimension) ehIyvasaksmsMrab; derrick nig tower. edaysarkartMerobCaragFrNImaRténGgát;rbs;va bnÞúkEdleFVIeGay truss TaMgmUl ekagRtUv)anbMElgeTACakMlaMgTaj nigkMlaMgsgát;enAkñúgGgát;. edaysarehtuenH KuNsm,tþi dMbUgrbs; truss ebIeRbobeFobeTAnwgFñwm KWfavaeRbIsMPar³ticedIm,IRTbnÞúkEdleKeGay ¬rUbTI 1-5¦. ehIy truss RtUv)ansg;BIGgát;EvgEdlGactMerobtam eRcInrebobedIm,IRTbnÞúk. edIm,I TTYl)anlkçN³esdækic© eKeRcIneRbI truss sMrab;ElVgEdlmanRbEvgBI 9m eTA 122m eTaHbI eBlxøHeKeRbI truss sMrab;RbEvgElVgEvgCagenH k¾eday. Types of Structures and Loads T.Chhay -4
  5. 5. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC kab nigeRKOgbgÁúMekag (cables and arches): TMrg;BIrepSgeTotrbs;eRKOgbgÁúMEdleRbIsMrab; ElVgEvgKW kab nig arch. CaTUeTA kabmanlkçN³bt;Ebn (flexible) ehIyvaRTbnÞúkedaykM- laMgTaj. b:uEnþmindUc tension ties eT bnÞúkxageRkAminRtUv)anGnuvtþtambeNþayG½kSrbs; kabeT. Cavi)ak eKykTMrg;rbs;vaCarag defined sag ¬rUbTI 1-6a¦. CaFmμta eKeRbIkabedIm,I BüÜrs<an b¤dMbUlGKar. enAeBleKeRbIvasMrab;eKalbMNgEbbenH kabmanKuNsm,tþilubelI Fñwm nig truss CaBiesssMrab;ElVgEdlmanRbEvgFMCag 46m. edaysarvaEtgEtrgkugRtaMg TajkabnwgminKμansßirPaB b¤ collapse Pøam²eT EdlvaeRcInekItmancMeBaHFñwm nig truss. elIsBIenH truss TamTarnUvtMélbEnßmsMrab; karsagsg; ehIyenAeBlEdlElVgekIneLIgkMBs; k¾kan;EtekIneLIgEdr. mü:agvij eTot bMerIbMras;rbs;kabRtUvkMritEdnkMNt;eday sag, TMgn; nig viFIkñúgkarf<k; (anchorage). Arch CaeRKOgbgÁúMEdlrgkMlMagsgát; edaysarvamankMeNagbRBa©as;BIkab ¬rUb TI 1- 6 b¦. b:uEnþ arch RtUvEtrwg (rigid) edIm,IrkSaragrbs;va ehIyvaeFVIeGayekItman secondary loading EdlBak;B½n§nwgkMlaMgkat; nigm:Um:g; EdleKRtUvEtBicarNakñúgkarsikSaKNnava. eBl xøHeKeRbI arch enAkñúgeRKOgbgÁúMs<an/ dome roof nigsMrab;rn§cMhenAkñúgCBa¢aMgdæ. eRKag (Frames): eKeRbIeRKagenAkñúgsMNg;GKar ehIyvaRtUv)anpSMeLIgedayFñwm nig ssr EdlmanTMrbgáb; (fixed) b¤tMN pin ¬rUbTI 1-7¦. dUcKña nwg truss Edr eRKaglatsg§wgkñúg RbePTrcnasm<½n§ nigbnÞúk T.Chhay -5
  6. 6. mhaviTüal½ysMNg;sIuvil viTüasßanCatiBhubec©keTskm<úCa bøg; b¤BIrTMhM nigkñúglMh b¤bITMhM. bnÞúkenAelIeRKageFVIeGayGgát;ekag ehIyRbsinebIvaman tMNrwg (rigid joint) enaHvamanlkçN³CaeRKOgbgÁúMminkMNt;. ersIusþg; rbs;eRKagEbbenHRtUv )anbMEbkBI moment interaction rvagFñwm nigssrenARtg;tMNrwg. CalT§pl lkçN³esdækic© énkareRbIeRKagGaRs½ynwgRbsiT§PaBEdlTTYlBIkarykTMhM FñwmtUc ehIyedaybegáInTMhMrbs; ssr EdlbNþalBIGMeBI beam-column EdleFVIeGay ekagenARtg;tMN. eRKOgbgÁúMépÞ (surface structures): Surface structure RtUv)aneFVIBIsMPar³EdlmankMras;esþIg edayeFobeTAnwgTMhMepSg²eTotrbs;va. eBlxøH sMPar³enHmanlkçN³bt;EbnxøaMg ehIyeK GacykvakñúgTMrg;tg; b¤ air-inflated structure. kñúgkrNITaMgBIrsMPar³eFVI skmμPaBCaPñas (membrane) EdlrgkugRtaMgTajsuT§ (pure tension). Surface structure k¾GacplitedaysMPar³rwg (rigid material) dUcCaebtugGarem:pg Edr. edaysarvaGacmanTMrg;Ca folded plates, sIuLaMg b¤ hyperbolic paraboloid dUcenHeK GacehAvafa thin plates b¤ shells. eRKOgbgÁúMTaMgenHeFVIkardUckab b¤ arch edaysarvaRTRTg; kMlaMgTaj nigkMlaMgsgát;Cabzm edaymanPaBekagtictYcEmnETn. eTaHbICaEbbenHk¾eday CaTUeTAeKBitCaBi)akkñúgkarviPaK plate b¤ shell structure xøaMgNas;edaysarragFrNImaRt bITMhMrbs;va. karviPaKeRKOgbgÁúMépÞminRtUv)anelIkyk mkbgðajkñúgesovePAenHeT. !>#> bnÞúk (Load) enAeBlEdleKkMNt;TMhMrbs;eRKOgbgÁúMrYcehIy eKcaM)ac;kMNt;bnÞúkEdleRKOgbnÞúkRtUvRT. Ca erOy² eKRtUveFVIkareRCIserIsbnÞúkeRcInRbePTEdleKrMBwgfavanwgeFVIGMeBImkelIeRKOgbgÁúMedIm,IeFVIkar sikSaKNna. ]TahrN_ eRKOgbgÁúMGKarx<s;²RtUvTb;Tl;nwgbnÞúkxag (lateral load) d¾FMEdlbgáeLIg edayxül; ehIyeKeRcIneRCIserIsRbB½n§ shear wall nigRbB½n§ tubular frame. cMENkÉGKarEdlsßit enAkñúgtMbn;EdlgayrgkarrBa¢ÜydIRtUv)ansikSaKNnaCaeRKOg bgÁúMsVit (ductile frame) nigtMNsVit. Types of Structures and Loads T.Chhay -6
  7. 7. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC enAeBlEdleKkMNt;TMrg;eRKOgbgÁúM (structural form) rYcehIy karsikSaKNnaCak;Esþgcab; epþImCamYynwgGgát;xagelIEdlrgbnÞúkrhUtdl;RKwH. dUcenHeKRtUvsikSaKNnakMralxNÐ (floor slab) dMbUg ehIybnÞab;mkeKsikSaKNnaFñwm ssr nigcugeRkayKWRKwHeCIgtag. edIm,I sikSaKNnaeRKOgbgÁúM CaCMhandMbUgeKcaM)ac;RtUvkMNt;bnÞúkEdlmanGMeBIelIvaeGay)anCak;lak;. CaerOy² bnÞúkKNna (design loading) sMrab;eRKOgbgÁúMRtUv)ankMNt;edaykUd (code). CaTUeTA visVkreRKOgbgÁúMeFVIkarCamYynwg code BIrRbePT³ kUdGKarTUeTA (general building code) nigkUdsikSa KNna (design code). General building code kMNt;lkçN³tMrUvkarénGgát;sMrab; bnÞúkKNnaGb,- brmaenAelIeRKOgbgÁúM nigbTdæanGb,brmasMrab;karsagsg;. Design code pþl;nUvbTdæanbec©keTs lMGit ehIyeKeRbIvasMrab;skiSaKNnaeRKOgbgÁúMCak;Esþg. tarag 1-1 raynUv code sMxan;²EdleRbI enAkñúgkarGnuvtþ. b:uEnþeKRtUvdwgfa code TaMgenaHpþl;eGayEtkarENnaMTUeTAsMrab;karsikSaKNnaEt b:ueNÑaH. karTTYlxusRtUvx<s;bMputsMrab;karsikSaKNnaKW sßitelIvisVkreRKOgbgÁúM. CaTUeTA edaysareRKOgbgÁúMrgnUvbnÞúkeRcInRbePT karENnaMy:agsegçbBIbnÞúkTaMgenHnwgbgðaj BIrebobEdleKRtUvBicarNaBIT§iBlrbs;vakñúgkarGnuvtþ. bnÞúkefr (dead loads)³ bnÞúkefrrYmmanTMgn;rbs;Ggát;eRKOgbgÁúMepSg² nigTMgn;rbs;vtßúTaMgGs;Edl P¢ab;CaGcié®nþy_eTAnwgeRKOgbgÁúM. dUcenH sMrab;sMNg;GKar bnÞúkefrrYmmanTMgn;rbs; ssr Fñwm r:t kMralxNÐ dMbUl CBa¢aMg bg¥Üc RbB½n§bgðÚrTwk (plumbing) RbB½n§eRKOgGKÁisnI (electrical feature) nig vtßúFatudéTepSgeTotEdlP¢ab;eTAnwgeRKOgbgÁúM. kñúgkrNIxøH bnÞúkefreRKOgbgÁúMGackMNt;tamrUbmnþy:agsamBaØEdlQrelITMgn; nigTMhMrbs; eRKOgbgÁúM. qøgtamry³bTBiesaFn_ eKk¾GacdwgBITMhMrbs;bnÞúkTaMgenH dUcCasMrab;sMNg; GKareQI RbePTrcnasm<½n§ nigbnÞúk T.Chhay -7
  8. 8. mhaviTüal½ysMNg;sIuvil viTüasßanCatiBhubec©keTskm<úCa TMgn;mFümKW 1.9 − 2.4kN / m 2 sMrab;GKarEdlmaneRKagEdk TMgn;mFümKW 2.9 − 3.6kN / m 2 ehIy sMrab;GKarebtugGarem: TMgn;mFümKW 5.3 − 6.2kN / m 2 . eTaHEbbnwgk¾eday enAeBleKkMNt;sMPar³ nigTMhMrbs;Ggát;eRKOgbgÁúMrYcehIy eKGacrkTMgn;rbs;vaBItaragEdl manerobrab;BIdg;sIuetrbs;va. dg;sIueténRbePTsMPar³EdleRbIenAkñúgsMNg;RtUv)anbgðajenAkñúgtarag 1-2 ehIyEpñkénta- ragEdlerobrab;BITMgn;rbs;RbePTGgát;rbs;GKarmanbgðajenAkñúgtarag 1-3. eTaHbICaeKGacKNna bnÞúkefredayQrelIkareRbIR)as;taragEdlmanbgðajTinñn½yy:aggay RsYlk¾eday k¾eKEtdwgEdrfa eKRtUveFVIkar)a:n;RbmaNbnÞúkTaMgenHkñúgdMNak;kaldMbUgénkar sikSaKNna. kar)a:n;RbmaNTaMgenH rYmbBa©ÚlTaMgsMPar³EdlminmanCaeRKOgbgÁúM (nonstructural material) dUcCa prefabricated façade panels, RbB½n§eRKOgGKÁisnI nigRbB½n§bgðÚrTwk.l. elIsBIenH eTaHbIeKkMNt;sMPar³rYcehIykþI EtTMgn;Éktþarbs;Ggát;Edlerobrab;enAkñúg code GacERb RbYleTAtamkarpþl;rbs;plitkr ehIyenAeBleKeRbIR)as;GKarvak¾GaccUlrYmkarEk ERbbnÞúkefrpg Edr. CalT§pl kar)a:n;RbmaNbnÞúkefrGacmankMritlMeGogBI 15 − 20% b¤k¾ eRcInCagenH. CaTUeTA bnÞúkefrminFMeT ebIeRbobeFobnwg design load sMrab;eRKOgbgÁúMsamBaØdUcCaFñwm b¤ eRKagmYyCan; (single-story frame) b:uEnþsMrab;GKareRcInCan; (multistory building) eKcaM)ac;RtUvKit bnÞúkefreGay)ansuRkitedIm,IsikSaKNnassreGay)anl¥ CaBiesssMrab;ssrCan;eRkam. Types of Structures and Loads T.Chhay -8
  9. 9. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC ]TahrN_1-1³ FñwmkMralenAkñúgrUbTI 1-8 RtUv)aneRbIsMrabRT kMralebtugsuT§TMgn;RsalEdlmanTTwg 1.83m nigmankMras; 102mm . kMraleFVIkarCaEpñkénBidansMrab;Can;xageRkam dUc enHEpñkxageRkam rbs;vaRtUv)anbUkedaykMe)arbUk (plaster). elIsBIenH CBa¢aMgbøúkebtugtan;TMgn;RsalkMras; 305mm kMBs; 2.44m sßitenABIelIsøabxagelIrbs;Fñwm. kMNt;bnÞúkenAelIFñwm edayKitkñúgmYyÉktaRbEvgrbs; Fñwm. dMeNaHRsay edayeRbITinñn½yenAkñúgtarag 1-2 nig 1-3 eyIgman kMralebtug³ (0.012kN / m 2 .mm)(102mm)(1.83m) = 2.80kN / m BidankMe)arbUk (plaster ceiling)³ (0.24kN / m 2 )(1.83) = 0.44kN / m CBa¢aMgbøúk³ (16.5kN / m 2 )(2.44m)(0.305m) = 12.26kN / m bnÞúksrub³ 15.50kN / m cMeLIy bnÞúkGefr (live loads)³ bnÞúkGefrGacERbRbYlTaMgTMhMrbs;va nigTItaMg. vak¾GacbNþalBITMgn;rbs; vtßúEdldak;CabeNþaHGasnñenAelIeRKOgbgÁúM karcl½trbs;rfynþ. bnÞúkGefrGb,brmaEdlkMNt;enA kñúg code RtUv)ankMNt;BIkarsikSaBIRbvtþiénT§iBlrbs;vaeTAelIeRKOgbgÁúM EdlmanRsab;. CaTUeTA bnÞúkTaMgenHrYmbBa©ÚlbEnßmnUvkarkarBarRbqaMgniwgPaBdabelIslub b¤bnÞúkelIs (overload) Pøam². enAkñúgCMBUkTI 6 eyIgnwgbegáItbec©keTssMrab;kMNt;TItaMgd¾ smrmürbs;bnÞúkGefrenAelIeRKOgbgÁúM dUcenHvaGacbgáeGay)ankugRtaMg b¤PaBdabrbs;Ggát;FMbMput. RbePTbnÞúkGefrepSg²CaeRcInRtUv)an elIkykmkerobrab;enATIenH. bnÞúksMNg; (building loads): eKsnμt;kMralrbs;sMNg;rgnUvbnÞúkGefresμI EdlGaRs½yeTAelItYnaTI rbs;sMNg;EdleyIgRtUvsikSaKNna. bnÞúkTaMgenHCaTUeTARtUv)anerobcMCatarag ehIy bgðajenAkñúg code tMbn; rdæ b¤Cati. ]TahrN_énbnÞúkGefrGb,brmaEdl)anBI ASCE 7-02 Standard RtUv)an bgðajenAkñúgtarag 1-4. tMélrbs;bnÞúknImYy²RtUv)ankMNt;BI Rbvtþiénkardak;bnÞúkenAelIGKarCa eRcInRbePT. varYmbBa©ÚlTaMgkarkarBarRbqaMgnwglT§PaBén bnÞúkelIsEdlGacekItmanedaysar sßanPaBbnÞan; bnÞúksagsg; nigtMrUvkar serviceability EdlbNþalBIrMj½r. bEnßmBIelIbnÞúkesμI/ code RbePTrcnasm<½n§ nigbnÞúk T.Chhay -9
  10. 10. mhaviTüal½ysMNg;sIuvil viTüasßanCatiBhubec©keTskm<úCa xøHk¾)anENnaMBIbnÞúkGefrcMcMnucGb,brmaEdl bNþalBI hand cart, rfynþ.l. EdlGnuvtþenARKb;TI kEnøgrbs;RbB½n§kMral. Ca]TahrN_ eK RtUvBicarNarTaMgbnÞúkGefrBRgayesμI nigbnÞúkGefrcMcMnucenA kñúgkarsikSaKNnakMral deck cMNtrfynþ. sMrab;RbePTxøHrbs;GKarEdlmanépÞkMralFM/ code CaeRcInGnuBaØateGaykat;bnßybnÞúkGefr BRgayesμIsMrab;kMral edaysarvaminTMngfabnÞúkGefrEdl)anBiBN’nanwgekItmanenAelIeRKOgbgÁúMTaMg mUlkñúgeBlEtmYy. Ca]TahrN_/ ASCE 7-02 GnuBaØateGaykat;bnßybnÞúkGefrenAelIGgát;Edlman influence area (K LL AT ) 37.2m 2 b¤eRcInCagenH. bnÞúkGefrEdl)ankat;bnßyRtUv)ankMNt;eday eRbIsmIkarxageRkam³ ⎛ 4.57 ⎞ L = Lo ⎜ 0.25 + ⎟ (1-1) ⎜ K LL AT ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Edl bnÞúkGefrKNnaEdlkat;bnßykñúgépÞmYyEm:RtRkLaEdlRTedayGgát;. L= Lo = bnÞúkGefrKNnaEdlminkat;bnßykñúgépÞmYyEm:RtRkLaEdlRTedayGgát; ¬emIltarag 1-4¦. K LL = emKuNbnÞúkGefr (live load element factor). sMrab;ssrxagkñúg K LL = 4 . AT = épÞrgsMBaF (tributary area) KitCa m 2 ¬]TahrN_sMrab;karkMNt;épÞrgsMBaFsMrab; Fñwm nigssrmanbgðajenAkñúgkfax½NÐ 2-1¦. bnÞúkGefrEdl)ankat;bnßyEdlkMNt;edaysmIkar 1-1 RtUv)ankMNt;mineGaytUcCag 50% én Lo sMrab;Ggát;EdlRTmYykMral b¤minRtUvtUcCag 40% én Lo sMrab;Ggát;EdlRTeRcInCagmYykMral. eKminGnuBaØateGayeFIVkarkat;bnßysMrab;bnÞúkFMCag 4.79kN / m 2 b¤sMrab;eRKOgbgÁúMEdleRbIsMrab;sal sarFaN³ (public assembly)/ cMNtrfynþ (garage) b¤dMbUl. ]TahrN_ 1-2 bgðajBIkarGnuvtþ rbs;smIkar 1-1. Types of Structures and Loads T.Chhay -10
  11. 11. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC ]TahrN_ 1-2³ ssrénGKarkariyal½yBIrCab; manKMlatBIKña 6.71m kñúgTisEkgKñaTaMgBIr. Rbsin ebIbnÞúkdMbUlrabesμIKW 0.96kN / m 2 cUrkMNt;bnÞúk GefrEdlkat;bnßyedayssrkNþalEdlsßitenA Can;pÞal;dI. dMeNaHRsay³ dUcbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 1-9/ ssrxagkñúgmanépÞrgsMBaF b¤épÞrgbnÞúkRbsiT§PaB (effect-tive loaded area) AT = (6.71m )(6.71m ) = 45m 2 . dUcenH ssrCan;pÞal;dIRTbnÞúkGefrdMbUl FR = (0.96kN / m 2 )(45.0m 2 ) = 43.1kN edaysarvaCabnÞúkdMbUl minEmnbnÞúkkMral dUcenHeyIgminGackat;bnßyTMhMrbs;va)aneT. sMrab;kMral TIBIr bnÞúkGefrRtUv)anykecjBItarag 1-4³ Lo = 2.4kN / m2 . edaysar K LL = 4 enaH 4 AT = 4(45.0m 2 ) = 180m 2 ehIy 180m 2 > 37.2m 2 enaHeKGackat;bnßybnÞúk GefredayeRbIsmIkar 1-1. dUcenH ⎛ 4.57 ⎞ L = 2.4⎜ 0.25 + ⎜ ⎟ = 1.42kN / m 2 ⎟ ⎝ 180 ⎠ karkat;bnßybnÞúkenATIenHKW (1.42 / 2.4)100 = 59.1% > 50% O.K. dUcenH FF = ( .42kN / m 2 )(45.0m 2 ) = 63.9kN 1 dUcenH bnÞúkGefrsrubEdlRTedayssrCan;pÞal;dIKW F = FR + FF = 43.1kN + 63.9kN = 107.0kN cMeLIy bnÞúks<an highway (highway bridge loads)³ bnÞúkGefrEdlsMxan;enAelIs<anKWbNþalBIcracrN_ ehIybnÞúkrfynþF¶n;²EdlCYbRbTHKWbNþalBIes‘rIénrfynþdwkTMnij (truck). lkçN³bec©keTs (specification) sMrab; truck load enAelIs<an highway manBN’naenAkñúg LRFD Bridge Design Specification rbs; American Association of State and Highway Transportation officials (AASTHO). sMrab;rfynþdwkTMnijEdlmanePøArfBIr (two-axle truck) bnÞúkenH RtUv)ansMKal;eday GkSr H ehIybnþedayTMgn;rbs;rfynþdwkTMnijEdlKitCaetan nigelxepSgeTotEdlbgðajBIqñaMrbs; specification. Ca]TahrN_/ H 15-44 mann½yfarfynþdwkTMnij 15etan RtUv)ankMNt;eGayeRbIenA RbePTrcnasm<½n§ nigbnÞúk T.Chhay -11
  12. 12. mhaviTüal½ysMNg;sIuvil viTüasßanCatiBhubec©keTskm<úCa kñúg specification qñaM 1944. rfynþdwkTMnijes‘rIGkSr H manTMgn;ERbRbYlBI 10etan eTA 20etan. b:uEnþs<anEdlmanTItaMgenAtampøÚv highway EdlRT RTg;nUvcrcarN_F¶n;² CaerOy²RtUv)aneKsikSa KNnasMrab;rfynþdwkTMnijEdlmanePøArfBIr nigmanrfseNþag (semi trailer) EdlmanePøArfmYy. vaRtUv)aneKkMNt;sMKal;edaybnÞúk HS. Ca]TahrN_ HS 20-44. CaTUeTA eKeRCIserIs truck load GaRs½yeTAnwgRbePTs<an TItaMg rbs;va nigRbePTcracrN_. TMhMén standard truck nigkarEbgEckbnÞúkrbs;vak¾RtUv)anBN’naenAkñúg specification pgEdr. Ca]TahrN_ bnÞúk HS 20-44 RtUv)anbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 1-10. eTaHbIeKsnμt;eGayrfynþdwkTMnijrt; elIpøÚvcracrN_ (lane) 3.05m k¾edayEt lane TaMgGs;enAelIs<anminRtUv)andak;bnÞúkeBjedIm,ITTYl bnÞúkeRKaHfñak;eT edaysarkardak;bnÞúkEbbenHBitCaminGacnwgekItman. elIsBIenH RbesIrCagkar kMNt;bnÞúkeRKaHfñak;edaykardak;Caes‘rIén concentrated truck-wheel load/ kñúgkrNIxøH specifica- tion GnuBaØateGayeRbI lane load EdlCabnÞúkBRgay bUkCa mYynwg kMlaMgcMcMnuceTal. enHmann½y faBRgaycrcarN_TMgn;mFüm ehIydak;rfynþTMgn;F¶n; enARtg;TItaMgeRKaHfñak;enAelIElVgs<an. kar BN’nalMGitmanenAkñúgCMBUk 6. bnÞúks<anrfePøIg (railroad bridge loads)³ kardak;bnÞúkenAelIs<anrfePøIgRtUv)ankMNt;enAkñúg Specification for Steel Railway Bridges Edle)aHpSayeday American Railroad Engineers Association (AREA). CaTUeTA bnÞúkGkSr E EdlbegáIteLIgdMbUgeday Theodore Cooper enAkñúg qñaM1894 RtUv)aneRbIsMrab;karsikSaKNna. Ca]TahrN_ rfePøIgTMenIbEdlmanbnÞúk 320kN (72 − K ) enAelIePøArfénm:asIunRtUv)ansMKal;CabnÞúk E − 72 . kardak;bnÞúk E − 72 TaMgGs;sMrab;karsikSaKNna RtUv)anEbgEckdUcbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 1-11. eRkaymk D.B. Steinmann )anGPivDÄkarEbgEck bnÞúkrbs; Cooper ehIy)anbegáItnUvkardak;bnÞúkes‘rI M ehIyk¾RtUv)anTTYlyksMrab;karsikSaKNna. Types of Structures and Loads T.Chhay -12
  13. 13. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC edaysarbnÞúkrfePøIgBak;B½n§nwgPaBsμúKsμajénes‘rIénbnÞúkcMcMnuc eBlxøHeKeRbIkarKNnaedayéd tarag RkaPic rYmCamYynwgExST§iBl (influence line) edIm,ITTYl)an critical load. bnÞúkTgÁic (impact loads)³ karcl½trbs;rfynþenAelIs<anGaceFVIeGayelat b¤eyal (side-sway) dUcenHvapþl;PaBTgÁiceTAelIkMral deck. PaKryekIneLIgénbnÞúkGefrEdlbNþalBIkarTgÁicRtUv)an eKehAfaemKuNTgÁic I (impact factor). CaTUeTA emKuNenHRtUv)anTTYlBIrUbmnþEdlbegáIteLIgBIkar BiesaF. Ca]TahrN_ sMrab;s<an highway, AASTHO specification TamTareGay I= 15.24 L + 38.1 b:uEnþminRtUvFMCag 0.3 Edl L CaRbEvgrbs;ElVgKitCa m EdlrgbnÞúkGefr. enAkñúgkrNI eKk¾RtUvKitBibnÞúkTgÁicenAelIeRKOgbgÁúMsMNg;pgEdr. Ca]TahrN_ ASCE 7-02 standard TamTareGaybegáInTMgn;rbs;m:asIunCeNþIreyag (elevator machinery) 100% ehIyeKRtUv begáInbnÞúkenAelI hanger TaMgGs;EdleRbIsMrab;BüÜrdMbUg b¤y: 33% . bnÞúkxül; (wind loads)³ enAeBlEdleRKOgbgÁúMbiTxÞb;pøÚvxül; (flow of wind) enaHfamBlsIueNTic rbs;xül;RtUv)anbMElgeTACafamBlbU:tg;EsülénsMBaF EdlbgáCabnÞúkxül;. T§iBlrbs;xül;enA elIeRKOgbgÁúMGaRs½ynwgdg;sIuet nigel,Ónxül;/ mMuénépÞEdlb:Hxül;bk;/ rUbrag nig PaBrwgRkajrbs; eRKOgbgÁúM nigPaBeRKIménépÞrbs;va. sMrab;karsikSaKNna eKGacKNna bnÞúkxül;edayeRbIviFIsþaTic b¤viFIDINamic. sMrab;viFIsþaTic sMBaFERbRbYlEdlbNþalBIkarbk;efrrbs;xül;RtUv)anKitCatMélRbhak; RbEhl edayel,ÓnmFümEdlmanGMeBIelIeRKOgbgÁúM. eKkMNt;sMBaF q BIfamBlsIueNTicrbs;va q = ρV 2 / 2 ¦ Edl ρ Cadg;sIuetrbs;xül; ehIy V Cael,Ónrbs;va. eyagtam ASCE 7-02 Standard smIkarenHRtUv)anEksMrYledIm,IKitBIPaBsMxan;rbs;eRKOgbgÁúM kMBs;rbs;va nigTIvalEdl GKarsßitenA. smIkarenHRtUv)ansMEdgCa³ RbePTrcnasm<½n§ nigbnÞúk T.Chhay -13
  14. 14. mhaviTüal½ysMNg;sIuvil viTüasßanCatiBhubec©keTskm<úCa q z = 0.613K z K zt K d V 2 I (N / m ) 2 (1-2) Edl V= el,Ónxül;KitCa m / s énkMsYlxül; (gust of wind) kñúgry³eBlbIvinaTI Edlvas;enARtg; kMBs;10m BIdI EdlGacekItmankñúgGMLúg50qñaM. tMélRtUv)anTTYl BIEpnTIxül;Edlbgðaj enAkñúgrUbTI 1-12. I = emKuNsMxan; (importance factor) EdlGaRs½ynwgtYnaTIrbs;GKar ]TahrN_ sMrab;GaKar EdlGaceFVIeGaymaneRKaHfñak;dl;mnusSTab dUcCabrikçaksikmμenAkñúgtMbn;Edlmingay rgxül;BüúH eKyk I = 0.87 b:uEnþsMrab;mnÞIreBTü I = 1.15 . K z = velocity pressure exposure coefficient CaGnuKmn_nwgkMBs; nigGaRs½ynwgTIval. tarag 1-5 raytMélsMrab;eRKOgbgÁúMEdlmanTItaMgenATIvalEdlman]bsKÁtictYc. K zt = emKuNEdlKitBIkMeNInel,Ónxül;EdlbNþalBIkUnPñM nigkEnøgecaT. sMrab;TIlanrabesμI K zt = 1 . K d = emKuNEdlKitBITisrbs;xül;. eKeRbIvaEtenAeBlEdleRKOgbgÁúMrgnUvbnSMbnÞúk ¬emIl kfax½NÐ 1-4¦. sMrab;xül;EdleFVIskmμPaBEtÉg K d = 1 . Types of Structures and Loads T.Chhay -14
  15. 15. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC sMBaFxül;KNnasMrab;GKarbiTCit (design wind pressure for enclosed building)³ enAeBlEdl eyIgTTYl)an q z eyIgGackMNt;sMBaFKNnaBIbBa¢IsmIkarEdlmanbgðajenAkñúg ASCE 7-02 Standard. kareRCIserIsGaRs½ynwgPaBbt;Ebn (flexibility) nigkMBs;rbs;GKar. ehIyvaGaRs½yfa etIkarsikSaKNnaKWsMrab;RbB½n§Tb;Tb;nwgkMlaMgxül; b¤sMrab;eRKOgbgÁúMrbs;sMNg;. ]TahrN_ kar sikSaKNnaEdlmanTMenarksuvtßiPaB eKkMNt;sMBaFxül;enAelI nonflexible building eTaHkMBs;Na k¾edayedayeRbIsmIkarEdlmanBIrtYEdl)anBIsMBaFxagkñúg nigsMBaF xageRkA eBalKW ( p = qGC p − qh GC pi ) (1-3) Edl q = qz sMrab;CBa¢aMgRbQmTisxül;bk;enARtg;kMBs; z BIdI ¬smIkar 1-2¦ ehIy q = qh sMrab;CBa¢aMgEdlenAeRkamxül; CBa¢aMgxag nigdMbUl Edl z = h kMBs;mFümrbs; dMbUl. G = emKuNT§iBlkMsYlxül; (wind-gust effect factor) EdlGaRs½ynwgkarRbQm. Ca]TahrN_ sMrab;eRKOgbgÁúMrwg G = 0.85 . C p = emKuNsMBaFCBa¢aMg b¤dMbUlEdlkMNt;BItarag. tMél C p sMrab;dMbUlEdlman CMral θ = 10 o RtUv)aneGayenAkñúgrUbTI 1-13. cMNaMfa enAkñúgbøg;KMehIj sMBaFERbRbYleTA tamkMBs;enARtg;RCu’EdlRbQmnwgTisxül; b:uEnþenARCugepSgeTot nigenAelIdMbUl eKsnμt; fasMBaFmantMélefr. tMélGviC¢manbBa¢ak;faeFVIGMeBIedayman TisedAecjBIépÞ. (GC pi ) = emKuNsMBaFxagkñúgEdlGaRs½ynwgRbePTrn§cMh (opening) enAkñúgGKar. sMrab; GKarEdlbiTCitTaMgGs; (GC pi ) = ±0.18 . enATIenH sBaØabgðajfa sMBaFviC¢man b¤sMBaFGviC¢man (suction) GacekItmanenAkñúgGKar. RbePTrcnasm<½n§ nigbnÞúk T.Chhay -15
  16. 16. mhaviTüal½ysMNg;sIuvil viTüasßanCatiBhubec©keTskm<úCa ]TahrN_ 1-3³ GKarbiTCitdUcbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 1-14a RtUvsMrab;ksidæan ehIysßitenACayRkug Chicago, Illinois enAelI flat terrain. enAeBlEdlxül;bk;tamTisEdl bgðajkñúgrUb cUrkMNt;sMBaFxül;KNna (design wind load) EdleFVIGMeBIenA elIdMbUl nigCBa¢aMgxagrbs;GKaredayeRbI ASCE 7-02 Specifications . dMeNaHRsay³ dMbUgeyIgkMNt;sMBaFel,Ón (velocity pressure) edayeRbIsmIkar 1-2. BIrUbTI 1-12 el,Ónxül; mUldæan (basic wind speed) KW V = 40m / s ehIyedaysareKeRbIGKarsMrab;kargarksikmμ enaHem KuNsMxan; (importance factor) KW I = 0.87 . ehIy sMrab;TIvalrabesμI (flat terrain) K zt = 1 . ehIyedaysarEteKKitEtbnÞúkxül; enaHeKyk K d = 1. dUcenH q z = 0.613K z K zt K d V 2 I = 0.612 K z (1)(1)(40 )2 (0.87 ) = 853.3K z Types of Structures and Loads T.Chhay -16
  17. 17. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC BIrUbTI 1-14a/ h' = 22.86 tan 10o = 4.03m dUcenHkMBs;mFümrbs;dMbUlKW h = 7.62 + 4.03 / 2 = 9.63m . edayeRbItMélrbs; K z enAkñúgtarag 1-5/ tMélrbs;sMBaFmanrayenAkñúgtaragenA kñúgrUbTI 1-14b. cMNaMfatMélrbs; K z RtUv)ankMNt;edayeRbIviFanéRtzansmamaRt (linear interpolation) sMrab; z = h mann½yfa (1.04 − 0.98) /(12.2 − 9.1) = (1.04 − K h ) /(12.2 − 9.63) / K h = 0.990 dUcenH qh = 853.3(0.990) = 845N / m2 . edIm,IGnuvtþsmIkar 1-3 emKuNkMsYl (gust factor) KW G = 0.85 ehIy (GC pi ) = ±0.18 . dUcenH ( p = qGC p − qh GC pi ) = q(0.85)C p − 845(± 0.18) = 0.85qC p m 152 (1) bnÞúksMBaFEdlTTYl)ansmIkarEdleRbItMél qz enAkñúgrUbTI 1-14b EdlGnuelameTAtam wind- pressure profile enAkñúgrUbTI 1-13 CBa¢aMgRbQmnwgTisxül;bk; (windwad wall): sMBaFERbRbYleTAtamkMBs; z edaysarEteKRtUv EteRbI q GC . sMrab;tMélTaMgGs;én L / B / C = 0.8 dUcenH BIsmIkar (1) z p p p = 344 N / m 0 − 4. 6 b¤ 651N / m2 2 p = 374 N / m 6.1 b¤ 680N / m 2 2 P = 400 N / m 7.6 b¤ 709N / m 2 2 CBa¢aMgEdlminRtUvTisxül;bl; (leeward wall): enATIenH L / B = 2(22.86) / 45.72 = 1 dUcenH C p = −0.5 . dUcKña q = qh ehIyBI smIkar (1) p = −517 N / m 2 b¤ − 211N / m 2 CBa¢aMgxag (side wall): sMrab;RKb;tMélTaMgGs;rbs; L / B / C p = −0.7 dUcenH edaysareyIgRtUv EteRbI q = qh enAkñúgsmIkar (1) eyIg)an RbePTrcnasm<½n§ nigbnÞúk T.Chhay -17
  18. 18. mhaviTüal½ysMNg;sIuvil viTüasßanCatiBhubec©keTskm<úCa p = −666 N / m 2 b¤ − 356 N / m 2 dMbUlEdlRbQmnwgTisxülbk; (windward roof): enATIenH h / L = 9.63 / 22.86 = 0.211 < 0.25 / dUcenH C = −0.7 ehIy q = q . dUcenH p h p = −666 N / m b¤ − 356N / m 2 2 dMbUlEdlminRtUvTisxül;bk; (leeward roof): enAkñúgkrNIenH C = −0.3 dUcenHCamYynwg p q = qh eyIg)an p = −356 N / m 2 b¤ − 65 N / m 2 bnÞúkTaMgBIsMnuMenHRtUv)anbgðanenAelIbøg;KMehIjrbs;GKar EdltMNageGaysMBaFxagkñúgviC¢man b¤ GviC¢man (suction) rUbTI 1-14 c. eRKOgbgÁúMemrbs;GKarRtUvEtTb;Tl;bnÞúkTaMgenH k¾dUcbnÞúkEdl KNnaBIxül;Edlbk;BIxagmuxGKar b¤BIxageRkayGKar. sMBaFxül;KNnasMrab;søaksBaØa (design wind pressure for signs)³ RbsinebIeRKOgbgÁúMtMNag eGaysøaksBaØaEdlmankMBs;BIdI xül;nwgbegáItkMlaMgpÁÜbEdleFVIGMeBIelIépÞrbs;søaksBaØaEdl RtUv)ankMNt;BI F = q z GC f A f (1-4) Edl qz = sMBaFel,Ón (velocity pressure) EdlkMNt;enARtg;kMBs; z énTIRbCMuTMgn;rbs; A f . G = emKuNkMsYlxül; (wind-gust coefficient factor) EdlkMNt;dUcelIkmun. C f = emKuNkMlaMgEdlGaRs½ynwgpleFobénTMhMFM M elITMhMtUc N rbs;søaksBaØa. tMélRtUv)anbgðajenAkñúgtarag 1-6. A f = RkLaépÞrbs;søaksBaØaEdlRbQmnwgxül;. Types of Structures and Loads T.Chhay -18
  19. 19. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC bnÞúkRBil (snow load) nigbnÞúkrBa¢ÜydI (earthquake load): edaysarRbeTseyIgminrgnUv)atuPUt FmμCatiTaMgBIrenH bnÞúkTaMgBIrenHminRtUv)anENnaMenATIenHeT. sMBaFdI nigsMBaFGIuRdUsþaTic (design wind pressure for signs)³ enAEdleKeRbIeRKOgbgÁúMedIm,ITb;Tik Tb;dI b¤Tb;sMPar³eRKaH sMBaFEdlbegáItedaybnÞúkTaMgenHkøayCalkçxNÐd¾sMxan;kñúgkarsikSaKNna. eRKOgbgÁúMRbePTenHrYmman GagsþúkTwk TMnb;Twk k)a:l; nigCBa¢aMgTb;dI. eKGnuvtþc,ab;GIuRdUsþaTic nig emkanicdI edIm,IkMNt;GaMgtg;sIuetbnÞúkenAelIeRKOgbgÁúM. bnÞúkFmμCatiepSgeTot (other natural loads): eKmanbnÞúkGefrepSgeTotCaeRcInEdleKRtUvKitBicar- Na kñúgkarsikSaKNnaeRKOgbgÁúMEdlGaRs½yeTAnwgTItaMg nigbMerIbMras;rbs;va. bnÞúkTaMgenHrYmman T§iBlénkarpÞúH bMErbMrYlsItuNðPaB nigsMrutDIepr:g;Esülrbs;RKwH. !>$> karsikSaKNnaeRKOgbgÁúM (Structural Design) RKb;eBlEdleKeFVIkarsikSaKNnaeRKOgbgÁúM eKcaM)ac;RtUvKitBicarNaBIPaBminR)akdRbCarbs; sMPar³ nigbnÞúk. PaBminCak;lak;rbs;sMPar³ekIteLIgbNþalmkBIPaBERbRbYlenAkñúglkçN³rbs; sMPar³ kugRtaMgEdlenAesssl;enAkñúgsMPar³ PaBxusKñaénTMhMEdlplitBIeragcRk bnÞúkeRKaHfñak; EdlbNþalBIkarrMj½r b¤TgÁic nigkarBukpuy b¤ERcHsIusMPar³. viFIkarsikSaKNnakugRtaMgGnuBaØat (allowable-stress design method) Kitral;ktþaEdlerobrab;xagelITaMgGs;enHkñúgemKuNsuvtßiPaBEt mYysMrab;karKitBIPaBminCak;lak;rbs;sMPar³. RbePTénbnÞúkCaeRcInEdl)anerobrab;xagelIGacman GMeBImkelIeRKOgbgÁúMkñúgeBlEtmYy b:uEnþeKminR)akdfatMélGtibrmaénbnÞúkTaMgenHekItmankñúgeBlEt mYyenaHeT. enAkñúgkarsikSaKNnakugRtaMgeFVIkar (working-stress design) kugRtaMgeGLasÞicenAkñúg sMPar³minRtUvFMCagkugRtaMgGnuBaØatieT ehIyxageRkamenHCabnSMbnÞúkxøHEdlkMNt;eday ASCE 7-02 standard. RbePTrcnasm<½n§ nigbnÞúk T.Chhay -19
  20. 20. mhaviTüal½ysMNg;sIuvil viTüasßanCatiBhubec©keTskm<úCa bnÞúkefr 0.6 ¬bnÞúkefr¦ + bnÞúkxül; 0.6 ¬bnÞúkefr¦ + 0.7 ¬bnÞúkrBa¢ÜydI¦ Ca]TahrN_ FmμtaTaMgbnÞúkxül; nigbnÞúkrBa¢ÜydImingaynwgekItmanmkelIeRKOgbgÁúMkñúgeBl dMNalKñaeT ehIyenAeBleKbnSMbnÞúkxøHcUlKña eKGackat;bnßyvaedayemKuNkat;bnßybnÞúk. edaysareKGacBicarNaPaBminCak;lak;edayeRbIRTwsþIRbU)ab‘IlIet eK)anKitPaBminCak;lak; rbs;sMPar³ nigPaBminCak;lak;rbs;bnÞúkdac;edayELkBIKña. viFIenHRtUv)aneKeGayeQμaHfaviFIKNna ersIusþg; (strength design) b¤ LRFD (load and resistance factor design). CaBiess karsikSaKNna ersIusþg;cugeRkay (ultimate strength design) KWQrelIkarsikSaKNna ultimate strength rbs;mux kat;eRKaHfñak;enAkñúgebtugGarem: ehIyviFIsikSaKNna)aøsÞic (plastic design method) RtUv)aneRbI sMrab;eRKag nigGgát;EdleFVIBIEdk. edIm,IKitBIPaBminCak;lak;rbs;bnÞúk viFIenHeRbIemKuNbnÞúkEdl GnuvtþeTAelI bnÞúk b¤karbnSMbnÞúk. eyagtam ASCE 7-02 standard emKuNbnÞúk nigkarbnSMbnÞúkxøHKW³ 1.4 ¬bnÞúkefr¦ 1.2 ¬bnÞúkefr¦+ 0.6 ¬bnÞúkGefr¦ + 0.5 ¬bnÞúkRBil¦ 1.2 ¬bnÞúkefr¦+ 1.5 ¬bnÞúkrBa¢ÜydI¦ + 0.5 ¬bnÞúkGefr¦ kñúgkrNITaMgenH eKykbnSMbnÞúkNaEdleFVIeGaymantMélGtibrma eTaHbIvaminEmnCabnÞúk BitR)akdEdlmanGMeBIelIeRKOgbgÁúMk¾eday. Types of Structures and Loads T.Chhay -20
  21. 21. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC cMeNaT !>!> kMralrbs;XøaMgEdlpÞúkTMnijRsal²RtUv)an !>$> kMralEdlmanRbehagxagkñúgmYlRtUv)aneFVI eFIVeLIgedayebtugkMras; 150mm . RbsinebIkM- BIebtugsuT§. kMNt;TMgn;rbs;kMralenH. Rbehag ralmanbeNþay 3m nigTTwwg 2.4m cUrkMNt;kM- nImYy²manGgát;p©it 100mm laMgpÁÜbEdlbgáeLIgedaybnÞúkefr nigEdlbgá eLIgedaybnÞúkGefr. !>@> CBa¢aMgGKarmYyeFVIBIdæTMhM 200mm . enA épÞmçagrbs;CBa¢aMgeFVIBIr)areQITMhM 50mm × 100mm nigmanbUkEtelIépÞCBa¢aMgmçag. Rbsin !>%> kMralxNÐénfñak;eronmYyeFIVBIebtugsuT§TMgn; ebICBa¢aMgenHmankMBs; 3m cUrkMNt;bnÞúkkñúgmYy RsalEdlmankMras;125mm . RbsinebIkMralenH ÉktþaRbEvgrbs;CBa¢aMg. manbeNþay 8m nigTTwg 6m cUrkMNt;kMlaMgpÁÜb EdlbgáeLIgedaybnÞúkefr nigbnÞúkGefr. !>^> FñwmGkSr T cak;Rsab;manmuxkat;dUcbgðaj kñúgrUb. kMNt;TMgn;rbs;vakñúgmYyÉktþa RbsinebI vaRtUv)anplitBIebtugGarem: nigmaneRbIEdk BRgwgTMhM 20mm . !>#> kMralCan;TIBIréneragcRkTMgn;RsalmYy RtUv )ansagsg;BIebtugGarem:kMras;100mm nigbEnßm BIelIeday cinder fill kMras; 75mm dUcbgðaj kñúgrUb. RbsinebIBidansMrab;Can;TImYypSMBI metal lath nigbnÞHmñagsila cUrkMNt;bnÞúkefrkñúgmYy !>&> kMralCan;TIBIrbs;eragcRkTMgn;RsalmYy ÉktþaépÞrbs;kMral. RtUv)ansagsg;BIkMralebtugkMras; 125mm nig manbEnßm cider fill dUcbgðajkñúgrUb. RbsinebI cMeNaT T.Chhay -21
  22. 22. mhaviTüal½ysMNg;sIuvil viTüasßanCatiBhubec©keTskm<úCa BidansMrab;Can;TImYypSMBI metal lath nigbnÞHmñag sila cUrkMNt;bnÞúkefrkñúgmYyÉktþaépÞrbs;kMral. !>*> FñwmGkSa T EdleRbIsMrab;XøaMgpÞúkTMnijF¶n;² !>!0> salaEdlmankMBs;BIrCan;mYymanssr RtUv)ansagsg;BIebtugEdlmanTMgn;maD EdlmanKMlatBIKña 4.5m kñúgTisEkgTaMgBIr. 19.6kN / m3 . kMNt;bnÞúkefrkñúgmYyÉktþaRbEvg RbsinebIeK)a:n;RbmaNfakMraldMbUlRTbnÞúk rbs;FñwmedayminKitTMgn;rbs;EdkBRgwg nigbnÞúk 1kN / m 2 cUrkMNt;bnÞúkGefrEdlkat;bnßyEdl GefrEdlmanGMeBIenABIxagelIFñwmkñúgmYyÉktþa RtUv)anRTedayssrkNþalenA (a) Can;pÞal;dI RbEvg. nig (b) enACan;TIBIr. !>!!> GKarkariyal½ykMBs;bYnCan;mYymanssr EdlmanKMlat 9m BIKñatamTisEkgTaMgBIr. RbsinebIeKKitfadMbUlRTbnÞúk 1.5kN / m2 cUr kMNt;bnÞúkGefrEdlkat;bnßyEdlRTedayssr xagkñúgenACan;pÞal;dI. !>!@> sNæaKarkMBs;bICan;mYymanssrEdlman !>(> FñwmRTdMbUlEdleFVIBI asphalt shingle nigkþa KMlat 6m BIKñatamTisEkgTaMgBIr. RbsinebIeK bnÞHeQI (wood sheathing board). RbsinebI KitfadMbUlRTbnÞúk 1.5kN / m2 cUrkMNt;bnÞúk bnÞHkþamankMras; 38mm nigmanTMgn;maD GefrEdl kat;bnßyEdlRTedayssrxagkñúgenA 7.86kN / m ehIydMbUlmanmMu 30 cUrkMNt; 2 o (a) Can;pÞal;dI nig (b) enACan;TIBIr. bnÞúkefrrbs;dMbUlkñúgmYyÉktþaépÞ EdlRtUv)an RTkñúgTis x nigkñúgTis y rbs;édrENg (purlin). !>!#> kMNt;kMlaMgpÁÜbEdlmanGMeBIenAelIépÞén søaksBaØaEdlRTeday truss EdlsßitenAEk,r Los Angeles, California enAelITIvalrabesμI. Problems T.Chhay -22
  23. 23. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC søaksBaØaenHmanTTwg 6m nigkMBs; 3m dUcbgðaj. eRbIemKuNsMxan; I = 0.87 . !>!^> xül;bk;eTAelIRCugbiTCitrbs;ksidæanEdl manTItaMgenAelITIvalrabesμIén Oklahoma. kMNt;sMBaFxageRkAEdlmanGMeBIelICBa¢aMgTaMg bYn. ehIykMNt;sMBaFxagkñúgEdlmanGMeBIelI !>!$> søaksBaØamYysßitenATIvalrabesμIén CBa¢aMg. edayeRbI linear interpolation kMNt; qh nig C p . ¬rUbxagelI¦ Minnesota. cUrkMNt;kMlaMgpÁÜbrbs;xül;Edl manGMeBIelIépÞrbs;va. eRbIemKuNsMxan; I = 0.87 . !>!%> xül;bk;eTAelIRCugbiTCitrbs;ksidæanEdl manTItaMgenAelITIvalrabesμIén Oklahoma. kMNt;sMBaFxageRkAEdlmanGMeBIelIdMbUl. ehIykMNt;sMBaFxagkñúgEdlmanGMeBIelIdMbUl. edayeRbI linear interpolation kMNt; qh nig C p enAkñúgrUbTI 1-13. cMeNaT T.Chhay -23

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