The cultural_revolution_of_china


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The cultural_revolution_of_china

  1. 1. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution 1966 - 1976
  2. 2. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution <ul><li>This started in 1966 and turned China upside down </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of people lost their lives during this time of chaos and violence </li></ul><ul><li>Due to the failed program of the Great Leap Forward, many people, especially the intellectuals, became opposed to Mao </li></ul><ul><li>So Mao decided to shake things up and get rid of those who opposed him </li></ul><ul><li>He organized a group of young people 11 million strong into the “ Red Guard ” </li></ul>
  3. 3. A Campaign Against the “FOUR OLDS” <ul><li>Old Thoughts </li></ul><ul><li>Old Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Old Customs </li></ul><ul><li>Old Habits </li></ul>To Rebel Is Good!
  4. 4. Communist China Under Mao <ul><li>Designed to renew revolutionary spirit and establish a more equitable society </li></ul><ul><li>Mao wanted to put “intellectuals” in their place </li></ul><ul><li>Schools shut down – students revolted </li></ul><ul><li>Red Guards – students who attacked professors, government officials, factory managers </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The first group of people to call themselves &quot;Red Guards&quot; in China were a group of students at the high school attached to Tsinghua University, led by Zhang Chengzhi; they used the name to sign two big-character posters issued on 29 May and 2 June 1966. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Zhang, the group of students originally wrote the posters as a constructive criticism towards the university administration, which was accused of harboring &quot;intellectual elitism”. </li></ul><ul><li>The group chose the name &quot;The Red Guards&quot; to create an image of a mass student movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Soon afterwards, the news of the movements reached Mao Zedong, which organized &quot;work teams&quot; across schools and replaced school administrations. </li></ul><ul><li>Zhang's group soon put up more posters calling for radical revolution, which was approved by Mao and published on the People's Daily. </li></ul><ul><li>Soon afterwards, students all over Beijing were calling themselves &quot;Red Guards&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Many rival Red Guard groups were formed. </li></ul>Red Guards (1)
  6. 6. A Red Guard
  7. 7. <ul><li>During the Cultural Revolution, the Red Guards traveled throughout China, going to schools, universities, and institutions, spreading the teachings of Mao. </li></ul><ul><li>Many were violent and oppressive to those who went against the teachings of Mao or criticized him. </li></ul><ul><li>The role of Red Guard was mainly to attack the &quot;Four Olds&quot; of society, old ideas, cultures, manners, and customs of China at the time. </li></ul><ul><li>Red Guards in had taken to the streets from their schools. They made posters, speeches, and committed violent acts in the name of the Cultural Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>The Red Guards ransacked museums and destroyed old books and works of art throughout China. Many famous temples, shrines, and other heritage sites were destroyed. In total, 4,922 out of 6,843 were destroyed. </li></ul>Red Guards (2)
  8. 8. Red Guards March to Canton
  9. 9. China under Mao <ul><li>Mao launched the Cultural Revolution in 1966 as a response to threats to his power from fellow CCP members. </li></ul><ul><li>The Cultural Revolution created chaos throughout China, creating violence and driving many people to suicide. When Mao was informed of this issue, he allegedly commented: “People who try to commit suicide—don't attempt to save them! …China is such a populous nation, it is not as if we cannot do without a few people. ” </li></ul><ul><li>Mao declared the Cultural Revolution finished in 1969, but most historians cite Mao’s death in 1976 as the true end of the Revolution. </li></ul>A Cultural Revolution poster featuring Mao as the “never-setting sun.”
  10. 10. <ul><li>Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun. </li></ul><ul><li>People, not weapons, are decisive in waging war. </li></ul><ul><li>The proletariat must forge military strategy and tactics which can bring into play its particular advantages, by unleashing and relying upon the initiative and enthusiasm of the revolutionary masses. </li></ul><ul><li>He insisted on the need to lead the masses in carrying out revolutionary transformations and to develop these politically, economically and culturally in the service of advancing revolutionary warfare. </li></ul>What Mao taught… Beginnings of Cultural Revolution
  11. 11. <ul><li>Re-education was demanded to intellectuals; who finished high school education or even lower school education. </li></ul><ul><li>They were usually sent to country side where they were educated to live as peasants or low class people. </li></ul>Re-education
  12. 12. <ul><li>Any books including Chinese, western or any Asian books that weren't about the communism and Mao Zedong </li></ul><ul><li>Nor any items that was linked or related to western culture. </li></ul>Banned Items
  13. 13. <ul><li>Pull hair </li></ul><ul><li>Force to drink water/ other liquids </li></ul><ul><li>Kneel in broken shards of glass </li></ul><ul><li>Have your alleged “crimes” called out to while kneeling in front of an audience </li></ul><ul><li>Public beating </li></ul><ul><li>Stoning </li></ul><ul><li>Hanging </li></ul>Public Humiliation Trials
  14. 14. The Little Red Book (1) <ul><li>The Little Red Book also known as Quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong ( 毛主席语录 ) has been published by the government of the People’s Republic of China since 1964. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a collection of quotations excerpted from Mao Zedong's past speeches and publications. </li></ul><ul><li>900 million copies of The Little Red Book has been sold, second only to the bible which has been around much longer. </li></ul><ul><li>It was essentially an unofficial requirement for every Chinese citizen to own, to read, and to carry it at all times during the Cultural Revolution. The punishment for failing to produce the book upon being asked would range from being beaten by Red Guards to being given years of hard-labor imprisonment. </li></ul><ul><li>Studying the book was required in schools, as well as at workplaces. Workplaces have specified reading sessions during working hours for workers to study the book. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The reddest, reddest, red sun in our heart, Chairman Mao, and us together Zhejiang Workers, Farmers and Soldiers Art Academy collective, 1968 Mao’s Little Red Book
  16. 16. Propaganda Poster
  17. 17. Go among the workers, peasants and soldiers, and into the thick of struggle! 1967-1972
  18. 18. Cultural Revolution Propaganda Beat our common enemy -reformer like Liu Shao qi! Mao is great and he says revolutionary committee is good! Mao was seen like a god <ul><li>The posters show political adversaries crushed by giant workers. The smiling image of Mao overshadows all, hovering above crowds carrying red flags and Little Red Books. </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreds of thousands of copies of posters were distributed. </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Mao dispersed the Red Guard </li></ul><ul><li>all over the country where they </li></ul><ul><li>Violently attacked people </li></ul><ul><li>and things that represented </li></ul><ul><li>the old ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Also singled out for attack were writers, scholars, and scientist; they were sent to the country to do hard labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Schools and universities were closed </li></ul><ul><li>for several years. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1968 Mao called an end to the </li></ul><ul><li>Red Guard by sending them to help out </li></ul><ul><li>on the farms. </li></ul><ul><li>Mao ended up with all his power back but </li></ul><ul><li>it was a disaster for China’s economy, agriculture, and education. </li></ul>