Most missed questions reviewPresentation Transcript
Most Missed Questions
Colonization of Africa 19th Century
ColonialismColonialism is forced control of one nation by another nation.Colony is when a nation establishes a government under its rulein a foreign territory.Imperialism is empire building by taking over other countries’government’s trade, and culture. • Beginning in the early 19th Century, Europeans aggressively tried to establish colonies in Africa. • European civilization experienced a period of unprecedented rapid expansion around the globe during the last third of the nineteenth century.
Reasons for Colonialism• Despite Europeans involvement in the Slave Trade Europeans usually relied on Africans to trade slaves instead of colonizing the continent.• By the 1880s every major nation in the world had abolished the institution of slavery.• Europeans found a new interest in Africa.• Africa is a continent of vast wealth.
Political Boundaries after Berlin Conference.
Who were the European colonial powers that took control of the African tribes land and their way of life? Belgium Britain France Germany Italy Portugal Spain
Pan-Africanism is the idea that there_______________is a global African community made upof native Africans and the descendantsof African slaves and migrants across theworld.
Pan- African Movement• Began in the late 1800’s to early 1900’s as way to secure equal rights, self-government, independence, and unity for African peoples. • Inspired by Marcus Garvey, it encouraged self-awareness on the part of Africans by encouraging the study of their history and culture.• The Pan-African Movement marked the beginning of the Nationalist Movements that started to sweep across the continent.
Pan- African Movement• Pan-African movement led to the founding of the African Union in 2001.• African Union: sought to unite Africans to improve conditions across the continent.• GOALS OF AU – Economic growth – End poverty and starvation – Advancement of women’s rights, improve education – End African wars
South Africa• In 1948 the racist Nationalist Party defeated English- speaking whites and was elected to power. Now the Afrikaners had complete control of South Africa’s government.• Afrikaners established “Apartheid”. This is an Afrikaan word meaning “separateness” an official policy of racial discrimination.• Apartheid stripped black Africans of the few rights they enjoyed and required segregation. The South African government tried to completely separate the small number of whites from the black majority.
African National Congress (ANC)• Founded in 1912, goal was to unite people of all races to fight for rights and freedoms.• Nelson Mandela in 1944 founded the ANC Youth League.• Purpose was to raise up a new generation to fight against racism and apartheid.• Nelson Mandela became the leader of the ANC in 1961. Mandela was an anti-apartheid activist.• Afrikaners passed laws outlawing the ANC and other groups. Mandela will be imprisoned for 27 years for his involvement with the ANC.
Key VocabularyCivil War: A war between groups or regions of the same country in order to gain politicalpower. Genocide: systematic and planned extermination of an entire national, racial, political, or ethnic group. HIV/AIDS: human immunodeficiency virus- virus that causes AIDS AIDS-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a disease of the immune system caused by HIV which makes the infected person vulnerable to other diseases and which can result in death. Malaria-a tropical disease spread by mosquitoes. Famine- widespread food shortage that causes malnutrition and starvation. Refugees-people who flee a country, often to escape war or persecution. Epidemic diseases-diseases which spread quickly and become widely prevalent throughout a given region.
Issues facing Africa Today• Independence brought freedom but it also ushered in a new era of hardships.• One of the biggest issues facing Africa today is famine. What is famine?• Large portions of Africa are dealing with droughts that cause mass starvation.• The population of Africa grows at a faster rate than many countries can industrialize, therefore leaving many countries unable to feed all of their people.• In Ethiopia, Somalia, and the Sudan starvation is common place.
Disease HIV/AIDS is one of the leading causes of death in Africa. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome No known cure for the disease, the rate of infection is due largely to poverty and poor education. Better education on the disease and how it spreads would help reduce the number of new cases. Malaria is a tropical disease spreading throughout the region carried by mosquitoes. Each year more than 1 million die from this disease. Children in Sub- Saharan Africa are most at risk. For instance malaria is the leading cause of death in children under five in Uganda. Insecticides and mosquito nets can drastically lower the number of infections.
Origins of JudaismJudaism is the oldest of the three religions.It began as a set of beliefs and laws practiced by ancient Hebrew people in Southwest Asia.Its book is the Hebrew Bible – aka The Torah.Jews believe that one day a human leader will come as a messenger of God and bring about a golden age.They call this leader the messiah. In Greek versions of the Bible, messiah is written as christos, the anointed one.
The PartitionIn 1947, the United Nationsannounced a plan to divide Palestineinto an Arab and Jewish state. Jewsagreed, but Arabs vowed to doanything needed to prevent the U.N.plan from being carried out.
Six DayWar-1967 Israel captures territories that were under the control of the Palestinians. These areas include________________, _____________, and ________________. Gaza These territories are still under dispute by the Palestinians who The West Bank view any Jewish settlement hereEast invasion of their land. as an Jerusalem
The Five Pillars of Islam is the term for the religion’s five main beliefs. They are accepted by all Sunnis and Shi’as, but the Shi’as have added several other practices to form the Branched of Religion. The Five Pillars are: Believe in only one God and Muhammad is his messenger (Shahada) Pray in the direction of Mecca five times a day (Salat) Donate money to the poor (Zakat) Fast during the month of Ramadan (Sawm) Make a journey, or hajj, to Mecca at least once.
Origins of ChristianityIn 30 CE, a Jew named Jesus began preaching new ideas about Judaism in Roman-controlled Judea.The later title of Jesus Christ given to Jesus is a reference to the belief by his followers that he is the Jewish messiah.
According to the Christian New Testament, Jesus preached only to his fellow Jews. His idea was that the old laws of Judaism should be replaced by a simpler system based on love of ones fellow human beings. He began to grow popular. Jewish leaders did not want Jesus to threaten their power and asked the Romans to arrest him. The Romans found him guilty of speaking against Jewish laws and sentenced him to death by crucifixion, or being hung on a cross. He died in 33 CE, after preaching for only three years.
Before India became an independent country, India’s Muslims were afraid they would not have a say in the new government, once Britain granted independence. To avoid a civil war, the British government agreed to the partition of India. In 1947, India gained independence, and the country of Pakistan was formed for Muslims. About 10 million people crossed the border into Pakistan. Soon after these 2 countries were formed, other countries in the region gained their independence from Britain as well.
Great Leap Forward, 1958► Set up a command economy which is what?►5 year plan to increase agriculture and industryCommunes Groups of people who live and work together Property held in common Had production quotas► Failed due to poor quality of products, poor weather hurt agriculture►Millions of Chinese starved during this period due to impropereconomic planning.
Communist China Under Mao► Industrialized China► Increased literacy► Class privileges ended► Rural Chinese received health care► One-party dictatorship► Denied people basic rights and freedoms --> Inner Mongolia, Tibet
China under Mao• Mao launched the Cultural Revolution in 1966 as a response to threats to his power from fellow CCP members.• The Cultural Revolution created chaos throughout China, creating violence and driving many people to suicide. When Mao was informed of this issue, he allegedly commented: “People who try to commit suicide—dont attempt to save them! …China is such a populous nation, it is not as if we cannot do without a few people. ”• Mao declared the Cultural Revolution finished in 1969, but most historians cite A Cultural Revolution Mao’s death in 1976 as the true end of the poster featuring Mao as Revolution. the “never-setting sun.”
founder• Siddhartha Guatama, or Buddha which means “enlightened one”• lived in the 5th century BC• born into the Kshatriya - caste-led a luxurious lifestyle.• Became troubled by the human misery that he saw around him everyday.• Upon reflection, he deduced that desire was the root caused of all suffering (enlightened under a Bodhi Tree)• not considered a god by his followers
Four Noble Truths1. There is suffering in the world. To live is to suffer. (Dukkha) The Buddha found this out when he was young and experienced suffering and death in others.
Four Noble Truths2. The cause of suffering is self- centered desire and attachments. (Tanha)
Question from your reading:• What is the term for a state of “Perfect Peace”? Nirvana
Four Noble Truths3. The solution is to eliminate desire and attachments. (Nirvana = “extinction”)
Four Noble Truths4. To reach nirvana, one must follow the Eightfold Path.
Major Beliefs1. The Four Noble Truths Siddharthas philosophy of the nature of human suffering and its relation to desire is articulated by these four statements:• Life is full of pain and suffering.• Human desire causes this suffering.• By putting an end to desire, humans can end suffering.• Humans can end desire by following the Eightfold Path.
Eightfold Path Nirvana The union with the ultimate spiritual reality. Escape from the cycle of rebirth.
2. The Eightfold PathWisdom1) Right View – know the truth2) Right Intention – resist self-centerednessEthical Conduct3) Right Speech – refrain from unkind, negative speech4) Right Action – respect all life5) Right Livelihood – work for the good of othersMental Discipline6) Right Effort – exert oneself in freeing the mind of evil (egocentric thought)7) Right Awareness – elevate one’s thoughts beyond the haze of emotion and mood8) Right Meditation – practice the discipline of meditation
3. Reincarnation• concept that one must go through many cycles of birth, living, and death• After many such cycles, if a person releases their attachment to desire and the self, they can attain Nirvana - a state of liberation and freedom from suffering• Nirvana can be achieved from meditating and following the guiding principles of Buddhism, such as the Four Noble Truths, 8-fold path
4. Karma - the law that every cause has an effect, i.e., our actions have results. This explains a number of things: inequality in the world, why some are born handicapped and some gifted, why some live only a short life. Buddhists believe that our are past actions have an effect on who or what we are in our next life.5. Caste System is rejected by Buddhists
Causes of Pollution• China’s and India’s economic and urban growth has caused serious issues for the environment.• Seven of the ten most polluted cities are located in China.• And India’s more than 1 billion people make it the second most populous country behind China – Pollution- • Caused by the increased number of cars and factories and also the burning of coal for electricity in China.
Effects of PollutionMany nations in South, Southeast, and East Asia will now have to worry about the “Asian Brown Cloud” caused by too much pollution in the air. *causes: waste from factories, motor vehicles, forest fires, etc. .
Effects of Pollution* It is a brown haze that can alter the paths of monsoons, reduce photosynthesis, increase human respiratory problems, and reduces solar radiation to the earth’s surface.
Solutions to Population• In China they have instituted the “one-child- per-family policy of 1979”. – This states that any couple that has only one child will receive economic and educational benefits, while couples that have more than one child will have to pay fines.
Pollution on the Yangtze• Large amounts of waste are dumped in the Yangtze each year causing massive pollution.• Much of this waste comes from mineral fertilizers used in farming, factory waste, and also shipping.• Effects of pollution: – Contaminated drinking water
Pollution on the Ganges• The Ganges river, which is a holy river to many people that live in India, has also seen a tremendous rise in pollution over the last several years.• Most of the pollution found in the Ganges comes from organic waste (sewage, trash, food, and human as well as animal remains) – The increase in India’s population is the cause of all this waste– the sewage systems are not up to date
Effects of pollution on the Ganges• Because the Ganges is a sacred river to many Hindus- and there is a sacred practice of depositing human remains…. – the river has become infected with many water- borne diseases (hepatitis, typhoid or cholera)