Minerals

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Minerals

  1. 1. It is the process of removing rock and mineral material from the Earth for society to use to make products!
  2. 2. EXTRA An ore is a natural material with a high concentration of economically valuable minerals that can be mined for a profit
  3. 3. This is digging a hole on the surface of the earth to remove the material we want.
  4. 4. EXTRA There are 3 types of surface mines:  Open-pit: removes large, near surface deposits of minerals such as gold and copper. Mined downward in layers  Quarries: stone, crushed rock, sand, gravel  Strip Mining: removing surface coal in strips
  5. 5. EXAMPLE OF SURFACE MINING Images from Google Maps
  6. 6. SUBSURFACE MINING http://www.uky.edu/KGS/coal/images/minmethd.gif
  7. 7. RECLAMATION Mine Albert, Quebec, before and after reclamation. Government of Quebec http://www.abandoned-mines.org/home-e.htm
  8. 8. WHY DO WE NEED TO MINE?
  9. 9. WHY DO WE NEED MINES? Houses Cars Toothpaste Plumbing Wiring Planes Electronics Jewelry Glass If we can’t grow it, it has to be mined!
  10. 10. coal rubies
  11. 11. inorganic definite chemical make-up
  12. 12. Wood
  13. 13. Gold
  14. 14. Fossil
  15. 15. Topaz
  16. 16. Bones
  17. 17. Granite
  18. 18. Quartz
  19. 19. Pearls
  20. 20. Talc
  21. 21. Icebergs
  22. 22. Diamond
  23. 23. Coal
  24. 24. Rock Salt
  25. 25. AND THE ANSWERS ARE… Minerals a) Gold b) Topaz c) Quartz d) Talc e) Iceberg* f) Diamonds Non-Minerals a) Wood - once living b) Fossils – once living c) Bone - living material d) Granite - intrusive igneous rock e) Pearls – made by oysters f) Coal - Sedimentary rock g) Rock Salt – Sedimentary rock According to IMA – ice is listed as a mineral
  26. 26. Once I know it’s a mineral, we classify minerals according to Various Characteristics!
  27. 27. 1. One way is color! http://www.minresco.com http://www.gems-afghan.com http://www.globalcrystals.com http://www.prettyrock.com
  28. 28. Not all minerals have the same hardness. Some you can easily scratch with your fingernail! http://www.infowest.com /vwdocs/vwlessons http://www.prettyrock.com http://www.wpclipart.com http://www.wpclipart.com
  29. 29. http://www.uky.edu/KGS Streak is the color of a mineral powder. Many minerals appear a different color when powdered than they do as a big piece. The color may be entirely different, or it may be a different shade. http://cmsc.minotstateu.edu http://cmsc.minotstateu.edu
  30. 30. Copyright © Dr. Richard Busch Courtesy United States Geological Survey Courtesy United States Geological Survey Each reflects light differently – that is luster! Which of these words would you use to describe these minerals? Glassy, metallic, dull, silky, waxy, pearly
  31. 31. This means for equal size, they have their own special weight. http://www.palagems.com Which one is worth more? How could you tell? The first one is topaz (worth a lot) and the second is citrine quartz (not worth a lot). A scientist would measure their densities and they would be different!
  32. 32. Copyright © Dr. Richard Busch http://www.wired-artist-jewelry.comhttp://webphysics.davidson.edu http://www.fabreminerals.com http://www.fabreminerals.com Link to crystal video media player quicktime
  33. 33. Cleavage means it breaks the same way every time. Fracture means it breaks in a random pattern that cannot be predicted. www.mrsciguy.com Calcite and halite break a special way. donsmaps.com www.visionlearning.com Quartz and chert break in a random pattern. There is not way to predict how they break.
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