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  • 1.
  • 2. I. Crust – the surface layer of the earth A. Continental: land not under the oceans B. Average of 32km, but can be as thick as 70km II. Oceanic A. Ocean floor B. Average of 8km thick Review: Which one is denser?
  • 3. a. The forces that pull and push on the earth’s crust b. Causes deformation – the tilting, breaking or folding of rock
  • 4. Compression – squeezes the rocks of the crust, decreasi ng volume, increa sing density Think: Covergent
  • 5. Tension – pull the rocks of the crust, increasing volume, decreasing density Think: Divergent
  • 6. Shearing – the crust being pushed in opposite directions causing the rocks to tear and twist Think: transform
  • 7. a. Shearing b. Tension c. Compression
  • 8. c. Fracture – cracks in rocks d. Fault – crack along which rocks move sideways, up, or down. i. Fault block mountains form from the normal faults pushing up rock ii. Rift valleys form when land between normal faults slide down
  • 9. e. Folding – a bend in the rock i. Anticline – an upward fold ii. Syncline – a downward fold iii. Appalachian mountains are made from folds
  • 10. i. Higher temperatures will cause folding/lower temps. cause faulting ii. Greater pressure causes folding/lower pressure causes faulting Rock type iii. Brittle rock will more likely fault iv. Ductile (bendable) rock will more likely fold v. Pressure applied gradually will cause folding/fast will cause faulting
  • 11. What’s the difference between anticline and syncline folding?!