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  • 1. It is the process of removing rock and mineral material from the Earth for society to use to make products!
  • 2. EXTRA An ore is a natural material with a high concentration of economically valuable minerals that can be mined for a profit
  • 3. This is digging a hole on the surface of the earth to remove the material we want.
  • 4. EXTRA There are 3 types of surface mines:  Open-pit: removes large, near surface deposits of minerals such as gold and copper. Mined downward in layers  Quarries: stone, crushed rock, sand, gravel  Strip Mining: removing surface coal in strips
  • 5. EXAMPLE OF SURFACE MINING Images from Google Maps
  • 7. RECLAMATION Mine Albert, Quebec, before and after reclamation. Government of Quebec
  • 9. WHY DO WE NEED MINES? Houses Cars Toothpaste Plumbing Wiring Planes Electronics Jewelry Glass If we can’t grow it, it has to be mined!
  • 10. coal rubies
  • 11. inorganic definite chemical make-up
  • 12. Wood
  • 13. Gold
  • 14. Fossil
  • 15. Topaz
  • 16. Bones
  • 17. Granite
  • 18. Quartz
  • 19. Pearls
  • 20. Talc
  • 21. Icebergs
  • 22. Diamond
  • 23. Coal
  • 24. Rock Salt
  • 25. AND THE ANSWERS ARE… Minerals a) Gold b) Topaz c) Quartz d) Talc e) Iceberg* f) Diamonds Non-Minerals a) Wood - once living b) Fossils – once living c) Bone - living material d) Granite - intrusive igneous rock e) Pearls – made by oysters f) Coal - Sedimentary rock g) Rock Salt – Sedimentary rock According to IMA – ice is listed as a mineral
  • 26. Once I know it’s a mineral, we classify minerals according to Various Characteristics!
  • 27. 1. One way is color!
  • 28. Not all minerals have the same hardness. Some you can easily scratch with your fingernail! /vwdocs/vwlessons
  • 29. Streak is the color of a mineral powder. Many minerals appear a different color when powdered than they do as a big piece. The color may be entirely different, or it may be a different shade.
  • 30. Copyright © Dr. Richard Busch Courtesy United States Geological Survey Courtesy United States Geological Survey Each reflects light differently – that is luster! Which of these words would you use to describe these minerals? Glassy, metallic, dull, silky, waxy, pearly
  • 31. This means for equal size, they have their own special weight. Which one is worth more? How could you tell? The first one is topaz (worth a lot) and the second is citrine quartz (not worth a lot). A scientist would measure their densities and they would be different!
  • 32. Copyright © Dr. Richard Busch http://www.wired-artist-jewelry.com Link to crystal video media player quicktime
  • 33. Cleavage means it breaks the same way every time. Fracture means it breaks in a random pattern that cannot be predicted. Calcite and halite break a special way. Quartz and chert break in a random pattern. There is not way to predict how they break.