It included many branches, rather than just one direct route.
It was rare that traders would travel the entire route with their goods.
The journey was difficult, dangerous, and long.
Camel caravans were used to transport goods along the Silk Road.
The Silk Road started in Xi’an in China, and traveled to the Mediterranean Sea
Traders used the Silk Road until a safe sea route
from Europe to Asia was possible.
Instead of getting goods from middlemen of Central Asia, European traders could
buy spices and other goods from
East Asia directly, and then
sell them in European markets.
After Chengzu’s death in 1424, China’s new emperor decided that foreign trade was too expensive.
The rest of the world seemed to demand China’s products more than China sought theirs.
The emperor and his advisors agreed that the nation's money should go to strengthening the military rather than to finance commercial voyages.
China entered a period of isolation from the rest of the world.
While private merchants continued to trade along routes like the Silk Road, China never again financed large voyages like those undertaken by Zheng He.
In the early 1800’s The Qing decided to allow trade on a limited basis.
They created the Canton System.
The Canton System only allowed Europeans to trade in the Chinese city of Canton (modern day city of Guangzhou).
The Qing intended to limit trade and protect the Chinese people from what they viewed as Europe’s negative influence.
The Canton System allowed Europeans to bring new products from their colonies in the Western Hemisphere.
These products included squash, corn, sweet potatoes and tobacco.
Chinese and Indian consumers like the new products.
They bought and planted many of the new foods.
Meanwhile, luxury items like tobacco became very popular.
The system proved profitable.
Both Chinese merchants and European trades got very rich.
The Chinese smoked opium for hundreds of years before the Europeans arrived.
Opium us a drug made from poppy plants.
It is very strong and addictive. Today, these same opium poppies are used to make drugs like morphine (an addictive pain killer) and heroin.
Originally, the Chinese used opium predominantly as a medicine. However, as its use increased, many became
addicted and used it as a “ recreational drug ”
When Europeans arrived, they began
shipping increased amounts of opium
into the country.
More and more people became addicted.
Even after the Qing emperor outlaws the
product, British smugglers continued
supplying it to Chinese citizens.
In the 1840’s, Great Britain and China went to war over the opium trade.
Due to superior weapons, the British defeated the Chinese relatively easily.
Britain's victory in the Opium War meant the end of the Canton system.
It also resulted in China having to lease the port city of Hong Kong to the British.
Hong Kong was an important center of trade in Eastern Asia.
Whoever controlled Hong Kong controlled much of the trade and wealth coming in and out of China .
Britain used its new power to impose trade policies that allowed British traders to grow rich while China made little money.
As Britain's influence increased and more opium arrived from India, China’s government grew weaker and its people poorer.
Japan eventually surpassed China as the most prosperous and modern nation in Eastern Asia.
Effects of Unequal Treaties The Chinese government now only existed on paper, not in reality. The foreigners could do anything they wanted to China as they only had to follow their own laws. Foreign goods were now cheaper than Chinese goods were. China was carved up into Spheres of Influence which is where one foreign nation claims their part of China for their special privileges.
During the late 19 th century and into the 20 th century, China grew very unstable.
Poverty and starvation led to unrest among many of China’s peasants.
In 1911, a revolution replaced the emperor with a Chinese republic.
The Ideas of Dr. Sun Yat-sen
The Chinese Republic was set up in 1911 when
it got rid of the dynasty type of rule in China.
The first ruler was Dr. Sun;
“ the Father of the Chinese Revolution”
For years Dr. Sun spread the idea that the Chinese people should have a government “of the people, by the people, and for the people”
In 1912, he set up the Kuomintang.
Kuomintang – The movement founded by Sun Yat-Sen to make China a modern democratic republic.
Chinese Warlords, 1920s China was divided from 1916 to 1926 Yuan Shi-kai
Chiang Kai-shek Rules China
In1926 Chiang Kai-shek took over and united most of China.
His only nemesis was Mao Zedong and the Communist
20c China: From Republic to Communist Power
Chiang Kai-shek Becomes President of Nationalist China, 1928
The Long March 1934
The Long March There was not one Long March, but several, as various Communist armies in the south escaped to the north and west. The Communists, under the eventual command of Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai, escaped in a circling retreat to the west and north, which reportedly traversed some 12,500 kilometers (8,000 miles) over 370 days. The Long March began the ascent to power of Mao Zedong , whose leadership during the retreat gained him the support of the members of the party.
The Long March
Mao Zedong As a Young Revolutionary (Mao Tse-tung)
Survivors of the March
Mao With His Children, 1930s
Japan Invades China
In 1931 Japan invaded Northern China which was their industrial base.
In 1937 Japan attempted to take all of China and during this time the nationalist and the Communist fought with one another.
Tensions soon mounted between the Nationalist and Communist.
The Nationalist favored capitalism- They wanted to allow private ownership of businesses, factories, and property.
The Communist wanted a command economy- with land, property, and businesses in the hands of the state.
The Communist argued
that only such an
economy would ease the
suffering of China’s
poor rural population.
The Communist Revolution: 1946 - 1949
Civil War and the Success of the Communist Revolution
In 1945 Japan lost World War 2 and left China
The nationalist and communist tried to work together but in 1947 another civil war broke out.
Although the Communist were weaker militarily, they won a huge victory over the nationalist.
Chiang Kai-shek and his nationalist were forced to flee to Taiwan where they still rule today.
The Communist Victory
Reasons for the Communist Victory
In 1945 and Communist had one million in their army compared to 3 million in the nationalist military
The nationalist received a ton of money from the U.S.
The Nationalist government failed to use its power well; it was corrupt and more interested in becoming rich
The Nationalist did not pay attention to what the people wanted.
The communist lived for may years under very difficult conditions so they became tough and fearless and ready to die for what they believed in.
The communist had good generals and they listened to the needs of the common people.
Reasons for the Communists’ Success
Mao won support of peasants – land
Mao won support of women
Mao’s army used guerilla war tactics
Many saw the Nationalist government as corrupt
Many felt that the Nationalists allowed foreigners to dominate China.
Taiwan: The Republic of China
Jiang Jieshu (1887-1975) (Chiang Kai-shek)
The People’s Republic of China
The Great Leap Forward (or Backward?) 1958-1961
Once in power, Mao sought to modernize China.
He wanted to build industries and strengthen the country after decades of war.
In 1958, he launched the Great Leap Forward .
The Great Leap Forward was based on the communist ideal of every citizen working together for the good of the community and the state.
It involved thousands of Chinese citizens living together in communes.
They shared land for farming, worked together in factories, and tried to care for needs.
Unfortunately, the Great Leap Forward was a huge failure.
Floods, droughts, bad management, and corruption ruined China and left millions dying of starvation.
Eventually, the people returned to their small villages and town to work on government-owned land or in state-owned factories.
Great Leap Forward, 1958
Set up a command economy which is what?
5 year plan to increase agriculture and industry Communes
Groups of people who live and work together
Property held in common
Had production quotas
Failed due to poor quality of products, poor weather hurt agriculture
Millions of Chinese starved during this period due to improper economic planning.
Communist China Under Mao
Class privileges ended
Rural Chinese received health care
Denied people basic rights and freedoms --> Inner Mongolia, Tibet
Mao, Panchen Lama, Dalai Lama in Beijing, 1954
Tibet --> an autonomous area.
Tibet revolts against Chinese Government.
Dalai Lama fled in the late 1950s to India.
Communist governments officially do not allow religion for fear of rebellion.
Buddism which believe what?
Daoism which believe what?
Many times these religions are mixed with _____________
Christianity and Islam have many followers
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