Systems and types of government review

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Systems and types of government review

  1. 1. Types and Systems of Government Review
  2. 2. To study governments, geographers look at the following: Types – Who rules and who participates. Systems – How the power is distributed.
  3. 3. Types of Government are based on one key question: Who governs and what is the citizen participation? There are three types of governments: Autocracy, Oligarchy, and Democracy
  4. 4. Autocracy Government in which the power to govern is held by one person. Generally the power to rule is inherited or by military force. There are three types of Autocracy.
  5. 5. #1 Dictatorship The leader has not been elected and uses force to control all aspects of social and economic life. Examples: Adolf Hitler in Germany and Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union
  6. 6. #2 Absolute Monarchy A monarchy has a king, queen, emperor or empress. The power is usually inherited or passed down from family members. The monarch has absolute power meaning they can make all decisions without consulting anyone.
  7. 7. Absolute MonarchyAbsolute Monarchy One-person rule. King or Queen has total control. Often thoughtOne-person rule. King or Queen has total control. Often thought as a divine right to rule that is passed from generation toas a divine right to rule that is passed from generation to generation.generation. ADVANTAGESADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGESDISADVANTAGES 1.1. People may be united in theirPeople may be united in their loyalty to a monarch since thereloyalty to a monarch since there is no competition for trust andis no competition for trust and affection.affection. 2.2. In an emergency, aIn an emergency, a monarchmonarch can move quickly to takecan move quickly to take action. No time is lost inaction. No time is lost in debate or discussiondebate or discussion.. 11.. People are often given noPeople are often given no individual liberties or civilindividual liberties or civil rights.rights. 2.2. A monarch’s policies suitA monarch’s policies suit his/her own needs. Needs of thehis/her own needs. Needs of the people may be neglected.people may be neglected. 3.3. Decision making has a narrow baseDecision making has a narrow base - can be flawed, wrong, dangerous.- can be flawed, wrong, dangerous. No one was willing to tell the emperorNo one was willing to tell the emperor what they think of his new clothes…what they think of his new clothes…
  8. 8. #3 Constitutional Monarchy Kings, queens or emperors share power with elected legislatures. Generally the Kings are northing more than figureheads. The government is a democratic one that limits the monarchs power. Example: Great Britain
  9. 9. Constitutional MonarchyConstitutional Monarchy A government with a written plan, or constitution, thatA government with a written plan, or constitution, that includes a monarch as a ceremonial leader and aincludes a monarch as a ceremonial leader and a parliament or other legislature to make the laws.parliament or other legislature to make the laws. ADVANTAGESADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGESDISADVANTAGES 1.1. Citizens are involved in decisionCitizens are involved in decision making through theirmaking through their representatives, lobbying, andrepresentatives, lobbying, and voting.voting. 2.2. Representatives are aware theirRepresentatives are aware their job depends on meeting the needs ofjob depends on meeting the needs of their constituents.their constituents. 3.3. More likely that all elements of theMore likely that all elements of the population are represented.population are represented. 4.4. Monarch has almost celebrity statusMonarch has almost celebrity status with the people. Are not held responsiblewith the people. Are not held responsible for unpopular decisions, yet can help formfor unpopular decisions, yet can help form public opinionpublic opinion 11.. Decision making is timeDecision making is time consuming. Desire ofconsuming. Desire of representatives to please everyonerepresentatives to please everyone may cripple system.may cripple system. 2.2. Representatives may not alwaysRepresentatives may not always agree with those they represent.agree with those they represent. 3.3. Lack of involved citizenry mayLack of involved citizenry may allow special interest groups toallow special interest groups to influence or dominateinfluence or dominate representatives.representatives.
  10. 10. Oligarchy A government in which a few people such as a dominant clan or clique have power. The group gets their power from either military, wealth or social status. Elections may be held but offer only one candidate. Examples: Greek city states
  11. 11. Democracy In a democracy, the government is “Rule by the people” There are two forms of democracy Direct Democracy – People vote on all the issues. Representative Democracy – People elect representatives and give them the power to vote on issues.  Example: United States
  12. 12. Direct DemocracyDirect Democracy Government in which all citizensGovernment in which all citizens have equal power in decisionhave equal power in decision making.making. ADVANTAGESADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGESDISADVANTAGES 1.1. Every citizen has equal powerEvery citizen has equal power in matters of government. Everyin matters of government. Every citizen is involved in the decisioncitizen is involved in the decision making.making. 2.2. Since all citizens areSince all citizens are involved in decision making,involved in decision making, there is a broad base of supportthere is a broad base of support and loyalty.and loyalty. 33.. Individual liberties areIndividual liberties are protected.protected. 1.1. Only works when a smallOnly works when a small number of people are involved.number of people are involved. Ability to gather all citizens inAbility to gather all citizens in one place is necessary.one place is necessary. 2.2. Decision making involvingDecision making involving all citizens is time-consuming.all citizens is time-consuming. All citizens give in-put, debate,All citizens give in-put, debate, etc...etc...
  13. 13. REPUBLIC/REPUBLIC/ Representative DemocracyRepresentative Democracy Government in which people elect representatives who hold theGovernment in which people elect representatives who hold the decision making power.decision making power. ADVANTAGESADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGESDISADVANTAGES 11.. Citizens are involved in decisionCitizens are involved in decision making through their representatives,making through their representatives, lobbying, and voting.lobbying, and voting. 2.2. Representatives are aware their jobRepresentatives are aware their job depends on meeting the needs of theirdepends on meeting the needs of their constituents.constituents. 33.. More likely that all elements of theMore likely that all elements of the population are represented.population are represented. 4.4. Generally, reps are educated and more-Generally, reps are educated and more- capable citizens who can devote timecapable citizens who can devote time needed to solve complex problems.needed to solve complex problems. 11.. Decision making is time consuming.Decision making is time consuming. Desire of representatives to pleaseDesire of representatives to please everyone may cripple system.everyone may cripple system. 2.2. Representatives may not always agreeRepresentatives may not always agree with those they represent.with those they represent. 3.3. Lack of involved citizenry mayLack of involved citizenry may allow special interest groups toallow special interest groups to influence or dominate representatives.influence or dominate representatives.
  14. 14. In a democracy…. Individual freedom and equality is valued. Free elections are held Decisions are based on majority rule. All candidates can express their views freely. Citizens vote by secret ballot.
  15. 15. Democratic Governments There are two major forms of democratic governments: Parliamentary Presidential
  16. 16.  In a parliamentary form of democratic government, the people vote for those who represent the political party they feel best represents their views of how the government should operate.  The legislature they elect, parliament, makes and carries out (enforces) the laws for the country.  The leader of a parliamentary form of government is usually chosen by the party that winds the majority of representatives in the legislature.  This leader is often called a prime minister or premier and is recognized as the head of the government.  The prime minister leads the executive branch of the government and must answer directly to the legislature for the actions and policies recommended.  In many parliamentary governments, a head of state (president or king/queen) serves as ceremonial leader
  17. 17. The actual work of the parliament is led by the prime minister, who represents the leading political party in the country. He or she rules with the help of a cabinet, or group of advisors. A prime minister may be voted out of office if the party he or she leads lose power
  18. 18. Presidential Democracy Voters elect legislators Voters elect (indirectly) the president. Therefore, in the presidential system voters have a more direct say about those who serve in two branches of the government :  Legislative  Executive
  19. 19. AA presidentialpresidential form of democratic government has a president, orform of democratic government has a president, or chief executive, that is chosen separately from the legislaturechief executive, that is chosen separately from the legislature The legislature passes the laws, and it is the duty of the president toThe legislature passes the laws, and it is the duty of the president to see that the laws are enforcedsee that the laws are enforced The president holed power separately from the legislature, but he doesThe president holed power separately from the legislature, but he does not have the power to dismiss the legislature or force them to makenot have the power to dismiss the legislature or force them to make particular lawsparticular laws The president is the official head of the governmentThe president is the official head of the government The legislature does not have the power to dismiss the president,The legislature does not have the power to dismiss the president, except in extreme cases when the president has broken a lawexcept in extreme cases when the president has broken a law The president is BOTH the lead of state and the head of theThe president is BOTH the lead of state and the head of the governmentgovernment
  20. 20. Parliamentary System Presidential System ExecutiveExecutive LegislativeLegislative CitizensCitizensCitizensCitizens LegislativeLegislative ExecutiveExecutive Elect Elect ElectElectSelectSelect Elect Elect
  21. 21. COMMUNISM a theory advocating elimination of private property. a system in which goods are owned in common and are available to all as needed. Typically a one party system in which all political power rest with the party (i.e. China).
  22. 22. TheocracyTheocracyA form of government in which God or aA form of government in which God or a deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler.deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler. Often religious institutional representativesOften religious institutional representatives (i.e.: a church), replaces or is mixed into the(i.e.: a church), replaces or is mixed into the civilian government. Can be an Oligarchy,civilian government. Can be an Oligarchy, Representative Democracy, and even aRepresentative Democracy, and even a Monarchy.Monarchy.
  23. 23. Systems of Government are based on one question: How is the power distributed? There are three ways governments distribute power: Unitary Confederation Federal
  24. 24. Unitary One central government controls everything. Power is not shared between states, counties or provinces. Examples : United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, and Spain
  25. 25. Unitary government systemUnitary government system –– the central government holdsthe central government holds nearly all of the power.nearly all of the power. Local governments such as state or county systems may haveLocal governments such as state or county systems may have some power at certain times, but they are basically under the controlsome power at certain times, but they are basically under the control of the central government.of the central government. Central government has the power to change the way state orCentral government has the power to change the way state or county governments operate or abolish them altogether.county governments operate or abolish them altogether. Some unitary governments have elected officials who, onceSome unitary governments have elected officials who, once elected, may make and enforce laws without taking the opinions ofelected, may make and enforce laws without taking the opinions of those at lower levels of government into consideration.those at lower levels of government into consideration. In aIn a monarchymonarchy (area ruled by a king or emperor), the ruler and(area ruled by a king or emperor), the ruler and his advisors make most of thehis advisors make most of the decisions – this is an exampledecisions – this is an example of a unitary governmentof a unitary government Most African countriesMost African countries have Unitary governmentshave Unitary governments Other African countriesOther African countries have kings but most of them are kings ofhave kings but most of them are kings of particular tribes or ethnicparticular tribes or ethnic groups and do not play a major role in thegroups and do not play a major role in the day to day government of theday to day government of the countriescountries
  26. 26. Confederation A voluntary association of independent states that agrees to follow a powerful central government. Nations can choose to follow or not follow the lead of the weak central government. Examples: Confederate States of America ( 1861-1865), Russian Federation.
  27. 27. AA confederation government systemconfederation government system is one in which the localis one in which the local governments hold all of the power and the central government dependsgovernments hold all of the power and the central government depends on the local governments for its existenceon the local governments for its existence The central government has only as much power as the localThe central government has only as much power as the local governments are willing to givegovernments are willing to give TheThe United NationsUnited Nations is a good example of a confederationis a good example of a confederation The United Nations can only offer advice and assistance when theThe United Nations can only offer advice and assistance when the member nations agree to cooperatemember nations agree to cooperate This organization is a regional group organized to help the memberThis organization is a regional group organized to help the member countries cooperate on economic matters, encourage, cultural exchanges,countries cooperate on economic matters, encourage, cultural exchanges, and to help keep peace and stability inand to help keep peace and stability in the region.the region.
  28. 28. Federal Power is shared by a powerful central government. States or provinces are given considerable self rule, usually through their own legislatures. Examples: United States, Germany
  29. 29.  Federal government system – a political system in which power is shared among different levels of government.  The states have some powers that the federal government does not have such as the right to collect property taxes and determine sales taxes.  The national government (or central government) also has some powers that the state does not, such as the right to declare war and make treaties with foreign countries  In the Middle East, Israel is an example of a Federal government

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