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  1. 1. The Life and Legacy of Confucius <ul><li>Born in 551B.C.E. to a noble but poor family. </li></ul><ul><li>Confucius died in 479 B. C. E. </li></ul><ul><li>Confucius was an exceptional student who later became a teacher and a government official. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Confucius <ul><li>Born in 551 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>died in 479 B.C. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Confucianism <ul><li>Concerned primarily with restoring social stability and order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the basis of a stable, unified, and enduring social order? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>a system of social and ethical philosophy- </li></ul>NOT A RELIGION
  4. 4. Confucianism <ul><li>A system of social and ethical philosophy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ only when character is cultivated are our families regulated; only when families are regulated are states well governed.”- Confucius </li></ul></ul>How do you cultivate one’s character? EDUCATION
  5. 5. Human Qualities <ul><li>What is maturity? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the highest human virtue? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the best way to behave? </li></ul><ul><li>How can one be a cultured person? </li></ul><ul><li>How can one best govern? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Confucius’s Solution <ul><li>Confucius’s solutions centered on human relationships and drew from the sages of ancient times. </li></ul><ul><li>At the time of his death, Confucius was considered a failure. </li></ul><ul><li>However, his influence in China and around the world continues to this day. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Analects of Confucius <ul><li>The single most important Confucian work. </li></ul><ul><li>In Chinese, it means “conversation.” </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on practicalities of interpersonal relationships and the relationship of the role of rulers and ministers to the conduct of government. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Analects of Confucius What the gentleman demands is something of himself. What the petty man demands is something of others. Anyone learning without thought is lost, anyone thinking but not learning is in peril.
  9. 9. The Analects of Confucius <ul><li>Knowing what he knows and knowing what he doesn’t know, is characteristics of the person who knows. </li></ul><ul><li>Making a mistake and not correcting it, is making another mistake. </li></ul><ul><li>The superior man blames himself; the inferior man blames others. </li></ul><ul><li>To go too far is as wrong as to fall short. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Confucianism “ The gentleman agrees with others without being an echo. The small man echoes without being in agreement.” Analects 15.30 “ If one is guided by profits in one’s actions, one will incur much ill will.” Analects 14.24 “ Never kiss a fool, or be fooled by a kiss.”
  11. 11. Three Schools of Thought <ul><li>Legalists: Stern rule of law and harsh punishments </li></ul><ul><li>Mohist: universal love, even towards enemies. </li></ul><ul><li>Taoist: cared little about societal improvement and believed that the path to human happiness lay in the individualistic pursuit of harmony with nature. </li></ul>
  12. 12. 1. Ruler Subject 2. Father Son 3. Husband Wife 4. Older Brother Younger Brother 5. Older Friend Younger Friend 5 Principle Relationships
  13. 13. Human Relationships <ul><li>Self = the center of all relationships and is constantly changing and growing towards maturity. </li></ul><ul><li>Family = each person has a clear sense of place and purpose. Good behavior and respect for elders are important in the family. </li></ul><ul><li>Government = the leader has acquired the moral perfectionm needed to lead by the power of example. </li></ul><ul><li>Heaven = represents the ultimate moral force that guides and nurtures humanity. </li></ul>