Middle east  ottoman empire
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Middle east ottoman empire

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Middle east  ottoman empire Middle east ottoman empire Presentation Transcript

  • Modern Middle East
  • Crusaders
    • the Christians in Europe wanted to take back the Holy Land from the Muslims, so they sent armies there to do the job
    • Pope Urban II started the Crusades in 1095, he sent an army to take the land of Jesus, which is modern day Israel
    • the first crusade was successful, but the Christians slaughtered many Muslims and Jews
    • at the time, the Islamic civilization was more advanced than Europe’s, so soon the Muslim’s, under general Saladin , eventually drove the Christians out
    • Saladin called for a jihad or holy war
  •  
    • The Ottoman Empire began in 1299, in Turkey, which is located in southwestern Asia.
    • It lasted longer than any Muslim empire in history.
    • The empire grew had later included parts of Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Europe.
    • The Turks had been ruled by the Byzantine Empire prior to 1299.
    • By the 13 th century, the Byzantine Empire was in decline.
  •  
    • Osman was a Turkish warrior and a Muslim.
    • He had many followers, called Ottomans.
    • Through successful military campaigns and the promise of booty (wealth taken after battle). Osman gained soldiers and his domain grew.
    • In 1299, Osman conquered the last of the Byzantine villages and the Ottoman Empire began.
    • Osman was the first Ottoman sultan.
    • A sultan is the ruler of a Muslim state.
  • Growth
    • The Ottoman Empire grew fast by taking over many regions.
    • Soon it was one of the largest empires in the world.
    • By 1451, the Ottomans ruled many cities in the Middle East and Europe.
    • Ottoman sultans were great military leaders.
    • In 1453, the Ottomans took Constantinople (later called Istanbul ).
    • Constantinople was the capital of the Ottoman Empire.
    • It was one of the largest cities of the time.
    • For years it had been a center for culture and learning, the seat of both the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire.
    • It had great architecture and art.
    • Adaptability also played an important role in the Ottoman’s success.
    • Rather than forcing the people they conquered to accept Ottoman ways, the Ottomans allowed then to maintain their own religion, culture, and systems of administration.
    • So long as these regions paid tribute (money that a less powerful state pays to a more powerful state), assisted the Ottomans in their military campaigns, and did not revolt against the sultan, they were given freedom to carry out their daily affairs.
    • In addition to Muslim warriors, many Christians fought alongside the early Ottomans.
    • Osman and his earliest successors promised Christian peasants and local leaders wealth in exchange for their service.
    • Since they needed these Christians to help secure and maintain control over the lands they invaded, early Ottoman leaders allowed them to continue practicing their own religion as a way of maintaining their loyalty.
    • Such religious tolerance played a major role in the empire’s early growth.
    • By allowing Christians to practice their faith and serve in important administrative positions, the Ottomans were able to expand rapidly and manage their empire despite often being outnumbered by the Christians they ruled.
    • The 16 th century was the golden age of the Ottoman Empire.
    • Selim I was sultan from 1512 to 1520.
    • He took the empire further south and east, to the present-day areas of Syria, Israel, and Egypt.
    • He was also given the keys to Mecca.
    • Suleiman , the son of Selim I, ruled from 1520 to 1566.
    • He expanded the empire to the west.
    • He moved into Hungary, and captured Belgrade and the island of Rhodes.
    • He was known as Suleiman the Magnificent.
    • He died in 1566, by which time he was the best known Muslim leader in the world.
  • Impact
    • All Ottoman rulers followed Islam.
    • As the empire grew, Islamic culture spread.
    • Many Muslims today still live in Eastern Europe, a remnant of Ottoman culture.
    • The Ottoman Empire controlled many trade routes.
    • It had access to the Persian Gulf, the Black Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea.
    • Europe and Asia were linked by Ottoman trade routes.
    • This connection helped join these distant cultures.
  • Decline
    • After Suleyman’s death, the Ottoman Empire declined over the next 300 years.
    • a Romanian named Vlad the Impaler , (better known as Dracula) drove the Ottomans out of Europe
    • The empire gained and lost territory several times during that period.
    • First, the empire lost parts of Europe.
    • It was called the “ Sick Man of Europe .”
    • During the 19 th century a sense of nationalism (pride in one’s own country) spread across much of the Ottoman Empire.
    • Many people no longer wanted to be ruled by Ottomans.
    • Greece declared independence in 1829.
    • Eventually, after a series of wars that left the Ottoman Empire unable to repay loans from European banks, the outside world imposed a formal break-up of much of the empire.
    • In 1878, the empire gave independence to Serbia, Romania, and Montenegro.
    • By the 20 th century, the Ottoman Empire was weak.
    • It sided with the Central Powers in World War I, which fought against the Allied powers of England, France, Russia, and the United States.
    • The Ottoman troops won only one key battle in World War I, the battle of Gallipoli
    • The British took control of Jerusalem and Baghdad from the Ottomans.
    • Arabia then rose up against Ottoman rule.
    • By 1918, the Ottoman Empire had ended.
    • In 1920, after the end of World War I, the Treaty of Sevres split the land of the Ottoman Empire among Allied, or Western, powers.
    • France was grated mandates over Syria and Lebanon.
    • The United Kingdom was grated Palestine and Iraq.
    • The modern Turkish republic was declared on October 29, 1923.
    • Today, Turkey is the largest Muslim nation in Europe.
  • End of Section 1