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Middle east unit three part i
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Middle east unit three part i

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  • 1.  
  • 2.
    • A nation’s type of government refers to how that state’s executive, legislative, and judicial organs are organized.
    • All nations need some sort of government to avoid anarchy.
    • Democratic governments are those that permit the nation’s citizens to manage their government either directly or through elected representatives.
    • This is opposed to authoritarian governments that limit or prohibit the direct participation of its citizens.
  • 3.
    • a theory advocating elimination of private property.
    •   a system in which goods are owned in common and are available to all as needed.
    • Typically a one party system in which all political power rest with the party (i.e. China).
  • 4. Theocracy A form of government in which God or a deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler. Often religious institutional representatives (i.e.: a church), replaces or is mixed into the civilian government. Can be an Oligarchy, Representative Democracy, and even a Monarchy.
  • 5.
    • Unitary government system – the central government holds nearly all of the power.
    • Local governments such as state or county systems may have some power at certain times, but they are basically under the control of the central government.
    • Central government has the power to change the way state or county governments operate or abolish them altogether.
    • Some unitary governments have elected officials who, once elected, may make and enforce laws without taking the opinions of those at lower levels of government into consideration.
    • In a monarchy (area ruled by a king or emperor), the ruler and his advisors make most of the decisions – this is an example of a unitary government
    • Saudi Arabia is a monarch y and is an example of a unita ry
    • government
    Blue Countries are Unitary
  • 6.
    • Federal government system – a political system in which power is shared among different levels of government.
    • The states have some powers that the federal government does not have such as the right to collect property taxes and determine sales taxes.
    • The national government (or central government) also has some powers that the state does not, such as the right to declare war and make treaties with foreign countries
    • In the Middle East, Israel is an example of a Federal governm ent
  • 7.
    • A confederation government system is one in which the local governments hold all of the power and the central government depends on the local governments for its existence
    • The central government has only as much power as the local governments are willing to give
    • The United Nations is a good example of a confederation
    • The United Nations can only offer advice and assistance when the member nations agree to cooperate
    • This organization is a regional group organized to help the member countries cooperate on economic matters, encourage cultural exchanges, and to help keep peace and stability in the region
    • In the Middle East, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an example of a Confederat ion government
  • 8.
    • An autocratic government is one in which the ruler has absolute power to do whatever he wishes and make and enforce whatever laws he chooses
    • Individuals who live under autocratic governments do not have any rights to choose leaders or vote on which laws are made and put into practice
    • Some autocratic governments may allow the people rights in certain areas like managing local affairs, but the central governments keeps control of all the most important aspects of the country’s life
    • People usually have little or no power to use against the government if they disagree with decisions that government or ruler has made
    • A monarchy such as Saudi Arabia, where the king has ultimate power, is one example
  • 9.
    • An oligarchy means “government by the few.”
    • In this form of government, a political party or other small group takes over a government and makes all of the major decisions.
    • The people of the country have little choice but to go along with the decisions they make
    • This sort of government can be very similar to an autocratic government.
    • Iran could be described as an oligarchy, because a small group of religious and political leaders makes many of the important decisions
  • 10.
    • In a democratic government system , the people play a much greater role in decided who the rulers are and what decisions are made
    • Democracy comes from the Greek word “demos,” which means “people.”
    • In this form of government, a great deal of power is left in the hands of the people
    • People who live in a democracy generally recognize that there must be some rules to organize society, but the goal is to leave as much individual freedom as possible.
    • Decisions are often made by a majority of votes, but there are also laws in place to protect individual rights.
    • In the Middle East, Israel is a good example of a democracy
    • Those organizing the new government of Iraq are hoping to establish a democratic system
  • 11.
    • In a parliamentary form of democratic government, the people vote for those who represent the political party they feel best represents their views of how the government should operate.
    • The legislature they elect, parliament , makes and carries out (enforces) the laws for the country.
    • The leader of a parliamentary form of government is usually chosen by the party that winds the majority of representatives in the legislature.
    • This leader is often called a prime minister or premier and is recognized as the head of the government.
    • The prime minister leads the executive branch of the government and must answer directly to the legislature for the actions and policies recommended.
    • In many parliamentary governments, a head of state (president or king/queen) serves as ceremonial leader
  • 12.
    • The actual work of the parliament is led by the prime minister, who represents the leading political party in the country.
    • He or she rules with the help of a cabinet , or group of advisors.
    • A prime minister may be votes out of office if the party he or she leads lose power
    • In the Middle East, Israel has a parliamentary government
    • Its citizens elect representative to the national parliament called the Knesset .
    • The political party that gets the most votes in the Knesset gets to choose the Prime Minister
  • 13.
    • A presidential form of democratic government has a president, or chief executive, that is chosen separately from the legislature
    • The legislature passes the laws, and it is the duty of the president to see that the laws are enforced
    • The president holed power separately from the legislature, but he does not have the power to dismiss the legislature or force them to make particular laws
    • The president is the official head of the government
    • The legislature does not have the power to dismiss the president, except in extreme cases when the president has broken a law
    • The president is BOTH the lead of state and the head of the government
  • 14.
    • In 1979, the Islamic, or Iranian, revolution overthrew the monarchy that had ruled Iran for centuries.
    • Today, Iran is a theocratic republic .
    • This means that the government is based on religious principals (Islam) and the wishes of its people.
    • The head of state is the Supreme Leader, who is always an ayatollah , or recognized religious authority.
  • 15.
    • The Supreme Leader is chosen by the Assembly of Experts and holds the position for life.
    • The assembly consists of 86 religious scholars.
    • The people elect the assembly and the president by popular vote.
    • The president governs based on the religious guidance of the ayatollah.
    • The supreme leader has final say over many of the president’s decisions.
    • The president can serve two terms of four years each.
    • Iran’s legislature is called the Consultative assembly .
    • Citizens 16 and older can vote for the 290 members of the Assembly.
  • 16.
    • Israel has a representative parliamentary democracy .
    • The head of state is the president, who actually does not have much power.
    • The Israeli prime minister is the head of the government.
    • The legislature elects the president.
    • The president then chooses the head of the largest political party to be the prime minister.
    • The prime minister must organize a coalition to govern.
    • A coalition is a group of several different political parties that have to cooperate in order to make decisions.
  • 17.
    • This type of government is known as a coalition government.
    • The Israeli legislature is called the Knesset.
    • The Knesset holds most of the power in the Israeli government.
    • Israelis eighteen and older elect these officials by popular vote.
    • While most of Israel’s Jewish citizens see themselves as secular, meaning they do not feel the country’s laws should be based solely on religious beliefs, many Israeli laws are influenced by the Orthodox Jews, those who want government policy to be made according to religious law
    • These people represent about 25 percent of the Israeli population.
    • Elections are held in Israel every four years
  • 18.
    • Saudi Arabia's government is one of the few absolute monarchies in the world today.
    • The government is a monarchy governed by Islamic Shari’a Law .(law based on the Quran)
    • In 2004, however, the Saudi government began allowing men who are 21 and older to vote for half of their local officials.
    • Men can also vote for one-third of the members of the legislature.
    • The king has a cabinet called the Council of Ministers.
    • The Council mostly consists of members of the royal family.
    • The Saudi legislature is called the Consultative Council.
    • The king chooses two-thirds of the members of the Council.
  • 19.
    • Saudi Arabia is ruled by a hereditary monarchy , which means the government is led by a king who comes from a family that has ruled the country for several generations.
    • The King of Saudi Arabia has been a member of the al-Saud family since the 1920’s.
    • The king and his advisors, many of whom are his family members or influential business and religions leaders in the country, make the laws
    • There is no written constitution, and the king rules for life
    • The people of Saudi Arabia do not choose the king
    • When a king dies, the Saudi family announces who the next king will be from among their male family members
    • Conservative religious leaders also have a great deal of influence in decisions made by the monarchy
  • 20.
    • In the United States and many western nations, religion and politics tend to be separate.
    • In much of the Middle East, however, religion and politics are often mixed.
    • Countries like Iran based their systems of gov’t on religion.
    • Religion is important even in countries that don’t base their governments on religion.
    • Many political parties in the Middle East are religious
    • Many parties represent different branches of Islam.
    • Since the majority of the people in the region are Muslim, religion also influences the way people vote
    • Israel is a democratic state, but it was founded as a Jewish homeland.