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The use of ICT in teaching visual arts and design

The use of ICT in teaching visual arts and design

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  • 1. MARA University of Technology FACULTY OF EDUCATION EDU 702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Lecturer: Dr. Johan @ Eddy Luaran RESEARCH PROPOSAL To study the use of ICT in teaching visual arts & design Name : Noor Hasmida Binti Mohd Khair Student ID : 2013895956 Email: hasmidakhair@gmail.com HP: 019-3086958 Date of Submission: 20 December 2013
  • 2. Table of Contents Table of Contents........................................................................................................................................2 CHAPTER 1 1.1 Background of Study ICT is the short form of Information and Communications Technology. According to Hardy (2000), information and communications technology (ICT) is used to refer to the variety of tools and techniques relating to computer, to communication including both directed and broadcast, to information sources such as CD-ROM and the internet, and to associated technologies such as robots, video conferencing and digital TV. In other words, ICT is a devices that can design, store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit or receive information in a digital form (Tinio, n.d). ICT in visual arts and design are synonym. According to Davies (2003), ICT and arts have a strongest connection. In arts education ICT function as a creative tool. Visual arts and design is a kind of study in producing something. Visual can be defined as something that we can see through our eyes (Oxford Dictionaries, 2013). For examples advertising on billboard, painting, photos, and sculpture. Arts can be defined as an expression that conceive image (Ocvick et al., 2006). According to D. Preble, S. Preble and Frank (1999), design can be defined as the process of making visual form. In arts and design education, arts have been divided by several departments such as ceramic, graphics, photography, fine arts, textile, fine metal,
  • 3. industry design and printing. All of them have own strength in making an artwork. Besides study arts for career, arts also important for our minds as exercise is for our bodies. 1.2 Statement of Problem At any lower or higher institutions, visual arts and design subject always gets negative response from students. Most of the responses come from the students who are not interested in learning visual arts subject. Impact of this, students intentionally not to bring the material used during visual arts and design classes, so they need not to participate in class and more worse than that, they willing to skip class.There are many causes that make this situation happened. One of the causes is they have lack of information about career in the future. They do not know what is the opportunity in art career. According to Phelps and Maddison (2008), observed that ICT as important link to student career such as illustrators, graphic designers or architects. It makes them to think learning visual art only wasting their time. Others causes is students think visual arts and design not an important subject.They more prefer to give full attention to subjects that can secure their future. Like mathematics, science and english language. According to Biggs (1995, as cited in Chi, 2001), students are only interested to learn subjects that important and usefull to them. Effect from this perception make more students think visual and design subject not an important subject. Others than that students have lack of skills in visual art and design. Lack of skill make them feel hard to produce a good artwork. If the basic skill like skecthes they do not know, then it will make the students feel more bad. In a research stated that a student with normal skill achievement, also can successful in produce a better work after
  • 4. using ICT (Ellis, 2004 as cited in Moore, 2005). Therefore, this study will determine the used of ICT in helping students interest to learn visual arts design. 1.3 Research Objective The purpose of this study is to find the used of ICT in teaching visual arts and design. Thus the objective of study are to : i. To determine the used of ICT in motivating students towards learning visual arts and design. ii. To identify the potential of ICT in improving the quality of student’s artwork iii. To identify the effectiveness of ICT in teaching visual arts and design. 1.4 Research Questions i. How to motivate students in learning visual arts and design by using ICT in teaching? ii. How ICT can improving the quality of student’s artwork? iii. Does ICT effective in enhance the level of teaching visual arts and design?
  • 5. 1.5 Research Hypotheses The research hypotheses for this study is : Ho : Does ICT can enhance the level of teaching visual arts and design? 1.6 Operational Definitions The operational definitions of this study are : 1.6.1 Information Communications and Technologies (ICT) : According to Dunmill and Arslanagic (2006), ICT is a variety of tool hardware and software. For hardware such as individual computers, scanners and digital camera and for software such as database programs and multimedia programs in computer programs. Besides that, telecommunication products also an ICT such as phones, faxes, moderns, video and web camera. All the types of ICT is function as a devices to access, retrieve, store, organise, editing, present, send material, and communicate over the world by using digital. In this study, ICT is refer to teaching tools to help students in learning visual arts and design. 1.6.2 Visual Art and Design : Visual can be defined as something that we can see through our eyes (Oxford Dictionaries, 2013). For examples advertising on billboard, painting, photos, and sculpture. Arts can be defined as an expression that conceive image (Ocvick et al., 2006) and according to D. Preble, S. Preble and Frank (1999), design can be defined as the process of
  • 6. making visual form. In this study, visual arts and design can be defined as one of the subject of study that teach students to enhance their creativity in creating something new. 1.6.3 Motivation : Motivation can be defined as the respond of motivating that caused an individual to take action (Merriam-Webster, 1997 as cited in K. Williams and C. Williams, 2011). In this study, motivation is refer to the students who eager to learns visual arts and design after teacher used ICT in teaching. 1.7 Limitation of the study The small size of sample which is 40 students cannot be generalize to the whole population. The time allocated to do this research is very limited. Hence it might effect the output or result from the respondents about ICT. Besides that, attitude of the respondents also can effect the data collection, its also might not be hundred persent successful. 1.8 Significance of the Study The significance of this study is to give an aware especially to people who are involved in visual art and design education. Hopefully, this study can give some ideas to students, teachers, Faculty Education (UiTM) and Ministry of Education. For students visual art and design, it can make them more aware about the used of ICT in enhance their skills in arts. According to Bushati et al. (n.d), one of the advantages of ICT is it can increase skill of
  • 7. students.For teachers, they can start learning about ICT in enhance their creativity in teaching. It is importance especially in order to motivate students give attention in class. K. Williams and C. Williams (2011), convinced that teachers play an importance role in motivate students to learn. From this study, which is about the use of ICT in teaching visual and design. Hopefully from the output of this study, it can give some ideas to all teachers, in enhance thecreativity in preparation teaching tool by using ICT. Besides that teachers can evaluate the effectiveness of their own teaching and start learning to use the computer as a medium of teaching. This study also usefull to Faculty Education (UiTM) in enhancing the quality of prospective teachers in visual art and design who are knowledgeable in using ICT to preparing teaching materials. In addition, this study also to support the Ministry of education which has created the visual arts subjects at the lower and upper secondary school. By using ICT in teaching, it can recognize the potential of creativity that exists within themselves. It should be continued to higher education for creative thinking in produce something unique and valuable. It is an honour to achieve the vision of ICT in education which is to make the learning system and school suitable for the 21st Century (Tinio,n.d). 1.9 Conclusion This chapter has covered the background of study, the statement of the research problem, the research objectives, the research questions, the research hypotheses, the operational definition of the term used in this study, the limitation and the significance of the study. The literature review of the topics related to this topic will be presented in the next chapter.
  • 8. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 Introduction In this study, the researcher want to identify the used of ICT in teaching visual arts and design. Summarized in the following review of the literature are in three sections. First section is a definition of motivation, afactor to improve students motivation, ICT and motivation and a way how to use ICTin motivating students learn arts. Second section is the definiton, the functions and the advantages of ICT and the ways to improving quality of artwork by using ICT. Third sections are the definition of Visual Arts and Design, what excellent visual art teaching look like and the effectiveness of ICT in enhance teaching level in visual art and design.
  • 9. 2.1 Motivating students to learn visual arts and design using ICT. The main action that educators need to do in improving learning is a motivation (K. Williams and C. Williams, 2011). Motivation can be defined as the respond of motivating that caused an individual to take action (Merriam-Webster, 1997 as cited in K. Williams and C. Williams, 2011). Educators can identify whether their students are motivated or not. According to Palmer (2011, as cited in K. Williams and C. Williams, 2011), stated that educators can know students are motivated when a student give an attention during class, do their homework on time, always asking question and always answer question, and the student look happy and enthusiastic during learning. According to research K. Williams and C. Williams (2011), there are five factors in improving students motivation which include the student, teacher, content, method or process
  • 10. and environment. Strong evidence shows that students will be motivated to learn when we know their interest, we know their necessity such as when they are hungry and we know their mood. Besides, the students also can be motivated when they know how to get good result without loss focus and energy, learn something that have significance, have a good achievement in GPA, no fear for public speaking , have enough time to study, have a good lecture attendance, and know the value of educational plan for long term. Second factor is about the teacher. The role of a teacher is importance in motivating students to learn. A good teacher is when he or she has a special influence to encourage student to always think positive and calm. The teacher also need to have a qualification, subject knowledge and good motivational level, know on how to give a test that are motivated, know about scientific management and human relations such as encourage students to learn technology, know how to build on students strengths, know how to make a bonding with students, know the student activities and interest and the last one as a good teacher, he or she must be an eager person. The third factor is about the content. In Malaysia, each instituition need to provide a great content for their students. Students will be more motivated to learn when they have any experience of success and achievement, they should be given choices and allowed to determine their learning activities and assignments. In the content, they learn about creativity and critical thinking, novelty, variety, timely and suitable to real life. Nowadays, students more expose to ICT such facebook and you tube (Manzo, 2010 as cited in K. Williams and C. Williams, 2011). So, when the content was provided, it needs a contain of technology and information from internet. In addition, the instituition should hold an advisory programs, cooperating learning, counseling sessions with friends and also community service as the learning content. The fourth factor is about the method or process of learning. The method of learning should flexible, verbal , use variety of framing of teaching, have objective, relevance, have discussion, have strategies, have positive social interactions, storytelling, enhanced lecture and have quiz. Educators also need to give students rewards and praise in each students improvement. The last factor is about the environment. To increase
  • 11. motivation of students, each instituitions in Malaysia should provide a great and good environment. The environment must suitable with the need of students and teachers. It should have an environment for academic tutorial, individual, teamwork, online learning, and environment that easy to concentrate on study. By practising all the factors, surely students will take an effort to accomplish good results. According Syed Noor Amin (2013), described that ICT can give motivation to learn. “ICTs such as video, television and multimedia computer software that combine text, sound and colourful moving images can be used to provide challenging and authentic content that will engage the student in the learning process and interactive radio likewise makes use of sound effects, songs, dramatizations, comic skits, and other performance conventions to compel the students to listen and become more involved in the lessons being delivered” (Syed Noor Aman, 2013, p.7). There are many researcher strongly agree that the used of ICT in classroom can motivated students to learns.Dunmill and Arslanagic (2006) stated that many studies have show students are more motivated to study when teachers use a relevant ICT to support their learning. Passey et al. (2003) also stated that ICT was motivational because it makes students learn to improving the quality of their assignment. Moore (2005), observed that the positive effect when using ICT in class, we can see the students will give attention and effort. In the researchTrimmel and Bachman (2004, as cited in Moore, 2005)concluded that school attendance and learning interest of students was excellent when teachers bring laptops in classrooms.From all the researcher statement, it can be concluded that the positive impact using ICT in class, it will increasing learner motivations which is the students will give an effort to learn, more focus and improve the quality artwork. In order to motivating students in learning visual arts and design is by using ICT. In article Swanson (2012) stated that, students will be more motivated to learn if they can use ICT in class. She give example of activities using ICT that very easy to do by teacher to teach arts.
  • 12. As a guide for teacher to motivate students learn arts, allowed student critique your artwork, tell them about current art issues, create activities around students interest, use popular culture as example, stir up controversy, discuss about the careers in visual art, use technology in teaching, lets students explore, show students the solution of each probelm, display variety of work, help students discover what art they like, help students find artist that inspire them, make art history fun, make art museum fun, help students discover one area they’re successful and explain the hundreds of disciplines in ‘Art’. To convey all the information, teacher can use ICT such as videos, use a Smart Board, make Power Points, join Artsonia and set up an online art gallery, do internet research or visit a museum online. For example, give them a freedom to use digital cameras, camcorders, adobe photoshop in order to finish their task. Beside that, to make a student love to learn art history, teacher need to find creative ways such as create scavenger hunts, play art history games and watch movies. Teacher also can display various of artwork in video. It will be more attractive than read from hardcopy or a book. According to Bigg (1995, as cited in Chi, 2001), only the significant and meaningful things can motivate students to learn. In the research by Chi (2001), he described about how popular culture can motivate secondary students towards learning english language. He said a key of effective teaching and learning is by using popular culture. The word ‘popular’ can be defined as famous and also become trend. The word ‘culture’ can be defined as the ‘customs, values, laws, technology, artefacts and art of a particular time or people. Popular culture here mean the technology (ICT) itself. Technology can motivated students to learn because teenager are more closer with popular culture (ICT) than any other age group. For example,a teacher want to enhanced the vocabulary among students. During class, teacher can play a video of a song. Teacher may choose the famous songs like “You are not alone” by Michael Jackson. This song use a simple word and the sound very slow and nice. Effects to the students is by bring a famous singer in class can attract them to memorize the song. The objective to enhance
  • 13. vocabulary among students also more easy to achieve. It shows, if the educator is creative in using ICT in teaching visual arts and design, it will automatically attract their interest to learning. After the motivation of students increase, they will give an effort to improving their learning about visual arts and design. Through improving motivation, ICT impacted on the quality of students artwork (Passey et al.,2003). 2.2 The potential of ICT in improving the qualities of student’s artwork. What is ICT and is the function of ICT? ICT refer to information communication and technologies. ICT is a variety of tool hardware and software. For hardware such as individual computers, scanners and digital camera and for software such as database programs and multimedia programs in computer programs. Besides that, telecommunication products also an ICT such as phones, faxes, moderns, video and web camera. All the types of ICT is function as a devices to access, retrieve, store, organise, editing, present, send material, and communicate over the world by using digital media (Dunmill and Arslanagic, 2006). According to Tinio (2002), ICT can be defined as a range of technology equipments and resources used to communicate, to design, spread, store and handle information. It is computers, the internet, radio, television and telephone. Besides that, there are many advantages of using ICT in education. By using
  • 14. ICT, students can learn anywhere and anytime, students skills can increase, give teaching to the needs of students, give teaching by personal communication, education more excellent, the costs more cheaper than traditional education, give educational programs more widely and favorable personal studying for students (Bushati et al.,n.d). According to Hassan Ghazali (2006), there are advantages using ICT in teaching and learning. It is easier for student to ask question by email to lectures, function for distance learning, no limitation of time to study, students can choose their content of learning, can enhance english language proficiency because there are a lot of sources in english language, make students more confident and lastly can access variety of information from over the world. In a research Davies et al. (2003), they lists the factors encourage the achievement of creative work using ICT in art and design which is value, motivation, creativity, access, resources, connections and funding. All the factors make ICT become a need especially in part of creativity.ICT have a strongest link with art and design because it is one of the creative tool. From the literature above, we can see the potential of ICT in improving the qualities of student’s artwork. According to article Bacon et al. (2001), they list about the characteristics of effective practise using ICT. One of the characteristics is the quality in artwork. Educators can know whether their students have the characteristics of quality in their artwork or not. It is when your students can redraft all ideas in their presentation to make it more better, students have brilliant ideas on how they use ICT in improve the quality of artwork, students can participate in a task and can explain what they have done and why, students show them really proud and happy about the value at artwork they produce, students also can give full attention in producing standard artwork and lastly, students can thinking and analysis to increase the quality of their artwork. From the example, students are involved in an art project to design a full magazine involving editorial text, illustrations and advertisements. They have studied commercial examples and explored design and layout issues. They have considered fitness for purpose, the
  • 15. audience and how the message is conveyed. They have discussed the characteristics of good quality page design. They have been taught how to use suitable page design, graphics and artwork software. Here, you can see the students have using appropriate software and have been taught how to use them for example MS Publisher, Photoshop, and Illustrator. Through the used of appropriate software, they are able to produce work of a quality similar to that published in magazines they have surveyed. They evaluate their own work, and their friends. They seek to produce work of the highest quality and are committed to improving their work to get feedback of others. Here, you can see the students have been taught how to handle criticism and comment from their viewer. Based on the example given, you can see how the used of ICT can enhance quality in artwork. In the article Becta (2009), stated that there are many ways in improving the qualities of student’s artwork. Through ICT, students be able to find all information about artist, craftpeople and designers in making their artwork. In internet, they can collect data from websites, online articles or journals and online books. Using ICT students can find the equipments to help them choose, arrange and present information. Students can use a Powerpoint for presentation and use Photoshop to arrange information more creative. Students also can explore and develop their ideas, for example by using a digital miscroscope to examine textures of flowers and other example is using camera digital then choose one image, repeated it and used various effects in image editing software. By using camera digital, students also can make choices about their work for example students can take several image before deciding which one is the best and others image they can keep. ICT also can make students present creativity, for example through the use of animation techniques in producing sound effects. Students also can be more confidence in producing the best product which make them be more proud. Using ICT, students can demonstrate their asignment in many ways such as make a slideshow to presentation. Lastly ICT can improve efficiency , for example work in progress still
  • 16. can be retrieved and modified. All the above is a way that students can practice in improving the quality of their artwork’s by using ICT. According to Moore (2005), stated that artwork students will be more quality when using ICT than using a manual method. A student with normal academic achievement, successful in produce a better work after using ICT (Ellis, 2004 as cited in Moore, 2005). Such as the example given, “ a good example of ICT being used imaginatively to create high quality output is where pupils in a Geography lesson used Power Point to create animated presentations of the way that volcanoes erupt (NCaction 2004). The pupils had to create a series of pictures of the stages of an eruption, scan them into the computer and then animate them using Powerpoint. It have been possible to show pupils an animated sequence of a volcanic eruption, but by getting them to make one themselves, they learned a great deal about the way volcanoes behave, and also how to use Powerpoint to create animated sequences.” There was a survey of research conducted on “Teaching art using technology: The views of high school students in Greece (Maria et al.,2011). This survey involve the views from 21040 students. The result from the survey show, more than 60% students are agreed that technology helped them creating new forms of Art. Only7.29% strongly disagree, 7.03% disagree and 20.09% neither agree nor disagree with the question. Based on this survey, it show that, ICT really can improving the skill of students in creating new artwork. It is sufficiently large amount. Only 30% disagree with this question survey. By using ICT in effective ways, surely the students of visual arts and design be able to produce an artwork with excellent quality.
  • 17. 2.3 The effectiveness of ICT in enhance the level of teaching in visual art and design. What is visual arts and design? In arts there are four types of arts which is dance, drama, music and visual arts. Visual can be defined as something that we can see through our eyes ( Oxford Dictionaries, 2013). For examples advertising on billboard, painting, photos, and sculpture. Arts can be defined as an expression that conceive image (Ocvick et al., 2006). According to D. Preble, S. Preble and Frank (1999), design can be defined as the process of making visual form. It can be defined visual arts and design is the learning process of making beautiful things. To get the right measurement whether ICT can increase the level of teaching in visual art and design are impossible. In arts nothing is clear. According to Boyd (1994 ), stated that
  • 18. arts subject not like mathematics. The learning outcomes can be measured when the students calculate the correct answer. It is because different people have difference jugdements. In the process of teaching and learning, the function of ICT is refer as a tool to support learners and teachers to continues participate in work (http://www.rmit.edu.au/ as cited in Dunmill & Arslanagic, 2006). To know the effectiveness of ICT in enhancing the level of teaching in visual art and design, we must know what the excellent visual art teaching looks like. According to article Sandell (2012), the successfull visual arts teaching are when it have balanced, interdisciplinary and meaningful. Here, the balanced definition is “FTC = Art”. F for Form (How the work “is”) and T for Theme (What the work is about) and C for Context (When, where, by/ for whom and why the work was created/valued). The word "Art" is when all the FTC are completed, it will produce a balanced artwork. A balanced (FTC) to reveals art’s interdisciplinary nature that connected with other disciplines. In other word interdisciplinary relationships are endless, including relationships between artist and artwork, art and society, art and communities, art and history, arts and education and so on. It is meaningful when the art have beautiful and unique design, can give learners an awareness of history and culture, can build learners good understanding, can build tolerance and kindness, can make the learners fun, experimental, collaborative and lastly have a purpose. When the teaching of visual art and design have all the approach, we can be concluded that the teaching is excellent. However, the teaching will be more excellent if we combine it with the used of ICT. According to Long (2001, as cited in Phelps and Maddison, 2008), he said that the potential in ICT is to helping visual arts teaching. It was found that teachers who use ICT in teaching performed better than using traditional method. According Ferrari, Cachia and Punie ( n.d ), stated that impact on creativity using traditional methods more decrease than using new technologies.
  • 19. In the research Higgins (n.d), state that there is proof that show ICT can help teachers to teach more effectively. However there are few problems about the proof on the effective use of ICT in teaching in schools (Higgins, n.d). The author said it related to nature that some things cannot told. So, nothing can help us to decide whether the use of ICT in teaching are effective than others approaches. As the conclusion of this section on effectiveness ICT in teaching, whether effective or not it depends on own interpretation to make assumption. Each people have different view because it depends own interpretation about visual arts and design. 2.4 Conceptual Framework The use of ICT in motivating students toward learning visual art and design ICT in Teaching and Learning The potential of ICT in improving the quality of student’s artwork The effectiveness of ICT in teaching visual art and design
  • 20. Figure 2.4 Based on figure 2.4, this research will focus on the use of ICT in motivating students toward learning visual art and design, the potential of ICT in improving the quality of student’s artwork and also the effectiveness of ICT in enhance the level of teaching visual art and design. 2.5 Conclusion Researches from previous studies have proved that the use of ICT in teaching visual art and design are really relevant in order to encourage students to learn visual arts and design, in improving the quality of artwork and finally the effectiveness of ICT in teaching visual arts and design. CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.0 Introduction This chapter will explain the research design of this study, the method of data collection, the population as well as the sample of this study and the analysis of data. The data that has been analyzed will then be presented in the next chapter. 3.1 Research Design
  • 21. The aim of this study is to determine the used of ICT in teaching visual arts and design. This study will be carried out using a quantitative approach and qualitative approach. Under the quantitative approach, a survey research design that will be used in this study is a cross-sectional survey. According to Fraenkel, Wallen and Hyun (2012), “ a cross-sectional survey is information that collected from a person in the population at single point in time”. Besides that, structured interview will be conducted. The purpose of this structured interview is to collect information of respondent opinion about the used of ICT in teaching visual art and design. These are the research designs that will be used to gather the all data that is needed for this study. 3.2 Population and Sample The major target population of this study is an undergraduate students at the Faculty of Art and Design at Universiti Teknologi Mara ( UiTM ) Shah Alam. The purpose of using undergraduate students from this particular higher institution is because ICT has been usedin their teaching and learning process. So, the output might be more accurate. The sample of the study will be selected using the simple random sampling. “ Simple random sampling is one in which each and every member of the population has an equal and independent chance of being selected ” ( Fraenkel, Wallen and Hyun, 2012 ). Besides using the undergraduate students as the sample for this study, three educators from the institution will be interviewed in order to get their statement about the used of ICT in teaching visual arts and design.
  • 22. 3.3 Instrumentation 3.3.1 Questionnaire First instrument to collect data is using questionnaire. This questionnaire is aimed to determine the used of ICT in motivate students to learn and improve the quality of students artwork in visual art and design. The questionnaire is divided into three parts which are part A, part B and part C.Part A is containquestion about personal background which is gender, age, academic programme, semester and devices at faculty and home. In part B, it has seven questions about motivation. The types of question is using multiple choices of answer which is ‘yes’ and ‘no’. In part C, it has ten questions about quality of artwork. Also using multiple choices of answer which is ‘yes’ and ‘no’. One of the question using grid to collect the answer. Also used choices of answer ‘yes’ and ‘no’. This questionnaire is included in the appendix section. 3.3.2 Structure Interview The second instrument to collect data is using structured interview. The purpose of interviewing the sample is to complement and continue the data from the questionnaire and to find out the respondent experience about use ICT in teaching visual arts and design. The target for the interview is to find out personal background, knowledge, experience and opinion about ICT in teaching visual arts and design. So, three educators from the institutions will be interviewed in order to collect their answer on this study. The interview questions are included at the appendix section.
  • 23. 3.4 Data Collection To collecting real data, a pilot study will be conducted first on a smaller population of the same intended samples for this study such as undergraduate students from different university. The result from the pilot study will help to improve the questionnaire. In the real process of collecting data, researcher will sent a cover letter that explains the purpose and the significance of this study. Besides that, the content of cover letter should be brief, emphasize the importance of topic, willing to share the result, the respondents name will be kept confidential, specific date to returned, signed, enclosing a stamped n self addressed envelope, endorsed by the researcher’s Dean and attached together with the questionnaire. Then the questionnaire will be distributed to the samples in their class, with the permission of the lecturer. The samples are given around fifthteen minutes to answer the questionnaire and after they have completed the questionnaire, it will be collected. It is to avoid unreturned questionnaire. After that, all the data collection will be analysis. For structure interview, the researcher will interview three educators from the institution for their opinions on the used of ICT in teaching visual art and design which in motivate students to learns, improving quality of artwork students and the effectiveness of ICT in enhance the level of teaching visual arts and design. Pilot Survey Make amendments to the questionnaire based on the results from the pilot survey Distribute questionnaire to the targeted samples Analyze data from the questionnaire
  • 24. Interview three educators from the institution Writing reports Figure 1.2 : Data collection flowchart 3.5 Data Analysis After finish the process of collecting data using questionnaire, all the data will be tabulated and entered into a spreadsheet in the SPSS program. Then, the data will be summarized using descriptive statistics. The types of descriptive statistics that will be used to measure the value of data from the questionnaire are the frequencies, the mean and the media. Other than that, the data will be measured for its variability in which the range, the quartile deviation and the standard deviation will be used as the measures of variability. For the data analysis for structure interview, the interview answers will be read. Then, the interview answers will be described and after that, it will be classifying into several
  • 25. categories according to its theme. The theme will be derived based on the literature review of this study and the data that have been collected. Lastly, the data from the interview answers will be coded and each code will show a certain pattern and meaning. Research Questions 1) How to motivate students in learning visual arts and design by using ICT in teaching? Instrument Method of analysis a) Survey questionnaire • Part A – 7 Q - SPSS program - Descriptive statistics - Frequencies - Measure of central tendency ( mean, median, mode ) - Measures of variability ( range, quartile deviation, Variance, standard deviation b) Structure interview (questions are prepared to prompt the interviewees) - Reading - Describing - Classifying - Identifying themes - Codings
  • 26. 2) How ICT can improving the quality of student’s artwork? - SPSS program - Descriptive statistics - Frequencies - Measure of central tendency ( mean, median, mode ) - Measures of variability ( range, quartile deviation, Variance, standard deviation b) Structure interview (questions are prepared to prompt the interviewees) 3) To identify the effectiveness of ICT in teaching visual arts and design. a) Survey questionnaire • Part B – 10 Q - Reading - Describing - Classifying - Identifying themes - Codings a) Structured Interview (questions are prepared to prompt the interviewees) - Reading - Describing - Classifying - Identifying themes - Codings Table 1.1: Methods of data analysis 3.6 Conclusion This chapter has covered the research design, the sample population, the instrument, the data collection method and the data analysis. The next chapter will be discussing on the findings of this study.
  • 27. References Book Frankel,J.R., Wallen,N.E.,& Hyun,H.N.(2012). How to design and evaluate research in education (8th ed.).New York: McGraw-Hill. Hardy, C. (2000). Information and communications technology for all. London:David Fulton. Preble, D., Preble, S.,& Frank, P.(1999). Artfoams (6th ed.).New York: Addison Wesley Longman. Ocvirk, Stinson, Wigg, Bone & Cayton.(2006).Art Fundamental: Theory and Practice (10th Ed.). New York: McGraw Hill. Online Article
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