India government


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India government

  1. 1. <ul><li>THE REPUBLIC OF INDIA </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>By the 18th century, India was under the control of the British East India Company. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>In 1858, the British crown abolished the East India Company and assumed direct rule over India. </li></ul><ul><li>India was the “crown jewel” of the British Empire until independence was achieved in 1947. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>JUST SO YOU KNOW </li></ul><ul><li>Until 1947, India was never one single country but a collection of kingdoms and areas with no sense of unity. </li></ul><ul><li>Until its independence in 1947, Pakistan, Bangladesh (formerly East Pakistan), Myanmar (formerly Burma), and distant places like Aden in present day Yemen--were all parts of British India and were all considered as India. </li></ul>
  5. 5. After India gained independence from Great Britain, it took nearly three years for the newly independent nation to complete its new constitution. The new constitution was a long and intricate document.
  6. 6. Republic of India <ul><li>India is a federal republic with a parliamentary system of government. </li></ul><ul><li>The capital of India is New Delhi. </li></ul>
  7. 7. India is a Federal System <ul><li>India is made up of twenty-eight (28) states and seven (7) centrally administered Union Territories. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two (2) states are partially claimed by Pakistan and China. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. India Is A Federal System <ul><li>It is relatively centralized, but its twenty-eight (28) states and seven (7) territories also govern themselves (similar to the United States). </li></ul><ul><li>The federal government controls the most essential government functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>defense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>foreign policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>taxation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>public expenditures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>economic (industrial) planning </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. India’s Legislature <ul><li>India has a bicameral parliament (2 chambers): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rajya Sabha (Council of States) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lok Sabha (House of the People) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. India’s Legislature <ul><li>India’s legislature is called the Federal Parliament. It is divided into two houses. </li></ul><ul><li>The upper house is the Council of the States, it and possesses considerable power, except in budget matters. </li></ul>
  11. 11. India’s Legislature <ul><li>The powerhouse of India’s Federal Parliament is the House of the People. It is modeled after the British House of Commons. </li></ul><ul><li>An interesting aspect of the lower house is that it reserves a certain number of seats for groups that were victims of past discrimination, including former untouchables (outcasts). </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>The government exercises its broad administrative powers in the name of the president, whose duties are largely ceremonial. </li></ul><ul><li>The president and vice-president are elected indirectly for 5-year terms by a special electoral college. Their terms are staggered, and the vice-president does not automatically become the president following the death or removal from office of the president. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Real national executive power is centered </li></ul><ul><li>in the Council of Ministers (cabinet), led </li></ul><ul><li>by the prime minister. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Prime Minister <ul><li>The leader of the majority party in the Council of States (Lok Sabha) becomes the prime minister. </li></ul><ul><li>The prime minister nominates a cabinet from members of parliament. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are called the Council of Ministers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power is concentrated in the office of the prime minister where most of the important laws originate . </li></ul>
  15. 15. India’s Legislature <ul><ul><li>The prime minister is responsible to the parliament. </li></ul></ul>