Exploration and colonization updated 11 12
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Exploration and colonization updated 11 12 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. EQ: What was the impact of exploration and colonization on Europe?
  • 2.
    • God – spread of Christianity
    • Goods – to trade and become wealthy (gold and spices)
    • Glory – explorers were seen as heroes if they discovered new lands
    Reasons for Exploration
  • 3.
    • Military expeditions were sent out by the Catholic Church to capture the Holy Land from the Muslim Turks.
      • This was not successful but it did have positive results
        • Europeans learned how to draw better maps and build better ships
        • Exposed Europeans to spices and goods from the East.
    Crusades, the start of it all…
  • 4.
    • European countries were looking for trade routes to India and China
      • Did not want to go through Mediterranean Sea, dangerous territory
    • Wanted access to the spices that were available
      • Cut out the Middle man and get products cheaper
    • This increased the empires of …..
    Exploration Begins
  • 5.
    • The 1400s were a time of discovery and exploration for Europe.
    • Main countries involved in exploration:
      • Portugal
      • Spain
      • England
      • France
  • 6.  
  • 7.  
  • 8.
    • 1st Europeans to explore the unknown New World
    • 1st to sail around the tip of Africa to Asia
    • Also wanted to spread Christianity
    • Mainly explored what is now Brazil in the New World--this is why Brazilian culture today is heavily influenced by Portugal
    PORTUGAL
  • 9.
    • Son of Portuguese king
    • 1418: started the first school for navigation (taught map making, navigation, and astronomy)
    • 1434: sent an expedition to sail around dangerous West African coast
    • Made more than 50 trips down Africa’s west coast
    Prince Henry the Navigator
  • 10. Prince Henry the Navigator
  • 11. Institute of Sagres
    • The Institute of Sagres was an important research center in Portugal where several breakthrough discoveries in mathematics and naval technology occurred.
  • 12. Institute of Sagres
  • 13. Technology Advances!
    • the compass
    • the astrolabe
    • the cross-staff
    • the caravel
  • 14.
    • According to legend, beyond this point in an area known as the "Green Sea of Darkness," the sun was so close to the Earth that a person’s skin would burn black, the sea boiled, ships caught on fire, and monsters hid waiting to smash the ships and eat the sailors. It took fourteen voyages over a period of 12 years until a ship finally reached the equator.
  • 15.
    • For the next 300 years, Portuguese sailors continued to explore East Africa where they established trading forts and posts
      • By 1571, a string of outposts connected Portugal to Africa, India, South Pacific Islands and Japan
    • Portugal grew wealthy from these trade routes, but its most profitable colony was Brazil.
    Portugal’s Empire
  • 16.
    • Very curious about the New World
    • Wanted to have a larger empire
    • Searched for spices, gold, and silver
      • So they began searching for a quicker route to Asia through or around North and South America
    • Used missionaries to spread Christianity
    • Needed gold and silver to pay for wars with the Turkish Empire
    SPAIN
  • 17.
    • King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella (Spain) sent him to find another way to Asia
    • 1492: first expedition--landed in the Caribbean and called it “ the Indies”
    • Made 4 trips to the Caribbean from 1492-1504
    Christopher Columbus
  • 18. Four Voyages of Columbus
  • 19.
    • Huge empire that spanned the globe
    • Spanish conquistadors conquered civilizations in South America.
      • Looking for gold and spices
      • Missionaries converted natives to Christianity
    • Claimed huge areas of North and South America and ruled them for over 300 years.
    Spain’s Empire
  • 20. Line of Demarcation
    • The Treaty of Tordesillas signed in 1494, divided the New World into Spanish and the Portuguese territories along the meridian 46 degrees West.
    • The lands to the east would belong to Portugal and the lands to the west to Spain.
    • Pope Alexander VI drew the line to avoid conflict.
  • 21. Line(s) of Demarcation
  • 22.
    • Searched for riches, gold, and silver (like Spain, but navy wasn’t as powerful)
    • At one time Great Britain controlled: Canada, Australia, India, parts of Africa, and many islands
    • Controlled America until 1776, Canada until the 20 th century
    • Colonized Australia and used it as a penal colony (prison colony)
    ENGLAND
  • 23. The Sun Never Sets
    • Eventually, after colonizing parts of Africa and Asia, the British Empire became the largest empire in history.
    • At the peak of its power, it was often said that “ The sun never sets on the British Empire " because it was so big that the sun was always shining on at least one of its many colonies.
  • 24. One-fourth of the World
    • By 1921, the British Empire controlled about 458 million people (a quarter of the world's population at that time).
    • It covered about 14.2 million square miles, about a quarter of Earth's total land area.
    • Cartoon showing Brit, Cecil Rhodes and his desire to control all of Africa.
  • 25.
    • Wanted a large empire, spices and riches, and to spread Christianity
    • Also really wanted animal furs (beaver)
        • Enjoyed wearing hats and coats made out of animal skins
    FRANCE
  • 26.
    • France possessed colonies around the world from 1600 to 1900.
    • Also dominated much of the European Continent
      • By 1812, France controlled much of Germany, Italy and France
    • Heavy influence on parts of Canada (Quebec)
    France’s Empire
  • 27. French Empire
    • France had two different empires. The first (1608-1803), was in the Americas. The second (1830-1960), was in Africa and Asia.
  • 28. Fur Trading
    • In Canada, Quebec’s people traded their furs for many French goods such as metal objects, guns, alcohol, and clothing.
  • 29.