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ODYSSEY

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  • Ajax was not allowed by Agamemnon and Menelaus to be buried but Odysseus argued in favor of Ajax. His bravery was given due respect. The armour? 1. burried with Ajax. 2. given to Neoptlemus
  • Greek Seer Calchas told the warriors that the Fall of Troy will not happen until: 1. Neoptolemus (son of Achilles ) joins the war; 2. The bow and arrow of Hercules must be brought to Troy * the bow and arrow is with Philoctetes who was left in an island due to a snake bite *Philoctetes almost killed Odysseus, Agamemnon, Meneleus but Hercules appeared and assured him that he will be healed. ( Machaon cured him ) *Philoctetes hurt Paris. *Paris decided to go back to Oenone. Oenone refused but regretted her decision in the end. She hanged herself.
  • The Greeks attacked TROY. Antenor was saved by Menelaus by hanging a panther’s head outside his door. He was the one who advised Priam to return Helen to Sparta. Antenor is the father of Helicaon, the husband of Laodice –Priam’s most beautiful daughter. It was said that she was swallowed by earth so that no Greek could get her Astyanax ( Hector’s son ) was flung to his death by Odysseus at the top of Troy’s wall. Achilles’s ghost appeared asking for Polyxena to be sacrificed.Polyxena willingly allowed Neoptolemus to cut her throat upon Achilles’ grave. She chose death over slavery.
  • Transcript

    • 1. ni HOMER
    • 2.
    • 3.
      • Digmaang Trojan
      • Part 4: The Close of the War
      • Chapter 1 - The Queen of the Amazons
      • Chapter 2 - The Last Fight of Achilles
      • Chapter 3 - The Armor of Achilles
      • Chapter 4 - Neoptolemus
      • Chapter 5 - The Bow of Heracles
      • Chapter 6 - Oenone
      • Chapter 7 - The Taking of the Palladium
    • 4.
      • Ang mga Trojans ay tumanggap ng maraming tulong kabilang ang galing sa mga Amazons, Ethiopians, Assyrians
      • Isa sa mga pangunahing tumulong ay si Queen Pethesilea , ang Reyna ng mga Amazons( anak ni Ares ) , kasama ang kanyang hukbo ng mga kababaihang sundalo. Ngunit siya ay napatay ni Achilles. Matapos ay pinagsisihan ni Achilles ang kanyang ginawa. Naisip niyang pwede niya palang mahalin ang reyna.
    • 5.
      • Samantala, ang hari ng mga Ethiopians na si Memnon ay napatay ang anak ni Nestor na si Antilochus.
      • Ikinalungkot ni Nestor ang nangyari at nakiusap kay Achilles na ipaghiganti siya. Pinatay ni Achilles si Memnon.
      • Nasa ganitong sitwasyon si Achilles sa may Scaen gate nang tumama ang arrow mula kay Paris (sa tulong ni archer God Apollo) na tumama sa kanyang sakong o heel.
    • 6.
      • ikalawang bersyon : Habang lumalaban ay nakita raw ni Achilles si Polyxena ( anak ni Priam ) at nabighani ito sa kanyang angking ganda.At dito raw nakakita ng pagkakataon si Paris upang panain si Achilles na tumama nga sa kanang heel o sakong.
    • 7.
      • Iniutos ni Thetis sa mga sundalong Griyego na sunugin ang katawan ni Achilles at ipamahagi ang kanyang mga kagamitan bilang papremyo sa gaganaping funeral games.
      • Ibinigay ng mga Griyego ang baluti ni Achilles kay Odysseus. Nagalit si Ajax sapagkat gusto niya ring mapasakanya ang baluti, kung kaya plinano niyang patayin sina Odysseus at Agammenon.
      • Ganunpaman,hindi ito pinahintulutan ni Athena, ginawa niyang baliw si Ajax at inatake ang mga tupa at kambing.Nang bumalik siya sa kanyang katinuan ay nahiya siya sa kanyang mga ginawa at pinatay niya ang kanyang sarili.
    • 8.
      • Muling nagbigay ng propesiya si Calchas : kinakailangan silang pangunahan ni Neoptolemus (ang anak ni Achilles) upang magwagi sila sa Digmang Trojan. At sa kabila ng pagsusumamo ng kanyang inang si Deidameia na huwag sumama ay wala siyang nagawa.
    • 9.
      • Bukod kay Neoptolemus, sinabi rin ni Calchas na upang manalo ay kailangan nila ang pana ni Herackles.
      • Ang pana ay nasa pag-iingat ni Philoctetes na inabandona ni Odysseus sa isang isla.
    • 10.
      • Samantala, si Paris ay naging sugatan sa labanan kung kaya nagpunta siya sa Mt. Ida upang magpagamot kay Oenone. Ngunit galit pa rin Oenone sa ginawa ni Paris sa kanyang pang-iiwan
    • 11.
      • Samantala, isa pang propesiya (Helenus) ang nagsasabi na matatalo lamang ang Troy kung matutumba o makukuha ang Palladium. Sinasabing si Helen pa nga daw mismo ang tumulong kay Odysseus, na nagpanggap bilang isang pulubi, maisagawa ang misyon nang pagsira dito.
    • 12.
      • Digmaang Trojan
      • Part 5 : The Fall of Troy
      • Chapter 1 - The Trojan Horse
      • Chapter 2 - The Sack of Troy
      • Chapter 3 - The Women
    • 13.
      • Gumawa ang mga Griyego ng kanilang “wooden horse’ kung saan ay nakapaloob dito ang hukbo ng mga sundalong sasalakay sa Troy.
      • Iniwan nila si Sinon .
      • Samantala, binalaan naman ni Laocoon ang mga Trojans hinggil sa kabayo.
      • “ beware of greeks bearing gifts”
    • 14.
      • At nang gabi na ay sumenyas na si Sinon upang salakayin ang Troy.
      • Sinubukan nina Priam at Hecuba na nagtago sa mga altar ngunit napatay pa rin si Priam.
      • Si Aeneas naman ay nakatakas at naging tagapagtaguyod ng Rome.
    • 15.
      • Pinaghatian ng mga Griyego ang mga kababaihan ng Troy:
      • 1. ginawang mga “babae”
      • 2. ginawang alipin
      • Si Andromache ay kinuha ni Neoptolemus
      • Si Hecuba ay kinuha ni Odysseus na maging alipin, ngunit siya ay biglang naging anyong aso.
      • Ginahasa ni lesser Ajax si Cassandra sa harapan ng rebulto ni Athena. Kinuha rin siya ni Agamemnon
    • 16.
      • Digmaang Trojan
      • Part 6 : The Return of the Heroes
      • Chapter 1 - Agamemnon's Death
      • Chapter 2 - The Adventures of Menelaus
      • Chapter 3 - Nestor at Home
      • Chapter 4 - In the House of the Swineherd
      • Chapter 5 - The Bow Is Bent
    • 17.
      • Sa pagbabalik ni Agamemnon sa Mycenae, pinaslang siya ni Clytemnestra na noong mga panahong iyon ay nagdadalamhati pa rin sa kamatayan ni Iphigenia at mayroon naring mangingibig , si Aegisthus (pinsan ni Agamemnon)
    • 18.
      • At muling naglakbay si Menelaus kasama si Helen pabalik sa Sparta
    • 19.
      • At si Odysseus , gaya nang nalalaman ng marami ay naglakbay ng sampung taon upang makabalik sa Ithaca. .. kanyang kaharian at tahanan.
    • 20. FULL TITLE     The  Odyssey AUTHOR  ·   Homer TYPE OF WORK   ·  Poem GENRE  ·   Epic LANGUAGE  ·   Ancient Greek (Ionic dialect mixed with archaic forms and other dialects) TIME AND PLACE WRITTEN  ·  Unknown, but probably mainland Greece, approximately 700 B.C.E. DATE OF FIRST PUBLICATION  ·  Unknown
    • 21. NARRATOR  ·  The poet, who invokes the assistance of the Muse; Odysseus narrates Books 9–12. POINT OF VIEW  ·  The narrator speaks in the third person and is omniscient. He frequently offers insight into the thoughts and feelings of even minor characters, gods and mortals alike; Odysseus narrates Books 9–12 in the first person. Odysseus freely gives inferences about the thoughts and feelings of other characters. TONE  ·  Celebratory and nostalgic; the poet views the times in which the action is set as glorious and larger than life
    • 22. TENSE  ·   Past; large portions of the poem (especially Books 9–12) are narrated in flashbacks. SETTING (TIME)  · Bronze Age (approximately twelfth century B.C.E.); the Odyssey  begins where the  Iliad  ends and covers the ten years after the fall of Troy. SETTING (PLACE)  ·  Odysseus’s wanderings cover the Aegean and surrounding seas and eventually end in Ithaca, in northwestern Greece; Telemachus travels from Ithaca to southern Greece.
    • 23. PROTAGONIST   ·  Odysseus MAJOR CONFLICT  ·  Odysseus must return home and vanquish the suitors who threaten his estate; Telemachus must mature and secure his own reputation in Greek society. RISING ACTION  ·  The return of Odysseus to Ithaca; the return of Telemachus to Ithaca; their entrance into the palace; the abuse Odysseus receives; the various omens; the hiding of the arms and locking of the palace doors; Penelope’s challenge to the suitors; the stringing of the bow CLIMAX  ·  The beginning of Book 22, when the beggar in the palace reveals his true identity as Odysseus
    • 24. FALLING ACTION  ·  Odysseus and Telemachus fight and kill the suitors; they put to death the suitors’ allies among the palace servants.
    • 25. THE TROJAN WAR IS OVER AND ODYSSEUS HEADS HOME FOR ITHACA .
    • 26. From Troy the wind bore me and brought me to the Cicones, to Ismarus. There I sacked the city and slew the men; and from the city we took their wives and great store of treasure, and divided them among us..."
    • 27. And later he sailed to the land of the CYCLOPS
    • 28. Polyphemus What are you going to do with that hot stick?
    • 29. NOBODY Hurts Me!
    • 30. So he sailed to Aeolus DON’T OPEN THE BAG!
    • 31.
    • 32. Away from Aeolus, Odysseus and his fleet come to a strange place called the Land of the Laestrygonians . The people here are cannibals and they eat some of Odysseus' men.
    • 33. “ YOUR MEN MAKE FINE BEASTS” When Odysseus arrived on Aeaea, Circe touched his comrades with a wand and turned them into wolves, swine, asses and lion.
    • 34. You’ve been here a year, GO TO HADES
    • 35.  
    • 36. Odysseus at Hades I’ll make him tell me what I want to know Isn’t he already dead? In Hades he met the souls of Achilles, Agamemnon, and others.
    • 37. Having left Circe Odysseus sailed past the SIRENS
    • 38. CATCHY TUNE !
    • 39. WHY DO I HAVE WAX IN MY EARS AND WHY DOES THE BOSS HAVE THAT LOOK IN HIS EYE?
    • 40. JUST A LITTLE BIT CLOSER! In sailing past the cliff of Scylla, she snatched some of his comrades, and gobbled them up
    • 41.  
    • 42. You have to stay here for 7 years! OK, CALYPSO Odysseus is the only survivor of a storm, and finally floats up on the island of Ogygia
    • 43. ‘ ” Feast of the Nymph Calypso for Odysseus" by Jan Brueghel) ca. 1616
    • 44. WELCOME, STRANGER . He was washed up naked on the shore of the Phaeacians, where Nausicaa, the daughter of King Alcinous, was washing the clothes.
    • 45. YOU’LL JUST HAVE TO WAIT UNTIL I FINISH WEAVING THIS.
    • 46. The Odyssey Symbolism, Imagery & Allegory Sometimes, there’s more to Lit than meets the eye.
    • 47. Ang dagat/karagatan Maraming oras ang ginugol ni Odysseus sa karagatan/dagat kung kaya masasabi nating maramang oras ang kinain o inubos ng dagat kay Odysseus Ipinakita lamang dito kung paanong ang buhat at ang karagatan ay iisa: puno ng hirap at sakripisyo ;maaari ring magbigay ng mga biyaya gaya ng sea breezes o mga hadlang gaya ng bagyo o nina Skylla and Charybdis, at mga islang mapanlinlang. At dahil ito rin ay kaharian ni Poseidon, isa rin itong manipestasyon kung gaano kataas at mas makapangyarihan ang Diyos at kalikasan kaysa tao.
    • 48. Laertes’s Shroud Ito ay simbolo ng pagiging mautak at mapanlinlang mga babae.Dahil si Penelope ay isang babae, hindi niya kayang tanggihan o iwasan ang kanyang mga manliligaw. At dahil hindi niya sila maaaring maipagtabuyan, ang tangi niyang magagawa ay ibitin ang araw ng kanyangpagpili sa hahalili kay Odysseus. Kung kaya, sinabi niyang sa araw na matapos niyang gawin ang “shroud” ay doon siya mamimili. Buong araw siyang naghahabi ngunit pagdating gabi, ito ay kanyang sinisira at magsisimula uli kinabukasan. Sinisimbolo rin nito ang kahinaan at kawalan na nang magagawa ni Penelope.
    • 49. Odysseus’s Bow Ito ay simbolo ng lakas at kapangyarihan.Sinuman ang makapagtali at magamit ito ng kung paano ito nagagamit ni Odysseus ay karapat-dapat lamang humalili at maupo bilang bagong hari ng Ithaca, asawa ni Penelope at ama ni Telemachus. Ang “physical strength “ ay napakahalaga para sa mga Griyego, hindi lamang sa digmaan,ito kasi ay kaakibat ng “political strength”.
    • 50. Argos Ito ay sumisimbolo sa walang patid na katapatan. Tuta pa lamang si Argos nang huli niyang makita si Odysseus. Nang muling magbalik si Odysseus, masaya nang namatay si Argos.
    • 51. Disguises and Dreams Ito ay senyales ng divine intervention, manipulation, at sanction . Ang mga panaginip ay direktang resulta ng divine power.
    • 52. Food and Banqueting Sa kulturang Griyego ay napakahalaga ng hospitality kung kaya ang mga feasting at festivities ay sukatan kung gaano kahusay tumanggap at umestima ng bisita ang isang tao o lugar. “ Halimbawa: Circe seems hospitable because she serves good food, but proves to be a witch by poisoning that very food with a drug that turns the diners into animals. . The most obvious example of a misused banquet is the suitors’ pillaging of Odysseus’s provisions. This shows that the supposedly "noble" men do not have the human qualities of restraint and propriety; they are therefore somewhat less than human and worthy of death (or so the Odyssey argues). On the other hand, Nestor, Menelaos, and the Phaiakian s serve proper banquets – full of good food, wine, and singing. They are considered not only good hosts, but great human beings
    • 53. Odysseus and Penelope’s Bed Ang kama ay naka-ukit / nakakabit sa ugat ng isang buhay na olive tree. Dahil dito, hindi ito matitinag o magagalaw o mapapalitan. Ganito raw ang pag-ibig nina Penelope at Odysseus sa isa’t isa.
    • 54. The Odyssey
      • MOTIF
      • Motifs are recurring structures, contrasts, and literary devices that can help to develop and inform the text’s major themes.
    • 55. The Odyssey
      • STORYTELLING
      • Karamihan ng pangyayari ay naikwento o nalaman sa pamamagitan ng pagkukwneto mula sa mga tauhan.
      • Sina Menelaus at Nestor ay naikwneto kay Telemachus ang pangyayari sa Troy at paglalakbay mula sa Troy. Maging si Helen ay nagdagdag ng kanyang mga sariling kwento kung gaano kagaling si Odysseus sa mga taktika sa digmaan.
      • Si Demodocus, iyong Phaeacian bard at jester, ay nagbanggit din ng karansan ng mga bayaning Griyego sa Digmanng Trojan. Sa underworld, ikinuwento ni Agamemnon ang kanyang kamatayan. Sinasabing nagamit ang parteng ito kung paano nais ipakita sa mga Griyego kung gaano naging makulay ang kanilang kasasyayan at mga epiko.
    • 56. The Odyssey
      • Disguises
      • Mahilig magpanggap at magbalat-kayo ang mga diyos sa mitolohiyang Griyego.Ipanakita ito sa ilang ulit na pagpapalit-anyo ni Athena at nang mga kayang gawin ni Circe.
    • 57. The Odyssey
      • Ganundin si Odysseus : NOBODY at ang “BEGGAR ; ito ang nagbigay daan upang makilala kung sinu-sino talaga ang matapat at tunay na nagmahal kay Odysseus – gaya nina Eurycleia, Penelope, at si Argos, na pawang nakilala ang kanilang hari bago pa man ito magsabi kung SINO talaga siya.
    • 58. The Odyssey
      • Seductresses
      • Mahalaga ang papel ng kababaihan sa Odyssey : ang maging mga seductress. Sina Circe at Calypso at pinakahalimbawa nito kung saan ay naging hadlang ang kanilang pagkagusto kay Odysseus sa kanyang paglalakbay at pagbabalik. Maging si Penelope, kahit pa hindi siya nagpapakita nang kahit na anupamang amor sa mga manliligaw ay mas lalo siyang ginugustong maangkin ng mga ito.
    • 59. THEMES
    • 60. The Odyssey Theme of Fate and Free Will Ang tao ay maaaring may nakatakda ng kapalaran, ngunit ito ay nababago dahil sa mga personal na kagustuhan .
    • 61. The Odyssey Theme of Piety Piety : ipanakita sa pagsunod sa kagustuhan ng mga diyos/diyosa,pagsasakripisyo, pag-aalay , pagkakaroon ng mga pista para sa kanila at pagdarasal sa kanila. Kabilang din dito ang paggalang sa mga patay at sa kamatayan.
    • 62. The Odyssey Theme of Pride Kung mayroon mang pangit kay Odysseus: pride. Hindi niya kayang manahimik sa bawat pagkatalo at pagkapanalo. Ipinakita rito kung paano bilang mga tao ay nararapat tayong maging mapagkumbaba upang hindi magalit ang mga diyos/diyosa.
    • 63. The Odyssey Theme of Lies and Deceit Disguise: ang pangunahing sandata ng mga diyos/diyosa. Ito rin ay isa sa mga lakas ni Odysseus - Trojan horse , clever blinding of the Cyclops, beggar.
    • 64. The Odyssey Theme of Tradition and Custom In an accurate reflection of ancient Greek culture, rules of hospitality are among the most revered social and religious laws in the Odyssey . Ipinakita, kung paanong ang bisita ay nararapat na maghandog ng regalo sa kanilang “host” , tratuhin nang maayos ang mga taong-bahay at ang bahay mismo at magpakita ang pasasalamat sa mabuting pagtanggap sa kanila. Ang may-ari naman ay inaasahang magpakain, maghandog ng matutuluyan at pangagastos lalo pa kung nangangailangan ito.
    • 65. The Odyssey Theme of Suffering Sa mitolohiyang Griyego, kapag ikaw ay mortal,ikaw talaga ay magdurusa (loneliness, isolation, and the emotional anguish). Ito daw ang sumapa ng mortalidad: There is no escape from pain. Lagi itong ipinaalala sa Odyssey at ang pagtitiis ay ang tanging solusyon.
    • 66. The Odyssey Theme of Loyalty Loyalty is tricky in the Odyssey .
    • 67. The Odyssey Theme of Perseverance 20 taong pagtiiis : determinasyon at tiyaga ang naging baon ni Odysseus sa kanyang pagbabalik sa Ithaca.
    • 68. The Odyssey Theme of Family The Greek concept of the family reflected in the Odyssey includes not only immediate family but ancestors as well.
    • 69. The Odyssey Theme of Homecoming There is a strong theme of homecoming ( nostos ) in the Odyssey , : nagwakas at natapos ang paglalakbay ni Odyyseus at ang Trojan War sa pagbabalik ni Odysseus sa Ithaca.
    • 70. Ito ay nagsimula sa medias res ( meaning that the plot begins in the middle of the overall story, and that prior events are described through flashbacks or storytelling.)  
    • 71. Character List
    • 72. Gods and Goddesses Apollo Son of Zeus and Leto; favors the Trojans. Ares [Mars] Son of Zeus; favors the Trojans. Athena [Minerva] Daughter of Zeus; favors Greeks. Daughter of Zeus and goddess of wisdom, purposeful battle, and the womanly arts. Athena assists Odysseus and Telemachus with divine powers throughout the epic, and she speaks up for them in the councils of the gods on Mount Olympus. She often appears in disguise as Mentor, an old friend of Odysseus. Hades Son of Cronus; ruler of the underworld of the dead. Hephaestus [Vulcan] Son of Zeus and Hera; favors the Greeks. Hermes [Mercury] Messenger; favors the Trojans
    • 73. Persephone [Proserpina] Daughter of Demeter [Ceres] and queen of the underworld. Poseidon [Neptune] Son of Cronus; king of the sea; favors the Greeks. God of the sea. As the suitors are Odysseus’s mortal antagonists, Poseidon is his divine antagonist. He despises Odysseus for blinding his son, the Cyclops Polyphemus, and constantly hampers his journey home. Ironically, Poseidon is the patron of the seafaring Phaeacians, who ultimately help to return Odysseus to Ithaca. Zeus [Jupiter, Jove] Son of Cronus [Saturn]; king of the gods and ruler of the sky; arbiter of human destiny. King of gods and men, who mediates the disputes of the gods on Mount Olympus. Zeus is occasionally depicted as weighing men’s fates in his scales. He sometimes helps Odysseus or permits Athena to do the same.
    • 74. Lesser Divinities Aeolus (EE-oh-luss) Son of Hippotas; keeper of the winds. Calypso Daughter of Atlas; island nymph on Ogygia. The beautiful nymph who falls in love with Odysseus when he lands on her island-home of Ogygia. Calypso holds him prisoner there for seven years until Hermes, the messenger god, persuades her to let him go. Circe (SIR-see) Daughter of the Sun; goddes of the wild; enchantress. The beautiful witch-goddess who transforms Odysseus’s crew into swine when he lands on her island. With Hermes’ help, Odysseus resists Circe’s powers and then becomes her lover, living in luxury at her side for a year.
    • 75. Lesser Divinities Eidothea: Daughter of Proteus, sea-nymph. Proteus: Old man of the sea, one of the gods deposed by Zeus .
    • 76. The Odyssey
      • Family and Household of Odysseus
      • Dolius
      • Aged gardener and field worker.
      • Elpenor
      • Youngest sailor with Odysseus.
      • Eumaeus (yoo-MEE-us)
      • Son of Ctesius; keeper of Odysseus’ swine;the loyal shepherd who, along with the cowherd Philoetius, helps Odysseus reclaim his throne after his return to Ithaca. Even though he does not know that the vagabond who appears at his hut is Odysseus, Eumaeus gives the man food and shelter.
      • Euryclea ( yoo-rih-KLY-uh)
      • Daughter of Ops; old nurse of Odysseus and Telemachus; The aged and loyal servant who nursed Odysseus and Telemachus when they were babies. Eurycleia is well informed about palace intrigues and serves as confidante to her masters. She keeps Telemachus’s journey secret from Penelope, and she later keeps Odysseus’s identity a secret after she recognizes a scar on his leg.
    • 77. The Odyssey
      • Eurylochus
      • Husband of Odysseus’ sister; sailor with Odysseus.
      • Eurynome
      • Head maid and housekeeper.
      • Laertes
      • Son of Arceisius; aged father of Odysseus resides on a farm in Ithaca. In despair and physical decline, Laertes regains his spirit when Odysseus returns and eventually kills Antinous’s father.
      • Melantho
      • Daughter of Dolius; favored maid of Penelope; sister of Melanthius and maidservant in Odysseus’s palace. Like her brother, Melantho abuses the beggar in the palace, not knowing that the man is Odysseus. She is having an affair with Eurymachus .
    • 78. The Odyssey
      • Menlanthris/Melathius
      • Son of Dolius; keeper of the goats; The brother of Melantho. Melanthius is a treacherous and opportunistic goatherd who supports the suitors, especially Eurymachus, and abuses the beggar who appears in Odysseus’s palace, not realizing that the man is Odysseus himself.
      • Mentor:
      • Friend and steward of Odysseus.
      • Odysseus [Ulysses]
      • Son of Laertes; king of Ithaca. The protagonist of the Odyssey. Odysseus fought among the other Greek heroes at Troy and now struggles to return to his kingdom in Ithaca. Odysseus is the husband of Queen Penelope and the father of Prince Telemachus. Though a strong and courageous warrior, he is most renowned for his cunning. He is a favorite of the goddess Athena, who often sends him divine aid, but a bitter enemy of Poseidon, who frustrates his journey at every turn.
    • 79. The Odyssey
      • Philoetius:
      • Keeper of the cattle.
      • Telemachus:
      • Son of Odysseus and Penelope; Odysseus’s son. An infant when Odysseus left for Troy, Telemachus is about twenty at the beginning of the story. He is a natural obstacle to the suitors desperately courting his mother, but despite his courage and good heart, he initially lacks the poise and confidence to oppose them. His maturation, especially during his trip to Pylos and Sparta in Books 3 and 4, provides a subplot to the epic. Athena often assists him.
    • 80. The Odyssey
      • Penelope  
      • Wife of Odysseus and mother of Telemachus. Penelope spends her days in the palace pining for the husband who left for Troy twenty years earlier and never returned. Homer portrays her as sometimes flighty and excitable but also clever and steadfastly true to her husband.
    • 81. The Odyssey
      • Men of Ithaca and Suitors for the Hand of Penelope
      • A egyptius
      • Aged lord in Ithaca.
      • Agelaus
      • Son of Damastor; suitor from Ithaca.
      • Amphimedon
      • Son of Menanus; suitor from Ithaca.
      • Amphinomus
      • Son of Nisus; suitor from Dulichium;among the dozens of suitors, the only decent man seeking Penelope’s hand in marriage. Amphinomus sometimes speaks up for Odysseus and Telemachus, but he is killed like the rest of the suitors in the final fight.
    • 82. The Odyssey
      • Men of Ithaca and Suitors for the Hand of Penelope
      • Antinous (an-TIN-oh-us)
      • Son of Eupeithes; leader of the suitors;the most arrogant of Penelope’s suitors. Antinous leads the campaign to have Telemachus killed. Unlike the other suitors, he is never portrayed sympathetically, and he is the first to die when Odysseus returns.
      • Ctesippus
      • Son of Polytherses; suitor from Same.
      • Eupeithes
      • Lord in Ithaca.
      • Eurymachus
      • Son of Polybus; suitor from Ithaca; a manipulative, deceitful suitor. Eurymachus’s charisma and duplicity allow him to exert some influence over the other suitors. (Melantho)
    • 83. The Odyssey
      • Halitherses
      • Son of Mastor; seer and prophet.
      • Irus
      • Town beggar.
      • Leiocritus
      • Son of Evenor; suitor from Ithaca.
      • Leiodes
      • Son of Oenops; soothsayer for the suitors.
      • Noemon
      • Son of Phromius; ship owner.
      • Piraeus
      • Son of Clytius; trusty friend of Telemachus.
    • 84. The Oddysey
      • Persons Met by Telemachus on his trip to the Mainland
      • Helen
      • Daughter of Zues and Leda; wife of Menelaus, brought back from Troy.
      • Menelaus
      • Son of Atreus; king of Sparta, returned from Troy.
      • Nestor
      • Son of Neleus; aged king of Pylos, returned from Troy.
      • Pisistratus
      • Son of Nestor.
      • Theoclymenus
      • Son of Polypheides; fugitive seer from Argos, received by Telemachus.
    • 85. The Odyssey
      • Dwellers in the Land of Phaeacians
      • Alcinous
      • Son of Nausithous; King of the Phaeacians, who offers Odysseus hospitality in his island kingdom of Scheria. Alcinous hears the story of Odysseus’s wanderings and provides him with safe passage back to Ithaca.
      • Arete
      • Daughter of Rhexenor; wife of Alcinous and Queen of the Phaeacians, wife of Alcinous, and mother of Nausicaa. Arete is intelligent and influential. Nausicaa tells Odysseus to make his appeal for assistance to Arete.
      • Demodocus
      • Blind bard at Alcinous’ court.
    • 86. The Odyssey
      • Euryalus
      • Son of Naubolus; Phaeacian noble.
      • Laodamas
      • Eldest son of Alcinous and Arete.
      • Nausicaa (naw-SIK-ay-uh)
      • Youngest daughter of Alcinous and Arete; Nausicaa discovers Odysseus on the beach at Scheria and, out of budding affection for him, ensures his warm reception at her parents’ palace.
    • 87. The Odyssey
      • Monster and Other Inhuman Beings
      • Antiphates
      • King of the cannibal Laestrygonians.
      • Charybdis (kah-RIB-dis)
      • A whirlpool which draws vessels to their doom.
      • Polyphemus (pol-ih-FEE-muss)
      • Son of Poseidon; giant Cyclops and ogre; One of the Cyclopes (uncivilized one-eyed giants) whose island Odysseus comes to soon after leaving Troy. Polyphemus imprisons Odysseus and his crew and tries to eat them, but Odysseus blinds him through a clever ruse and manages to escape. In doing so, however, Odysseus angers Polyphemus’s father, Poseidon.
      • Scylla (SILL-uh)
      • Daughter of Crataiis; six-headed monster and man eater.
      • Two Sirens
      • Fatal beguilers of men with their singing.
    • 88. The Odyssey
      • Spirits of the Dead in the House of Hades
      • Achilles
      • Son of Peleus; hero of the Iliad.
      • Agamemnon
      • Son of Atreus; king of the Greeks at Troy.
      • Ajax
      • Greater Ajax; son of Telamon, killed at Troy.
      • Anticleia
      • Daughter of Autolycus; wife of Laertes and mother of Odysseus.
      • Epicaste
      • Also called Jocasta; mother and wife of Oedipus, king of Thebes.
    • 89. The Odyssey
      • New Arrivals
      • Spirits of Elpenor and of the suitors.
      • Patroclus
      • Son of Menoetius; comrade of Achilles.
      • Shade of Heracles [Hercules]
      • Son of Zues; heroic laborer for mankind.
      • Sisyphus
      • Spirit tormented in punishment.
      • Tantalus
      • Spirit tormented in punishment.
    • 90. The Odyssey
      • Teiresias (ty-REE-see-as)
      • Blind prophet of Thebes; aTheban prophet who inhabits the underworld. Tiresias meets Odysseus when Odysseus journeys to the underworld in Book 11. He shows Odysseus how to get back to Ithaca and allows Odysseus to communicate with the other souls in Hades.
      • Tityus
      • Spirit tormented in punishment.
      • Tyro
      • Daughter of Salmoneus; mother by Poseidon of Pelias and Neleus.
    • 91.
      • ODYSSEY CHRONOLOGY
      • Based on W.B. Stanford's commentary, pages x-xii (London 1959)
      • Day 1 Assembly of gods, Athena visits Telemachus Book 1
      • Day 2 Assembly on Ithaca, Telemachus sails Book 2
      • Day 3 He arrives in Pylos Book 3
      • Day 4 He leaves Pylos Book 3
      • Day 5 He goes to Sparta; Menelaus receives him Books 3-4
      • Day 6 He stays at Sparta; hears Menelaus' story,while
      • in Ithaca suitors learn he's left and plot his murder.
      • Penelope dreams Book 4
      • Day 7 2nd assembly of gods Book 5
      • Days 8-11 Odysseus builds his boat Book 5
    • 92.
      • Days 12-28 Odysseus voyages safely Book 5
      • Day 29 Poseidon wrecks him Book 5
      • Days 30-31 Odysseus drift to Scheria Book 5
      • Day 32 Athena sends Nausicaa to shore;
      • she meets Odysseus, who is received
      • hospitably at palace Books 6-7 
      • Day 33 Entertainment of Odysseus, who tells
      • his adventures Books 8-13
    • 93.
      • Day 34  Odysseus voyages home to Ithaca Book 13
      • Day 35 Odysseus lands and stays with Eumaeus;
      • Telemachus travels back to Pherai (O)Books
      • 13-14; (T)
      • Book 15
      •   Day 36 Telemachus reaches Pylos
      • and sails home Book 15
      • Day 37 Telemachus lands on Ithaca and
      • joins Odysseus and Eumaeus Books 15-16
      • Day 38 Odysseus, disguised as beggar,
      • goes among suitors, fights a rival beggar,
      • talks with Penelope, is recognized by
      • Nurse Books 17-19
    • 94.
      • Day 39 The contest with the bow.
      • Odysseus kills suitors.
      • Penelope at last accepts
      • Odysseus Books 20-23
      • Day 40 The suitors' souls go
      • to Hades; Odysseus
      • visits his father; Athena
      • makes peace between
      • Odysseus and the suitors‘
      • kinsmen Books 23-24
    • 95.
      • The
      • Odyssey
      • (in capsule)
    • 96. The Odyssey : in capsule
      • Ten years have passed since the fall of Troy, and the Greek hero Odysseus still has not returned to his kingdom in Ithaca. A large and rowdy mob of suitors who have overrun Odysseus’s palace and pillaged his land continue to court his wife, Penelope. She has remained faithful to Odysseus. Prince Telemachus, Odysseus’s son, wants desperately to throw them out but does not have the confidence or experience to fight them. One of the suitors, Antinous, plans to assassinate the young prince, eliminating the only opposition to their dominion over the palace.
    • 97. The Odyssey : in capsule
      • Unknown to the suitors, Odysseus is still alive. The beautiful nymph Calypso, possessed by love for him, has imprisoned him on her island, Ogygia. He longs to return to his wife and son, but he has no ship or crew to help him escape. While the gods and goddesses of Mount Olympus debate Odysseus’s future, Athena, Odysseus’s strongest supporter among the gods, resolves to help Telemachus. Disguised as a friend of the prince’s grandfather, Laertes, she convinces the prince to call a meeting of the assembly at which he reproaches the suitors. Athena also prepares him for a great journey to Pylos and Sparta, where the kings Nestor and Menelaus, Odysseus’s companions during the war, inform him that Odysseus is alive and trapped on Calypso’s island. Telemachus makes plans to return home, while, back in Ithaca, Antinous and the other suitors prepare an ambush to kill him when he reaches port.
    • 98. The Odyssey :in capsule
      • On Mount Olympus, Zeus sends Hermes to rescue Odysseus from Calypso. Hermes persuades Calypso to let Odysseus build a ship and leave. The homesick hero sets sail, but when Poseidon, god of the sea, finds him sailing home, he sends a storm to wreck Odysseus’s ship. Poseidon has harbored a bitter grudge against Odysseus since the hero blinded his son, the Cyclops Polyphemus, earlier in his travels. Athena intervenes to save Odysseus from Poseidon’s wrath, and the beleaguered king lands at Scheria, home of the Phaeacians. Nausicaa, the Phaeacian princess, shows him to the royal palace, and Odysseus receives a warm welcome from the king and queen. When he identifies himself as Odysseus, his hosts, who have heard of his exploits at Troy, are stunned. They promise to give him safe passage to Ithaca, but first they beg to hear the story of his adventures.
    • 99. The Odyssey : in capsule
      • Odysseus spends the night describing the fantastic chain of events leading up to his arrival on Calypso’s island. He recounts his trip to the Land of the Lotus Eaters, his battle with Polyphemus the Cyclops, his love affair with the witch-goddess Circe, his temptation by the deadly Sirens, his journey into Hades to consult the prophet Tiresias, and his fight with the sea monster Scylla. When he finishes his story, the Phaeacians return Odysseus to Ithaca, where he seeks out the hut of his faithful swineherd, Eumaeus. Though Athena has disguised Odysseus as a beggar, Eumaeus warmly receives and nourishes him in the hut. He soon encounters Telemachus, who has returned from Pylos and Sparta despite the suitors’ ambush, and reveals to him his true identity. Odysseus and Telemachus devise a plan to massacre the suitors and regain control of Ithaca.
    • 100. The Odyssey : in capsule
      • When Odysseus arrives at the palace the next day, still disguised as a beggar, he endures abuse and insults from the suitors. The only person who recognizes him is his old nurse, Eurycleia, but she swears not to disclose his secret. Penelope takes an interest in this strange beggar, suspecting that he might be her long-lost husband. Quite crafty herself, Penelope organizes an archery contest the following day and promises to marry any man who can string Odysseus’s great bow and fire an arrow through a row of twelve axes—a feat that only Odysseus has ever been able to accomplish. At the contest, each suitor tries to string the bow and fails. Odysseus steps up to the bow and, with little effort, fires an arrow through all twelve axes. He then turns the bow on the suitors. He and Telemachus, assisted by a few faithful servants, kill every last suitor.
    • 101. The Odyssey: in capsule
      • Odysseus reveals himself to the entire palace and reunites with his loving Penelope. He travels to the outskirts of Ithaca to see his aging father, Laertes. They come under attack from the vengeful family members of the dead suitors, but Laertes, reinvigorated by his son’s return, successfully kills Antinous’s father and puts a stop to the attack. Zeus dispatches Athena to restore peace. With his power secure and his family reunited, Odysseus’s long ordeal comes to an end.
    • 102. The Odyssey
      • ..referencesSUMMARY OF THE ODYSSEY.doc
    • 103.
      • Thank you….
      • Ms. Pamela Amor R. Villanueva
      • OLLCS English Teacher
      • School year 2010-2011

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