7th middle eastern governments


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7th middle eastern governments

  1. 1. Middle East Unit Three Government & Economics
  2. 2. Iran <ul><li>In 1979, the Islamic, or Iranian, revolution overthrew the monarchy that had ruled Iran for centuries. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, Iran is a theocratic (theocracy) republic . </li></ul><ul><li>This means that the government is based on religious principals (Islam) and the wishes of its people. </li></ul><ul><li>The head of state is the Supreme Leader, who is always an ayatollah , or recognized religious authority. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>The Supreme Leader is chosen by the Assembly of Experts and holds the position for life. </li></ul><ul><li>The assembly consists of 86 religious scholars. </li></ul><ul><li>The people elect the assembly and the president by popular vote. </li></ul><ul><li>The president governs based on the religious guidance of the ayatollah. </li></ul><ul><li>The supreme leader has final say over many of the president’s decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>The president can serve two terms of four years each. </li></ul><ul><li>Current leader – Mahmoud Ahmadinejad </li></ul><ul><li>Iran’s legislature is called the Consultative assembly . </li></ul><ul><li>Citizens 16 and older can vote for the 290 members of the Assembly. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Israel <ul><li>Israel has a representative parliamentary democracy . </li></ul><ul><li>The head of state is the president, who actually does not have much power – current president -Shimon Peres </li></ul><ul><li>The Israeli prime minister is the head of the government – current PM – Benjamin Netanyahu </li></ul><ul><li>The legislature elects the president. </li></ul><ul><li>The president then chooses the head of the largest political party to be the prime minister. </li></ul><ul><li>The prime minister must organize a coalition to govern. </li></ul><ul><li>A coalition is a group of several different political parties that have to cooperate in order to make decisions. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>This type of government is known as a coalition government. </li></ul><ul><li>The Israeli legislature is called the Knesset. </li></ul><ul><li>The Knesset holds most of the power in the Israeli government. </li></ul><ul><li>Israelis eighteen and older elect these officials by popular vote. </li></ul><ul><li>While most of Israel’s Jewish citizens see themselves as secular, meaning they do not feel the country’s laws should be based solely on religious beliefs, many Israeli laws are influenced by the Orthodox Jews, those who want government policy to be made according to religious law </li></ul><ul><li>These people represent about 25 percent of the Israeli population. </li></ul><ul><li>Elections are held in Israel every four years </li></ul>
  6. 6. Saudi Arabia <ul><li>Saudi Arabia's government is one of the few absolute monarchies in the world today. </li></ul><ul><li>The government is a monarchy governed by Islamic Shari’a Law .(law based on the Quran) </li></ul><ul><li>In 2004, however, the Saudi government began allowing men who are 21 and older to vote for half of their local officials. </li></ul><ul><li>Men can also vote for one-third of the members of the legislature. </li></ul><ul><li>The king has a cabinet called the Council of Ministers. </li></ul><ul><li>Current King - ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud </li></ul><ul><li>The Council mostly consists of members of the royal family. </li></ul><ul><li>The Saudi legislature is called the Consultative Council. </li></ul><ul><li>The king chooses two-thirds of the members of the Council. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Saudi Arabia is ruled by a hereditary monarchy , which means the government is led by a king who comes from a family that has ruled the country for several generations. </li></ul><ul><li>The King of Saudi Arabia has been a member of the al-Saud family since the 1920’s. </li></ul><ul><li>The king and his advisors, many of whom are his family members or influential business and religions leaders in the country, make the laws </li></ul><ul><li>There is no written constitution, and the king rules for life </li></ul><ul><li>The people of Saudi Arabia do not choose the king </li></ul><ul><li>When a king dies, the Saudi family announces who the next king will be from among their male family members </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative religious leaders also have a great deal of influence in decisions made by the monarchy </li></ul>
  8. 8. Religion and Southwest Asian Governments <ul><li>In the United States and many western nations, religion and politics tend to be separate. </li></ul><ul><li>In much of the Middle East, however, religion and politics are often mixed. </li></ul><ul><li>Countries like Iran based their systems of gov’t on religion. </li></ul><ul><li>Religion is important even in countries that don’t base their governments on religion. </li></ul><ul><li>Many political parties in the Middle East are religious </li></ul><ul><li>Many parties represent different branches of Islam. </li></ul><ul><li>Since the majority of the people in the region are Muslim, religion also influences the way people vote </li></ul><ul><li>Israel is a democratic state, but it was founded as a Jewish homeland. </li></ul>