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A short video Clip
How do we know what it looks like?
Geologist record the seismic waves that
earthquakes make and study how they
travel through Earth.
The speed of these seismic waves and
the path they take reveals how the
planet is put together.
Temperature – increases as you descend
Pressure (force pushing on a surface area)-
the deeper you go the greater the pressure.
Layer of rock that forms Earth’s
Includes both the dry land
(continental) and ocean floor
Extra: Oceanic is DENSER so it sits
BELOW the continental
the amount of mass in a
The deepest hole ever drilled into the
continental crust was in the Kola
Peninsula, in Russia.
It was 12,226 meters deep!
Because the temperature of the crust
increases with depth, it is impossible to drill
much deeper into the crust.
A layer of hot rock
The uppermost part of the mantle and the
crust together form a rigid layer called the
Temperature and pressure in the mantle
increase with depth
Layer beneath the lithosphere that is less rigid
then the rock above it is the asthenosphere.
The material in this layer can flow slowly
Extra: Sometimes it’s called the
3. The core
Metal iron and nickel make up both parts
of the core
Outer core is a layer of molten metal that
surrounds the inner core (LIQUID)
Inner core is a dense ball of SOLID
metal, where extreme pressure squeezes
the atoms of iron and nickel so much that
they cannot spread out and become a
Currents in the liquid outer core force
the solid inner core to spin at a slightly
faster rate than the rest of the planet.
These currents in the outer core also
create Earth’s magnetic field, which
causes the planet to act like a giant bar
What are the four main
layers of the Earth?
What is the difference
between the oceanic
and continental crust?
What’s the difference
between the inner and