Review: 1) Manchuria Incident (1931) : Ultranationalist take over democracy, military fakes attack on Jap. railroad in Chinese Manchuria, Jap invades. 2) Japan Invades Rest of China (1937) : KMT forced to join with CCP to fight Japan.
Competition from Another “Pacific” Power Is on the Horizon
<ul><li>Emperor Hirohito was the man that ordered the attack on __________ which forced the US to join WWII. </li></ul>Pearl Harbor
ANSWER: Natural Resources What was the reason for the attack on Pearl Harbor??? HINT: ( IT HAD SOMETHING TO DO WITH GEOGRAPHY )
Japan’s Vision of the World United States Japan Germany & Italy
1942-1945: Island Hopping : US goes islands to island, est. airbases as they go.
15) 10/1944: Battle of Leyte Gulf : Jap. employ+lose every last ship, 1 st kamkazes used, only Jap. army left (largest naval battle in history: Jap. lose 4 carriers, 3 battleships, 8 cruisers, 12 destroyers)
Japanese Kamikaze Planes: The Scourge of the South Pacific Kamikaze Pilots Suicide Bombers
16 ) 2/1945: Yalta Conference : Big 3 discuss wars end: a) USSR promises to E. Europe have elections b) Join war against Jap. 90 days after Ger. defeat c) USSR will get control over part of Ger. (+part of Berlin) + part of Asia
17) 4/1945: Invasion of Berlin : a) USSR reaches Berlin first, followed by US+UK. b) Hitler commits suicide: VE Day: 5/08/1945 c) 100,000 Germans raped by USSR troops (USSR never punished for this) d) Capital Berlin divided in 4: US/UK/USSR/France
Title: “ WWII: Asia ” 2) 1945: Cold War Begins : As Axis falls, fear of USSR (Communism) rise. USSR likely to keep control of any land they invade.
18) All of 1945: Japanese Firebombing : US bombs Jap. cities, killing 80,000 to 100,000 people each run.
<ul><li>Title: “ WWII: Asia ” </li></ul><ul><li>2-4/1945: Battle of Iwo Jima + Okinawa : US invasion of Jap. home islands, only Jap. army left, but suicidal resistance </li></ul><ul><li>(30-80% US casualty rate). </li></ul>
“ I hear that the enemy is boasting of his demand for unconditional surrender of Japan. Unconditional surrender means that our national structure and our people will be destroyed. Against such boastful talk there is only one measure we must take, to fight to the last.” –Pr. Suzuki, 6/09/1945
Despite great loses in men and equipment, Japan continued to fight savagely. US fighter pilots also fought on the side of the Chinese of which they called themselves the “Fighting Tigers.” The US flew supplies over the Himalayas to help the Nationalist Chinese fight against Japan. One by one, the US began recapturing islands from the Japanese. The US became convinced that only a direct invasion of Japan would lead to an end to the war. The US estimated that it would lose 1 million men in the invasion
7/1945: Atomic Bomb : New US Pres. Truman notified $2 bil (08: $25 bil) bomb project successful
Title: “ WWII: Asia ” 8/06/1945: Hiroshima : Warned of “utter destruction” if no surrender, no response
Hiroshima – August 6, 1945 70,000 killed immediately. 48,000 buildings. destroyed. 100,000s died of radiation poisoning & cancer later.
“ We are in possession of the most destructive explosive ever devised by man. A single one of our newly developed atomic bombs is actually the equivalent in explosive power to what 2000 of our giant B-29s can carry on a single mission. This awful fact is one for you to ponder and we solemnly assure you it is grimly accurate. We have just begun to use this weapon against your homeland. If you still have any doubt, make inquiry as to what happened to Hiroshima… we ask that you now petition the Emperor to end the war. Our president has outlined for you the thirteen consequences of an honorable surrender.”
Nagasaki – August 9, 1945 40,000 killed immediately. 60,000 injured. 100,000s died of radiation poisoning & cancer later.
“ WWII: Asia ” 7) 8/15/1945: Japan Surrenders : Emperor Hirohito orders surrender. US General MacArthur controls Jap.
After the Destruction MacArthur is named Supreme Allied Commander of the Pacific and begins the occupation of Japan
US Occupation-MacArthur Does not try Hirohito for war crimes because he is a popular figure for the people of Japan. Begins food relief efforts for the people of Japan at the cost of over a million dollars a day. Helps set up a democracy by helping draft a US style constitution-Hirohito is a figure head but has no real power. Insist that Japan be allowed into trade alliances.
<ul><li>The Allies, under the command of US General Douglas MacArthur, oversaw </li></ul><ul><li>Japan and the drafting of a new </li></ul><ul><li>constitution after WWII. </li></ul><ul><li>The new constitution established a democratic government, reduced the size of Japan’s military to a defensive force, and allowed for a modified version of the emperor. It also guaranteed certain human rights and extended women the right to vote. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1951, Japan became independent again. However, it kept a close relationship with the US. </li></ul><ul><li>The US poured lots of money into rebuilding Japan and helped it grow economically. Today, Japan is one of the wealthiest and economically strongest nations in the world. </li></ul>
Outcomes for Japan Japan has a modern economic miracle. Best educated work force in the world. Women granted rights Old power structure, and class system broken down and replaced. Peasants could and did own property. Democracy still reigns to this day.