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Science study guide review


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  • 1. Rock Test Review
  • 2. What is a mineral and how do we identify them? • A mineral is a naturally formed, inorganic solid that has a definite crystal structure and chemical composition. • Minerals are identified using their properties – hardness, luster, color, specific gravity, streak, crystal structure, and cleavage/fracture
  • 3. What is reclamation? List 3 ways to reduce the impact of mining. • Reclamation is reclaiming or restoring the land to the way is was or better than it was before it was mined. • Reclaim, reuse/reduce, and recycle
  • 4. What is a rock and how are they classified? • Naturally occurring solid formed from one or more minerals • They are classified on how and where they formed
  • 5. Describe three ways humans can use rock and minerals. • Many different answers – Examples – roads, construction, make- up, buildings, toothpaste, furniture, etc.
  • 6. What are the two most abundant rocks in the earth’s crust? • Granite and Basalt
  • 7. Describe how igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks form and give examples of each. • Igneous rock – form from molten rock that has cooled and hardened. Examples – granite, basalt, and obsiadan • Sedimentary rock – forms from weathering, erosion, deposition, compaction, and cementation of sediments. Examples – sandstone, conglomerate, and coal • Metamorphic rock – forms from heat, pressure and chemical reactions. Examples – marble, slate, and Quartzite
  • 8. Explain the Rock Cycle. • It is a continues process in which rocks are changing from one type of rock to another
  • 9. What is the difference between intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks? • Intrusive – cools slowly deep inside the earth (magma) – large crystals • Extrusive – cools quickly at or near the surface of the earth (lava) – small crystals
  • 10. What is the most abundant intrusive igneous rock and common uses? • Granite • Uses – roads, construction, and buildings
  • 11. How are sediments formed? • Weathering and breaking down of rock into small fragments or pieces
  • 12. List the three types of sedimentary rocks and give examples of each. • Clastic – sandstone and conglomerate • Organic – coal, and chalk • Chemical - Halite
  • 13. Where are metamorphic rocks formed? • They are formed deep within the earth’s crust.
  • 14. What process do rocks undergo to become metamorphic rocks? • They undergo heat and pressure
  • 15. How do geologists classify metamorphic rocks? • They are classified as foliated (banded or layered) or nonfoliated (not banded or layered)
  • 16. What is the difference between foliated and nonfoliated? • Foliated – banded or layered • Nonfoliated – not banded or layered
  • 17. What is the difference between weathering and erosion? • Weathering – breaking down of rock into sediments • Erosion – movement of sediments from one location to another
  • 18. What is deposition? • The laying down of sediments
  • 19. What type of rock formation is Stone Mountain? • Intrusive igneous rock
  • 20. What is an ore? • Large deposit of an economically valuable mineral can be mined for profit.