I. Earth’s Resources – resources that the Earth
provides for us.
A. Natural Resources – natural material that are
used by humans.
1. Examples – water, petroleum, minerals,
forest, and animals
2. Most resources are changed and made into
products that make people’s lives more
comfortable and convenient
3. Energy we get from many of these resources,
such as gasoline and wind, ultimately comes from
the sun’s energy.
II. Renewable Resources
A. A renewable resource is a natural resource that
can be replaced at the same rate at which the
resource is used.
1. Examples: Trees and water
III. Nonrenewable Resources
A. A nonrenewable resource is a resource that
forms at a rate that is much slower than the rate at
which it is consumed.
1. Examples: Coal, Petroleum, and natural
VI. Conserving Natural Resources
A. Energy Conservation – most of the natural
resources that provide us energy are
1. To conserve natural resources, you should
try to use them only when necessary.
a. Turn the faucet on only to rinse
b. Turn lights off when you
are not using them
c. Make sure washing machines are
full before you start them
d. Ride a bike, walk, or take a bus
B. Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle
1. Recycling – is the process of reusing
materials from waste or scrap. (Examples:
Newspaper, Aluminum cans, plastic, and
2. Though energy is required to recycle
materials, it takes less energy to recycle than it
does to make new ones.
C. Conserving resources also means taking care of
the resources even when you are not using them
1. Keep lakes, rivers, and other water
resources free of pollution
I. Energy Resources
A. Energy resources are natural resources that
humans use to generate energy.
B. Most of the energy we use comes from a group
of natural resources called fossil fuels
1. A fossil fuel is a nonrenewable energy
resource formed from the remains of plants and
animals that lived long age.
2. Examples: petroleum, coal, and natural gas
C. Energy is released from fossil fuels when they
II. Types of Fossil Fuels
A. Liquid Fossil Fuels: Petroleum
1. A liquid mixture of complex hydrocarbon
compounds is called petroleum (known as crude oil)
2. Examples: gasoline, jet fuel, kerosene, diesel fuel,
and fuel oil.
3. More than 40% of the worlds energy comes from
B. Gaseous Fossil Fuel: Natural Gas
1. A gaseous mixture of hydrocarbons is called
2. Most natural gas is used for heating, but it is also
used to generate electrical energy.
3. An advantage of using natural gas is that using it
causes less air pollution than other fossil fuels, however
natural gas is very flammable.
C. Solid Fossil Fuels: Coal
1. The solid fossil fuel that humans use
most is coal
2. Coal is a fossil fuel that is formed
underground from partially decomposed
3. Burning coal produces large amounts of
4. People have reduced their use of coal,
however many power plants still burn coal to
generate electrical energy.
III. How do Fossil Fuels Form?
A. Petroleum and natural gas form mainly form the
remains of microscopic sea organism
B. Coal forms underground over millions of years
when pressure and heat cause changes in the
remains of swamp plants.
VI. Where are Fossil Fuels Found?
A. Fossil fuels are found in many parts of the
B. Some fossil fuels are found on land, while other
fossil fuels are found beneath the ocean.
V. How Do We Obtain Fossil Fuels?
A. The kind and location of fuel
determines the method used to remove
B. People remove petroleum and natural
gas from Earth by drilling wells into rock
that contains these resources.
C. People obtain coal either by mining
deep beneath Earth’s surface or by
VI. Problems with Fossil Fuels
A. Although fossil fuels provide the energy we need,
the methods of obtaining and using them can have
negative effects on the environment
B. Acid Rain- is rain, sleet, or snow that has a high
concentration of acids, often because of air
pollutants. Acid precipitation negatively affects
wildlife, plants, buildings, and statues.
C. Coal Mining –
1.surface mining removes soil, which some plants
need for growth and some animals need for shelter.
2. can also lower water tables and pollute water
3. underground mines have the potential to
collapse endangering the lives of miners.
D. Petroleum Problems – Producing,
transporting, and using petroleum can
cause environmental problems and
E. Smog – is photochemical haze that
forms when sunlight acts on industrial
pollutants and burning fuels.
I. Type of Alternative Resource
A. Describe and Explain
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